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30-31st July, 2012 Power Blackout in India
                   A review




Compiled from the CERC investigation report
Contents
1.   Overview
2.   Indian Grid System
     –   Types of Transmission lines
     –   Layout of the Indian Grid
     –   What is grid disturbance?
3.   Blackout 30th July 2012
     –   Reasons for Blackout -30th July 2012
     –   Restoration
4.   Blackout 31st July 2012
     –   Reasons for Blackout -31st July 2012
     –   Restoration
5.   Technical Recommendations (1,2,3 and 4)
6.   Policy Recommendations (1 & 2)
7.   Proposed changes
8.   Need for Smart Grids - Future


                                                2
1. Overview
July 30-31,2012 -Biggest Power Blackout in Indian
History




                                                3
CERC report

CERC conducted an investigation on the causes

• Full report on grid disturbance (CERC Order in Petition No.
  167/Suo-Motu/2012 dated 1st Aug2012).

• CERC released the report titled “Status of action taken on
  recommendation of the enquiry committee on grid disturbance
  in northern region on 30th July 2012 and in Northern, Eastern
  & North-Eastern Region on 31st JULY 2012”

                                                                  4
2. India National Grid – Hierarchy
                                               Indian Grid -
                                                  NLDC




                                                                     Southern
                    New Grid                                       Region - RLDC




  Northern       Western          Eastern          North-Eastern
                                                                       SLDC
Region -RLDC   Region - RLDC   Region - RLDC       Region - RLDC




   SLDC            SLDC            SLDC                 SLDC



                                                                                   5
Types of Transmission line

           • Mostly within the state
 220kV




           • Long distance (State-State, Region – Region)
400KV




           • Long distance state – Region- Region transmission
765KV



           • Latest technology for long distance power transmission with minimum losses.
500 KV -   • These are much popular in the off-shore wind farm transmission lines in the UK
 HVDC




                                                                                              6
Layout – The NEW GRID




                        7
What is grid disturbance?
                               A grid is said to be
                                disturbed when :


   f) there is a power                                    a) there is an under
   failure in the grid                                       voltage (U/V)



e) there is a rapid fall
                                                              b) there is over
or rise in frequency (
                                                              voltage (O/V)
+dF/dT or -dF/dT )




            d) there is over                          c) there is under
           frequency (O/F)                            frequency (U/F)


                                                                                 8
Blackout - Affected Regions (30 & 31st July)




                                               9
29th      July – evening before blackout
                                      The 400 kV Bina- Gwalior-Agra-
                                      2 was under planned shutdown
                                        since 28thJuly 2012 for up-
                                         gradation work to 765kV.




   At 10:18pm, 400 kV Zerda-                     28th July 2012                  At 3:15pm, 29th July - 220
  Kankroli Emergency outage                                                     kV Kota-Badod Tripped due
  for a period of two hours to                                                    to operation of distance
  take out one Tool & Plant (T                                                     protection three phase
    & P) which got stuck with                                                   Zone-1 indications at Badod
     one polymer insulator.                                                                 end.
                                   10:18pm                             3:15pm




                                                                           At 3:40pm, 220 kV Binmal
                                        9:45pm                 3:40pm (PG)- Sirohi - Phase to earth
      At 9:45pm, 400 kV Bhinmal-
                                                                             fault. The two 220 kV
        Kankroli Tripped due to
                                                                          outlets to Bhinmal(RVPNL)
          insulator de-capping.
                                                                          and one to Sanchore were
                                                                           in service from Bhinmal.


                                                                                                              10
3.   30th   July –   1st   blackout




                                      11
Frequency profile as captured by IIT Bombay




                                          12
Reason for blackout -30th July 2012 Summary
                                     400kV Bina-Gwalior-Agra 2
                                       line was under planned
                                    shutdown. This caused stress
      Once almost all the 400kV     on other lines. Failure in load
         lines tripped overnight     management and planning
      (from WR to NR) and even
            many 200kV lines                                               Large amount of
        tripped, now the power                                          unscheduled import of
     from WR started to flow to                                         power by the Northern
     NR though ER. This caused                                         region from western and
     power swings in the ER and                                             eastern region.
      more lines started tripping
         and caused a complete
                 blackout.                                              Action was not taken to
                                                                        reduce the Total Transfer
                                                                       Capability (TTC) after shut
       Sipat stage-1 plant was                                        down of Zerda-Kankroli 400
      under trial operation and                                       KV line, . The TTC is shown
         caused unscheduled                                             as 2000 MW before and
          injection of power.                                          after the shutdown of 400
                                                                                 KV line.
                                    Some gas and thermal plants        Lack of observation and
                                     where tripped in NR due to             coordination!
                                     forced outage and shortage
                                               of coal.
                                     Irregular Maintenance and
                                          lack of monitoring

