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Socio psychology

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This is a presentation about socio psychology and the theory's and branches of study associated with it.

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Socio psychology

  1. 1. SOCIO PSYCHOLOGY • • • • Alternative Perspectives Rationale Biological Branch Trait Theory
  2. 2. ALTERNATIVE PERSPECTIVES MAJOR PERSPECTIVES Sociocultural Perspective   Stresses the importance of social norms and culture. Proposes that children learn behaviour through problemsolving interactions with other children and adults. Evolutionary Perspective   Argues that social behaviours are developed through genetics and inheritance. Emphasises the role of biology and gene transmission across generations to explain current behaviour.
  3. 3. CONTINUED…… Social Learning Perspective   Stresses the importance of unique experiences in family, school, community, etc. learn behaviours through observing and mimicking the behaviour of others. Social-Cognitive Perspective   We notice, interpret, and judge the behaviour of others New experiences can either be assimilated (using already held beliefs to interpret the event), or accommodated (which involves changing existing beliefs in response to the event.)
  4. 4. KEY FIGURES PERSPECTIVES EARLY PHILOSOPHERS Aristotle  Believed that humans were naturally sociable, a necessity which allows us to live together (an Individual Centred Approach) Hegel (1770–1831)  Introduced the concept that society has inevitable links with the development of the social mind. Lazarus & Steinthal (1860)  They put forward the idea of “Volker psychology” which focused on the idea of a Collective mind.
  5. 5. THEORISTS Allport (1920) – Social Facilitation  Allport introduced the notion that the presence of others (the social group) can facilitate certain behaviour. Bandura (1963) – Social Learning Theory  Bandura introduced the notion that behaviour in the social world could be modelled. Weiner (1986) – Attribution theory  Introduced the idea that we look for explanations of behaviour in the social world, through our experiences of success and failure.
  6. 6. EXAMPLE – SOCIAL CONFORMITY Haney, Banks, Zimbardo (1973) – Prison Study  Volunteers took part in a simulation where they were randomly assigned the role of a prisoner or guard.  There was some basic loss of rights for the prisoners.  The study showed that conformity to social roles occurred as part of the social interaction.  Both groups displayed more negative emotions and hostility.  Prisoners became passive, whilst the guards assumed an active, brutal and dominant role.  Although normative and informational social influence had a role to play here, DE individuation/the loss of a sense of identity seemed most likely to lead to conformity.
  7. 7. RATIONALE The socio psychological approach to understanding communication is framed by both early scientific thinking and the emerging “social sciences.  Arose out of modernism, and in many ways is a continuation of the enlightenment project.  focuses on human traits, predispositions, cognitive processes and reveals hidden internal factors influencing communication.  „Excessive individualism, inattention to macro-social forces‟‟ (Craig&Muller 2007, p84) 
  8. 8. SOCIOPSYCHOLOGICAL TRADITION BRANCH – BIOLOGICAL: BRAIN FUNCTION, NEUROCHEMISTRY, PSYCHOBIOLOGY
  9. 9.  Biological factors such as chromosomes, hormones and the brain all have a significant influence on human behaviour, for example gender.  The biological approach believes that most behaviour is inherited and has an adaptive (or evolutionary) function. EXAMPLE  Weeks after child birth the testosterone levels in the father drops by more than 30% (evolutionary function)  Therefore men with lower levels of testosterone are less likely to have a wondering eye.  They are also less aggressive
  10. 10. TRAIT THEORY Suggests that we inherit certain „traits‟  i.e. Schizophrenia, shyness, extroversion, introversion. 
  11. 11. Raymond Cattell - defined 2 types of traits - Surface Traits: Personality characteristics easily seen by other people - Source Traits: More basic traits that underlie the surface traits Example Being shy, quiet and disliking crowds are surface traits related to the more basic source trait of introversion.
  12. 12. Table Describing Traits
  13. 13. QUESTION AND DISCUSSION WELCOME 
  14. 14. REFERENCES Cherry K. 2013, About.com Psychology, 27 November 2013, <http://psychology.about.com/od/socialpsychology/f/socpersp.htm> CUCO PowerPoint 2013, „Psychological and Sociopsychological Approaches to Communication‟, viewed 19 November 2013. McGrath J. 2009, Yahoo! Voices – Raymond Cattell’s Trait Theory, 27 November 2013 <http://voices.yahoo.com/raymond-cattells-trait-theory-3215165.html> McLeod S. 2007, Simply Psychology, 27 November 2013 <http://www.simplypsychology.org/perspective.html>

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