BYSREELEKHA KSAPNA RAVEENDRANMANJU M JSOUMYA PRAKASHAMALU JOHNYSHIKHA K AKALA WILSONYASMIN N RSREERAJ P MANI
INTRODUCTIONHYGIENEIt refers to the set of practicesassociated with the preservation ofhealth and healthy living.
CONCEPT OF HYGIENE• The term "hygiene" is derived from hygeia,the Greek Godess of health, cleanlinessand sanitation• A concept related to medicine, personneland professional practices related to mostaspects of living.
GHP• Good Hygienic Practices deal withsafety and suitability requirements tobe followed world-wide• GHP include all practices regarding theconditions and measures necessary toensure it
Medical hygiene• Medical hygiene pertains to the hygienepractices related to the administration ofmedicine, and medical care, that preventsor minimizes disease and the spreading ofdisease..
Body hygiene• Body hygiene pertains to hygienepractices performed by an individual tocare for ones bodily health and well being,through cleanliness.
Culinary hygiene• Culinary hygiene pertains to the practicesrelated to food management and cooking toprevent food contamination, preventfood poisoning and minimize thetransmission of disease to other foods, humansor animals. Culinary hygiene practices specifysafe ways to handle, store, prepare, serve andeat food.
• Culinary practices include:• Cleaning and sterilization of food-preparation areas andequipment (for example using designated cutting boardsfor preparing raw meats and vegetables).• Proper storage of food so as to prevent contamination byvermin.• Refrigeration of foods (and avoidance of specific foods inenvironments where refrigeration is or was not feasible).• Labeling food to indicate when it was produced (or, asfood manufacturers prefer, to indicate its "best before"date).• Proper disposal of uneaten food and packaging
Personal service hygiene• Personal service hygiene pertains to thepractices related to the care and use ofinstruments used in the administration ofpersonal care services to people:• Personal hygiene practices include:• Sterilization of instruments used by serviceproviders including hairdressers, aestheticians,and other service providers.• Sterilization by of instruments used in bodypiercing and tattoo marking.• Cleaning hands.
Food hygieneThere are some essential principles offood hygiene to achieve the goal ofensuring that food is safe and suitable forhuman consumption
Food safetyAssurance that food will not causeharm to the consumer when it isprepared and /or eaten
Food suitabilityAssurance that food is acceptablefor human consumption
ContaminantAny biological or chemical agent,foreign matter, or substances notintentionally added to food which maycompromise food safety or suitability
ContaminationThe introduction or occurrence of acontaminant in a food or foodenvironment
CleaningThe removal of soil, food residue, dirt,grease or other objectionable matter
DisinfectionThe reduction, by means of chemicalagents and/or physical methods, of thenumber of microorganisms in theenvironment, to a level that does notcompromise food safety or suitability
Areas examined under GHP1. Primary production2. Establishment: design and facilities3. Control of operation4. Establishment: maintenance and sanitation5. Establishment: personal hygiene6. Transportation7. Product information and consumerawareness8. Training
Primary production• Hygienic practices should reduce thelikelihood of introducing hazards thatmay be difficult or impossible tocontrol at later stages of the food chain• Examples: pesticides, antibiotics,mycotoxins, microorganisms in foodseaten raw or fresh
Establishment : design (1)Premises, equipment, surfaces andfacilities should be located, designedand constructed to ensure:• minimum contamination• proper maintenance, cleaning,disinfection• protection against pests
Establishment: design (2)Evaluation of the premises takes into account:1. Location2. Equipment3. Facilities :• water• air• lighting• storage
Establishment : practice• “Good housekeeping” applies to the surroundingsand the roof of the establishment• Pest control starts at the boundaries of the premises• Water management deals with incoming and usedwater• Windows are closed or screened• Internal surfaces are smooth and easy to clean• Floors have rounded corners• Ceilings and ducts are accessible for cleaning
Establishment : practice ( cont. )• Dry zones are designed to remain dry• Drains can be cleaned• Cable trays carry cables, not dirt or dust• Only potable water is in contact with food• Air handling systems deliver the required airquality (and not contaminants)• Doors are closed when not used
Control of operation• Control of food hazards through HACCP• Hygiene control:1. Time & temperature2. Humidity3. contamination4. Microbiological specifications• Incoming materials (incl. packaging materials)• Water, air, steam• Management, documentation, recall procedures
Control : practice• Keep potentially contaminated materialsseparated from uncontaminated ones• Assure effectiveness of treatments• Assure effectiveness of cleaning• Assure reliability of measurements, tests and• recording• Perform hazard analysis when changesoccur• Assure updating of HACCP plan
Establishment :maintenance & sanitationObjective to control possible sourcesof food contamination through:• Maintenance and cleaning• Pest control systems• Waste management• Monitoring
MaintenanceEstablishments and equipmentshould be kept in condition to:• facilitate sanitation procedures• function as intended, particularly atCritical Control Points (CCPs)• prevent contamination of foode.g.debris, chemicals,pests, dust etc.
CleaningCleaning procedures involve:• removing gross debris from surfaces• applying a detergent solution• rinsing with water• disinfection where necessary• dry cleaning
Pest control• Good hygienic practices should:• prevent pests from entering thepremises• protect food from pests• eradicate infestations immediately• include regular inspections
Transportation• Measures should be taken to :• protect food from :i) contamination sourcesii) damage likely to render the foodunsuitable for consumption• provide an environment which controlsthe growth of pathogenic or spoilagemicroorganisms and the production oftoxins in food
Product information andconsumer awareness• Product information• Labelling• Consumer education
Consumer information• Consumers should know enough about foodhygiene to be able to :• understand the importance of productinformation• make informed choices appropriate to theindividual• prevent contamination and growth orsurvival of food borne pathogens by storing,preparing and using it correctly
Training• Awareness and responsibilities• Training programmes• Instruction and supervision• Refresher training
KEY MESSAGES• Good Manufacturing Practices are the basisof the production and preparation of safefood• Good Hygienic Practices deal with safety andsuitability requirements to be followed world-wide• Each food operation should adapt existingcodes to their specific set of conditions• Food operations should also decide whichpractices are critical for the safety of aproduct and thus have to be included in theHACCP plan