                                                                                                     13
After Blackout –   30th   July 2:33am




                                        14
Restoration – after blackout                                  30th      July
• The Black out happened exactly at time – 2.33am . This affected 8 states and
  1 U.T (Rajasthan, Haryana, New Delhi, J&K, Punjab, U.P, Himachal
  Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Chandigarh)

• Emergency loads like railway station, hospitals, airport were supplied with
  power by 8am

• By 10am 40% of the loads where restored.

• 100% load was restored by 4pm evening the same day.

Following slides shows how the restoration process was carried out!


                                                                                15
Self supported Islands – After blackout




                                      16
Restoration – from Eastern Region




                                    17
Restoration – from Western Region




                                    18
4.   31ST        July Blackout
• The Black out happened exactly at time – 1.00pm . This affected 21 states and
  1 Union Territory. This caused much bigger effect than the 30th July Blackout.

• The following states were affected by the grid failure:
    – States on the northern grid: Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu &
      Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand
    – States on the eastern grid: Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal
    – States on the northeast grid: Arunanchal
      Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim


• The worst sufferers were 265 miners who got trapped in coal mines in West
  Bengal and Jharkhand due to the power outage. They were evacuated after
  hours of agony.


                                                                               19
31st   July   -2nd   blackout




                                20
Frequency shoot up at western region (WR)

In the Western Region due to loss of
export to rest of the NEW grid, the
frequency shot up to 51.46 Hz and
many      generating   units     and
transmission lines tripped due to
process related issues and high
voltage respectively.




The frequency stabilized at around
51.0 Hz. The rise in frequency only
illustrates the poor level of
primary response.




                                        21
Reason for blackout 31st July 2012 Summary
                                   Loss of 400 kV Bina-Gwalior link: Similar
                                    to the initiation of the disturbance on 30th
                                   July, 2012, tripping of 400 kV Bina-Gwalior
                                       line on zone-3 protection of distance
                                   relay, due to load encroachment, caused the
                                   NR system to separate from the WR system.



     The UFR load shedding
     was not adequate to bring                                                      Weak Inter-regional
      the frequency back to a                                                      Corridors due to multiple
     safer level of 49.5 Hz and                                                            outages
                above.




         Inadequate Response by
             SLDCs to RLDCs’                                                   High Loading on 400 kV
           instructions on this day                                             Bina-Gwalior-Agra link
         also to reduce overdrawl by                                           -NR utilized Unscheduled
             the NR utilities and                                              Interchange (UI) and this
           underdrawal by the WR                                                  lead to overloading
                    utilities



                                                                                                               22
Restoration after blackout -31st July
• Total affected load because of Blackout was 48,000MW

• Emergency loads like railway station, hospitals were supplied
  with power by 3:30pm

• 100% load was restored by 9.30pm evening, the same day.




                                                              23
Recommendations of the
     Committee


                         24
5. Technical Recommendations -1
•   Review protection schemes along with Immediate review of zone-3 philosophy

•   Synchro-phasor measurements from PMUs should be explored for protection systems

•   A complete independent audit of time synchronization of DRs, ELs and PMUs

•   Frequency band tightening up close to 50 Hz

•   Review of UI mechanism

•   STUs should immediately enable under frequency and df/dt based load shedding schemes

•   Faster algorithm for calculation of TTC.

•   The regulatory provisions regarding absorption of reactive power by generating units needs
    to be implemented

                                                                                                 25
Technical Recommendations -2
•   Installation of adequate static and dynamic reactive power compensators should be
    planned.

•   Functioning of existing PMUs and availability of their output to RLDCs and accuracy of time
    synchronization should be monitored on daily basis and, if required, corrective actions should be
    taken on priority basis.


•   The Synchro-phasor based WAMS employing PMUs offer a wide applications for real time
    monitoring and control of the system, specially under the dynamic conditions.

•   Adequate number of PMUs should be installed to improve the visibility and real time
    monitoring of the system.

•   Possibility of voltage collapse prediction, sensing global power system conditions derived from
    local measurements may be explored




                                                                                                      26
Technical Recommendations -3
•   Islands: Efforts should be made to design islanding scheme based on frequency
    sensing relays so that in case of imminent grid failure, electrical islands can be
    formed. This will also help in faster restoration of grid.

•   The Communication network should be strengthened by putting fiber optic
    communication system. Further, the Communication network should be
    maintained properly to ensure reliability of data.

•   UPS - RTUs and communication equipment should have uninterrupted power
    supply with proper battery backup so that in case of total power
    failure, supervisory control and data acquisition channels do not fail.

•   Telemetry facility at all generating station and transmission liens – at the
    earliest.


                                                                                     27
Technical Recommendations -4
• A standard procedure for preparatory activities and sequence of start up
  may be put in place by the stations to restore units as early as possible
  particularly in contingencies

• An audit of devices such as HVDC, TCSC, SVC and to ensure their
  stability features are enabled.

• For smooth operation of grid systems, it is absolutely important that all the
  power generating and distributing stations are connected on a very reliable
  telecom network.
(i)    A proper network may be built up preferably using MPLS (Multi Protocol Label
       Switching)
(ii)   IT network may be built using dedicated fibres to avoid any cyber attack on the
       power system.

                                                                                         28
6. Policy Recommendations-1
•   Implementation of various regulations issued under the Electricity Act, 2003 and look
    into violation SERIOUSLY.

•   Real-time security desk in all the shifts to be manned by engineer capable of
    carrying out TTC calculations (in NLDC and RLDC).

•   LDC and Regulatory Commissions related to non-compliance of regulatory
    provisions including that for noncompliance of directions and non-payment of UI
    charges, need review.

•   The present organizational set up of Load Dispatch Centres need to be reviewed.

•   Training and certification of system operators need to be given focused attention.



                                                                                       29
Policy Recommendations-2
•   There is need to reinforce system study groups in power sector organizations to
    analyze the system behavior under different network status/ tripping of
    lines/outage of generators. Where these do not exist, these should be created.

•   Intra-State transmission system needs to be planned and strengthened in a better way
    to avoid problems of frequent congestion

•   Special task force - involving experts from academics, power utilities and system
    operators, to carry out a detailed analysis of the present grid conditions and
    anticipated scenarios which might lead to any such disturbances in future.

•   Sufficient financial incentives need to be given to certified system operators so that
    system operation gets recognized as specialized activity.




                                                                                         30
7. Proposed protection study
             • Phasor Measurement Units (PMU)
             • These are highly sophisticated instruments to measure change in
Installation   voltage/current in milliseconds.
of PMUs :




                                                                                 31
Relay Protection
           • These connected on the transmission lines
           • Distance relays will sense a fault/disturbance in the grid and give a trip command
Distance     to the incomer breaker whenever the grid disturbance exceeds a set limit.
Relays:    • By opening the incomer breaker, the plant/line is isolated from the grid.


           • These perform mathematical algorithms and to offer very high accuracy &
             resolution.
Numeric    • These help in detection of df/dt fault (change in frequency)
 Relays:




                                                                                             32
Study of Zone 3 faulty tripping by DR
•   Line Fault - Usually any fault in the zone 3 region due to phase-phase fault, phase-
    ground or other faults will activate the distance relay to open the circuit (Circuit
    Breaker – VCB/SF6-CB)

•   Overloading - If there is overloading this will also create a low impedance on the
    lines and lead to zone 3 fault alert. Before the far distance relays operate, the local
    relays should sense this and the appropriate load shedding should be done.

•   Failure - If failure of load shedding, the far distance relay operate and this leads to
    blackout of the entire distribution lines. (This can be a major reason for 30,31st July
    blackout, So proper considerations should be made for load characteristics)

Please find a example picture in the next slide.




                                                                                              33
Distance Relay Operation




                           34
Study of UFR /df/dt under load encroachment conditions

 •   What really happened – to the protective UFR and df/dt relays? Why didn’t they help
     in load shedding to improve the declining frequency in Northern region (NR and ER
     during 31st) on 30th blackout.

 •   Similarly in the western region the frequency rose up to 51.4Hz, and none of the
     generators units responded to this frequency hike.

 •   A separate study has been proposed by the authorities to study regarding the settings
     of these relays and fix the issues associated.




                                                                                         35
Study on effects of : TCSC and SVC

                                                           How these compensators affect
      What is a compensator?                                the protection distance relay
                                                                     operation?

• A compensator is used in transmission                 • The Distance Relays (DR) use
  lines/grid/load for voltage                             impedance measurement to determine
  stability, reducing net losses, limiting                the presence of faults.
  short circuit currents, damping power
  oscillations by compensation of real and              • The capacitance cancels or compensates
  reactive power.                                         some of the inductance of the line and
                                                          therefore the relay (DR) may perceive a
                                                          fault to be in its first zone when the fault
                                                          is actually in the second or third zone of
                                                          protection.




                                  TCSC – Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors
                                  SVC – Static VAR Compensator
                                                                                                     36
FUTURE?



          37
8. Why Smart Grids?
If you can measure it, you can manage it…


                                                                           To improve efficient
                                                                           Distribution
                                                            To maximize
                                                                           Generation
                                                            cyber safety
                                          To improve communication
                                          between various LDS’

                       To monitor the loads and shed
                       loads when stress increase or
                       frequency decrease rapidly.

          To avoid unscheduled transfer
          of power and blackouts




                                                                                                  38
Smart Grid for India



 BESCOM has
begun work on
its Rs 87-crore                           T&D
   smart grid                            Losses
 project in the                          >30%
      City.




                                                  39
Features of Smart Grids
                 • Smart Metering
                 • On line monitoring portal – with help of SCADA systems
                 • Home automation
Local Load level • Public charging stations – for electric cars/bikes



                • Smart Distribution
                • Load/demand management
                • Energy Audit
 T & D level    • Smart protection controls




                • Renewable energy source integration or Distribution Generation
    Smart
  Generation




Here are some slides on Smart Grid solution from GE

                                                                                   40
Smart Metering




                 source: GE



                              41
Smart Substation




               source: GE



                            42
Smart Solutions




                  source: GE



                               43
Smart Communication




                source: GE


                             44
Distributed Power Generation
•   Distributed Generation is nothing but Generation at site.
•   The most popular source for distributed generation is solar PV
•   Germany has the largest percentage mix of solar PV DG at LV level in their total
    energy mix. Germany has also developed their own grid codes for LV generation and
    grid connection (recent policy– reactive power control, using solar grid inverter).




Source: BELELECTRIC


                                                                                     45
Distribution level voltage issues (LV)
•   The voltage level at the end consumer side face voltage drop due to transmission
    losses, line impedance (R+JXL) and increase in load.




                                                                source: GE

                                                                                       46
Pros and Cons of Distributed Generation
•   Here the voltage level gets stabilized due to the feed in power from solar. This can greatly reduce
    the stress and disturbance on transmission lines.
•   This can also increase the voltage above a certain level when more solar generators are present
    and the inverters are forced to trip (overvoltage). This is dangerous and can cause blackouts.
•   In 2011, Germany came up with some modifications in their grid codes with reactive power
    controlled solar inverters.
•   Distribution Generation can reduce the overall T&D losses (from HV, MV, to distribution LV).




                                                                               source: GE



                                                                                                     47
LV level frequency and voltage control
•    Recently grid tie solar inverters come with intelligent active and reactive power control
     to keep the LV grid voltage and frequency under control.
•    As shown in the graph below , when the frequency exceed a certain limit - the active
     power control comes into play and reduces the overall power output to stabilize the
     local grid.
•    Similarly when there is a voltage increase, the reactive power is absorbed by the GT
     solar inverters and this stabilizes the output accordingly (check image down).




                                                                                            48
Summary
• In this presentation we had a look at the various events, issues and recovery
  process carried out before and after the 2012,July blackout.

• The recommendation from the committee was also discussed.

• Study on the various protection relays and fault tripping

• Study on effects of capacitor compensators (SVC, TCSC) on protection
  relays

• Required changes for the future – Smart Grids (Smart
  metering, communication and renewable energy / distribution generation)



                                                                                  49
Thank you


Giridaran Srinivasan
     Project Engineer
RESolve Energy Consultants
  giridaran@re-solve.in




                             50
Reference and Credits
Concept papers:
                                    TCSC FOR PROTECTION OF TRANSMISSION LINE
  P.S.Chaudhari#i, P. P.Kulkarni#2, R.M.Holmukhe#3, Mrs.P.A.Kulkarni #4 #iScientist, DRDO, Pune, India, #2DRDO, Pune, India
                                       #,,3,4 Bharati Vidyapeeth University College of Engineering, Pune, India.
Pictures and other data:
•     PMU - http://www.qualitrolcorp.com/Products/Q_PMU9/18/36_Phasor_measurement_units_%28PMU%29/
•     www.erlphase.com(http://www.erlphase.com/downloads/data_sheets/L_PRO_4000_line_protection_relay_ds.pdf)
•     http://phasormeasurements.blogspot.in/
•     Distributed Generation – BELELECTRIC
•     Blackout picture: http://www.desismartgrid.com/2012/08/indian-power-grid-blackout-reasons-and-future-requirements/
Blackout official data:
•     Full report on grid disturbance (CERC Order in Petition No. 167/Suo-Motu/2012 dated 1st Aug2012).
•     Status of action taken on recommendation of the enquiry committee on grid disturbance in northern region on 30th July 2012
      and in Northern, Eastern & North-Eastern Region on 31st July 2012.
Smart Grid:
•     GE - http://www.gedigitalenergy.com/communications.htm
•     GE - http://www.gedigitalenergy.com/multilin/catalog/Transmission.htm#prl
•     L&T - http://www.larsentoubro.com/lntcorporate/ebg/html/grid_islanding.htm
•     SMA
•     BESCOM - http://www.deccanherald.com/content/288701/bescom-ropes-us-firm-smart.html
•     Indian Smart Grid Task Force



                                                                                                                               51

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Blackout

  • 1. 30-31st July, 2012 Power Blackout in India A review Compiled from the CERC investigation report
  • 2. Contents 1. Overview 2. Indian Grid System – Types of Transmission lines – Layout of the Indian Grid – What is grid disturbance? 3. Blackout 30th July 2012 – Reasons for Blackout -30th July 2012 – Restoration 4. Blackout 31st July 2012 – Reasons for Blackout -31st July 2012 – Restoration 5. Technical Recommendations (1,2,3 and 4) 6. Policy Recommendations (1 & 2) 7. Proposed changes 8. Need for Smart Grids - Future 2
  • 3. 1. Overview July 30-31,2012 -Biggest Power Blackout in Indian History 3
  • 4. CERC report CERC conducted an investigation on the causes • Full report on grid disturbance (CERC Order in Petition No. 167/Suo-Motu/2012 dated 1st Aug2012). • CERC released the report titled “Status of action taken on recommendation of the enquiry committee on grid disturbance in northern region on 30th July 2012 and in Northern, Eastern & North-Eastern Region on 31st JULY 2012” 4
  • 5. 2. India National Grid – Hierarchy Indian Grid - NLDC Southern New Grid Region - RLDC Northern Western Eastern North-Eastern SLDC Region -RLDC Region - RLDC Region - RLDC Region - RLDC SLDC SLDC SLDC SLDC 5
  • 6. Types of Transmission line • Mostly within the state 220kV • Long distance (State-State, Region – Region) 400KV • Long distance state – Region- Region transmission 765KV • Latest technology for long distance power transmission with minimum losses. 500 KV - • These are much popular in the off-shore wind farm transmission lines in the UK HVDC 6
  • 7. Layout – The NEW GRID 7
  • 8. What is grid disturbance? A grid is said to be disturbed when : f) there is a power a) there is an under failure in the grid voltage (U/V) e) there is a rapid fall b) there is over or rise in frequency ( voltage (O/V) +dF/dT or -dF/dT ) d) there is over c) there is under frequency (O/F) frequency (U/F) 8
  • 9. Blackout - Affected Regions (30 & 31st July) 9
  • 10. 29th July – evening before blackout The 400 kV Bina- Gwalior-Agra- 2 was under planned shutdown since 28thJuly 2012 for up- gradation work to 765kV. At 10:18pm, 400 kV Zerda- 28th July 2012 At 3:15pm, 29th July - 220 Kankroli Emergency outage kV Kota-Badod Tripped due for a period of two hours to to operation of distance take out one Tool & Plant (T protection three phase & P) which got stuck with Zone-1 indications at Badod one polymer insulator. end. 10:18pm 3:15pm At 3:40pm, 220 kV Binmal 9:45pm 3:40pm (PG)- Sirohi - Phase to earth At 9:45pm, 400 kV Bhinmal- fault. The two 220 kV Kankroli Tripped due to outlets to Bhinmal(RVPNL) insulator de-capping. and one to Sanchore were in service from Bhinmal. 10
  • 11. 3. 30th July – 1st blackout 11
  • 12. Frequency profile as captured by IIT Bombay 12
  • 13. Reason for blackout -30th July 2012 Summary 400kV Bina-Gwalior-Agra 2 line was under planned shutdown. This caused stress Once almost all the 400kV on other lines. Failure in load lines tripped overnight management and planning (from WR to NR) and even many 200kV lines Large amount of tripped, now the power unscheduled import of from WR started to flow to power by the Northern NR though ER. This caused region from western and power swings in the ER and eastern region. more lines started tripping and caused a complete blackout. Action was not taken to reduce the Total Transfer Capability (TTC) after shut Sipat stage-1 plant was down of Zerda-Kankroli 400 under trial operation and KV line, . The TTC is shown caused unscheduled as 2000 MW before and injection of power. after the shutdown of 400 KV line. Some gas and thermal plants Lack of observation and where tripped in NR due to coordination! forced outage and shortage of coal. Irregular Maintenance and lack of monitoring 13
  • 14. After Blackout – 30th July 2:33am 14
  • 15. Restoration – after blackout 30th July • The Black out happened exactly at time – 2.33am . This affected 8 states and 1 U.T (Rajasthan, Haryana, New Delhi, J&K, Punjab, U.P, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Chandigarh) • Emergency loads like railway station, hospitals, airport were supplied with power by 8am • By 10am 40% of the loads where restored. • 100% load was restored by 4pm evening the same day. Following slides shows how the restoration process was carried out! 15
  • 16. Self supported Islands – After blackout 16
  • 17. Restoration – from Eastern Region 17
  • 18. Restoration – from Western Region 18
  • 19. 4. 31ST July Blackout • The Black out happened exactly at time – 1.00pm . This affected 21 states and 1 Union Territory. This caused much bigger effect than the 30th July Blackout. • The following states were affected by the grid failure: – States on the northern grid: Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand – States on the eastern grid: Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal – States on the northeast grid: Arunanchal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim • The worst sufferers were 265 miners who got trapped in coal mines in West Bengal and Jharkhand due to the power outage. They were evacuated after hours of agony. 19
  • 20. 31st July -2nd blackout 20
  • 21. Frequency shoot up at western region (WR) In the Western Region due to loss of export to rest of the NEW grid, the frequency shot up to 51.46 Hz and many generating units and transmission lines tripped due to process related issues and high voltage respectively. The frequency stabilized at around 51.0 Hz. The rise in frequency only illustrates the poor level of primary response. 21
  • 22. Reason for blackout 31st July 2012 Summary Loss of 400 kV Bina-Gwalior link: Similar to the initiation of the disturbance on 30th July, 2012, tripping of 400 kV Bina-Gwalior line on zone-3 protection of distance relay, due to load encroachment, caused the NR system to separate from the WR system. The UFR load shedding was not adequate to bring Weak Inter-regional the frequency back to a Corridors due to multiple safer level of 49.5 Hz and outages above. Inadequate Response by SLDCs to RLDCs’ High Loading on 400 kV instructions on this day Bina-Gwalior-Agra link also to reduce overdrawl by -NR utilized Unscheduled the NR utilities and Interchange (UI) and this underdrawal by the WR lead to overloading utilities 22
  • 23. Restoration after blackout -31st July • Total affected load because of Blackout was 48,000MW • Emergency loads like railway station, hospitals were supplied with power by 3:30pm • 100% load was restored by 9.30pm evening, the same day. 23
  • 24. Recommendations of the Committee 24
  • 25. 5. Technical Recommendations -1 • Review protection schemes along with Immediate review of zone-3 philosophy • Synchro-phasor measurements from PMUs should be explored for protection systems • A complete independent audit of time synchronization of DRs, ELs and PMUs • Frequency band tightening up close to 50 Hz • Review of UI mechanism • STUs should immediately enable under frequency and df/dt based load shedding schemes • Faster algorithm for calculation of TTC. • The regulatory provisions regarding absorption of reactive power by generating units needs to be implemented 25
  • 26. Technical Recommendations -2 • Installation of adequate static and dynamic reactive power compensators should be planned. • Functioning of existing PMUs and availability of their output to RLDCs and accuracy of time synchronization should be monitored on daily basis and, if required, corrective actions should be taken on priority basis. • The Synchro-phasor based WAMS employing PMUs offer a wide applications for real time monitoring and control of the system, specially under the dynamic conditions. • Adequate number of PMUs should be installed to improve the visibility and real time monitoring of the system. • Possibility of voltage collapse prediction, sensing global power system conditions derived from local measurements may be explored 26
  • 27. Technical Recommendations -3 • Islands: Efforts should be made to design islanding scheme based on frequency sensing relays so that in case of imminent grid failure, electrical islands can be formed. This will also help in faster restoration of grid. • The Communication network should be strengthened by putting fiber optic communication system. Further, the Communication network should be maintained properly to ensure reliability of data. • UPS - RTUs and communication equipment should have uninterrupted power supply with proper battery backup so that in case of total power failure, supervisory control and data acquisition channels do not fail. • Telemetry facility at all generating station and transmission liens – at the earliest. 27
  • 28. Technical Recommendations -4 • A standard procedure for preparatory activities and sequence of start up may be put in place by the stations to restore units as early as possible particularly in contingencies • An audit of devices such as HVDC, TCSC, SVC and to ensure their stability features are enabled. • For smooth operation of grid systems, it is absolutely important that all the power generating and distributing stations are connected on a very reliable telecom network. (i) A proper network may be built up preferably using MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) (ii) IT network may be built using dedicated fibres to avoid any cyber attack on the power system. 28
  • 29. 6. Policy Recommendations-1 • Implementation of various regulations issued under the Electricity Act, 2003 and look into violation SERIOUSLY. • Real-time security desk in all the shifts to be manned by engineer capable of carrying out TTC calculations (in NLDC and RLDC). • LDC and Regulatory Commissions related to non-compliance of regulatory provisions including that for noncompliance of directions and non-payment of UI charges, need review. • The present organizational set up of Load Dispatch Centres need to be reviewed. • Training and certification of system operators need to be given focused attention. 29
  • 30. Policy Recommendations-2 • There is need to reinforce system study groups in power sector organizations to analyze the system behavior under different network status/ tripping of lines/outage of generators. Where these do not exist, these should be created. • Intra-State transmission system needs to be planned and strengthened in a better way to avoid problems of frequent congestion • Special task force - involving experts from academics, power utilities and system operators, to carry out a detailed analysis of the present grid conditions and anticipated scenarios which might lead to any such disturbances in future. • Sufficient financial incentives need to be given to certified system operators so that system operation gets recognized as specialized activity. 30
  • 31. 7. Proposed protection study • Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) • These are highly sophisticated instruments to measure change in Installation voltage/current in milliseconds. of PMUs : 31
  • 32. Relay Protection • These connected on the transmission lines • Distance relays will sense a fault/disturbance in the grid and give a trip command Distance to the incomer breaker whenever the grid disturbance exceeds a set limit. Relays: • By opening the incomer breaker, the plant/line is isolated from the grid. • These perform mathematical algorithms and to offer very high accuracy & resolution. Numeric • These help in detection of df/dt fault (change in frequency) Relays: 32
  • 33. Study of Zone 3 faulty tripping by DR • Line Fault - Usually any fault in the zone 3 region due to phase-phase fault, phase- ground or other faults will activate the distance relay to open the circuit (Circuit Breaker – VCB/SF6-CB) • Overloading - If there is overloading this will also create a low impedance on the lines and lead to zone 3 fault alert. Before the far distance relays operate, the local relays should sense this and the appropriate load shedding should be done. • Failure - If failure of load shedding, the far distance relay operate and this leads to blackout of the entire distribution lines. (This can be a major reason for 30,31st July blackout, So proper considerations should be made for load characteristics) Please find a example picture in the next slide. 33
  • 35. Study of UFR /df/dt under load encroachment conditions • What really happened – to the protective UFR and df/dt relays? Why didn’t they help in load shedding to improve the declining frequency in Northern region (NR and ER during 31st) on 30th blackout. • Similarly in the western region the frequency rose up to 51.4Hz, and none of the generators units responded to this frequency hike. • A separate study has been proposed by the authorities to study regarding the settings of these relays and fix the issues associated. 35
  • 36. Study on effects of : TCSC and SVC How these compensators affect What is a compensator? the protection distance relay operation? • A compensator is used in transmission • The Distance Relays (DR) use lines/grid/load for voltage impedance measurement to determine stability, reducing net losses, limiting the presence of faults. short circuit currents, damping power oscillations by compensation of real and • The capacitance cancels or compensates reactive power. some of the inductance of the line and therefore the relay (DR) may perceive a fault to be in its first zone when the fault is actually in the second or third zone of protection. TCSC – Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors SVC – Static VAR Compensator 36
  • 37. FUTURE? 37
  • 38. 8. Why Smart Grids? If you can measure it, you can manage it… To improve efficient Distribution To maximize Generation cyber safety To improve communication between various LDS’ To monitor the loads and shed loads when stress increase or frequency decrease rapidly. To avoid unscheduled transfer of power and blackouts 38
  • 39. Smart Grid for India BESCOM has begun work on its Rs 87-crore T&D smart grid Losses project in the >30% City. 39
  • 40. Features of Smart Grids • Smart Metering • On line monitoring portal – with help of SCADA systems • Home automation Local Load level • Public charging stations – for electric cars/bikes • Smart Distribution • Load/demand management • Energy Audit T & D level • Smart protection controls • Renewable energy source integration or Distribution Generation Smart Generation Here are some slides on Smart Grid solution from GE 40
  • 41. Smart Metering source: GE 41
  • 42. Smart Substation source: GE 42
  • 43. Smart Solutions source: GE 43
  • 44. Smart Communication source: GE 44
  • 45. Distributed Power Generation • Distributed Generation is nothing but Generation at site. • The most popular source for distributed generation is solar PV • Germany has the largest percentage mix of solar PV DG at LV level in their total energy mix. Germany has also developed their own grid codes for LV generation and grid connection (recent policy– reactive power control, using solar grid inverter). Source: BELELECTRIC 45
  • 46. Distribution level voltage issues (LV) • The voltage level at the end consumer side face voltage drop due to transmission losses, line impedance (R+JXL) and increase in load. source: GE 46
  • 47. Pros and Cons of Distributed Generation • Here the voltage level gets stabilized due to the feed in power from solar. This can greatly reduce the stress and disturbance on transmission lines. • This can also increase the voltage above a certain level when more solar generators are present and the inverters are forced to trip (overvoltage). This is dangerous and can cause blackouts. • In 2011, Germany came up with some modifications in their grid codes with reactive power controlled solar inverters. • Distribution Generation can reduce the overall T&D losses (from HV, MV, to distribution LV). source: GE 47
  • 48. LV level frequency and voltage control • Recently grid tie solar inverters come with intelligent active and reactive power control to keep the LV grid voltage and frequency under control. • As shown in the graph below , when the frequency exceed a certain limit - the active power control comes into play and reduces the overall power output to stabilize the local grid. • Similarly when there is a voltage increase, the reactive power is absorbed by the GT solar inverters and this stabilizes the output accordingly (check image down). 48
  • 49. Summary • In this presentation we had a look at the various events, issues and recovery process carried out before and after the 2012,July blackout. • The recommendation from the committee was also discussed. • Study on the various protection relays and fault tripping • Study on effects of capacitor compensators (SVC, TCSC) on protection relays • Required changes for the future – Smart Grids (Smart metering, communication and renewable energy / distribution generation) 49
  • 50. Thank you Giridaran Srinivasan Project Engineer RESolve Energy Consultants giridaran@re-solve.in 50
  • 51. Reference and Credits Concept papers: TCSC FOR PROTECTION OF TRANSMISSION LINE P.S.Chaudhari#i, P. P.Kulkarni#2, R.M.Holmukhe#3, Mrs.P.A.Kulkarni #4 #iScientist, DRDO, Pune, India, #2DRDO, Pune, India #,,3,4 Bharati Vidyapeeth University College of Engineering, Pune, India. Pictures and other data: • PMU - http://www.qualitrolcorp.com/Products/Q_PMU9/18/36_Phasor_measurement_units_%28PMU%29/ • www.erlphase.com(http://www.erlphase.com/downloads/data_sheets/L_PRO_4000_line_protection_relay_ds.pdf) • http://phasormeasurements.blogspot.in/ • Distributed Generation – BELELECTRIC • Blackout picture: http://www.desismartgrid.com/2012/08/indian-power-grid-blackout-reasons-and-future-requirements/ Blackout official data: • Full report on grid disturbance (CERC Order in Petition No. 167/Suo-Motu/2012 dated 1st Aug2012). • Status of action taken on recommendation of the enquiry committee on grid disturbance in northern region on 30th July 2012 and in Northern, Eastern & North-Eastern Region on 31st July 2012. Smart Grid: • GE - http://www.gedigitalenergy.com/communications.htm • GE - http://www.gedigitalenergy.com/multilin/catalog/Transmission.htm#prl • L&T - http://www.larsentoubro.com/lntcorporate/ebg/html/grid_islanding.htm • SMA • BESCOM - http://www.deccanherald.com/content/288701/bescom-ropes-us-firm-smart.html • Indian Smart Grid Task Force 51

Editor's Notes

  1. http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2012/10/do_your_slides_pass_the_glance_test.html