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Part 2 Scouting For Youth With Disabilities


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This is the second part of a three part PowerPoint of the Scouting For Youth With Disabilities Manual (BSA #34059)

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Part 2 Scouting For Youth With Disabilities

  1. 1. Scouting for Youth With Disabilities Part IXUnderstanding Categories of Disabilities and Best Methods Presentation prepared by Lindsay Foster Doctoral Dissertation Candidate 2011 Longhorn Council, Boy Scouts of America
  2. 2. Common Issues With Disabilities Disabling conditions may create difficult psychosocial problems for the youth and his family. These may include: •Overprotection of the disabled person •Overindulgence of the disabled person •Overemphasis of the disability •Rejection socially “Regardless of which of these extremes of reaction have impaired the youth, Scouting presents him with an opportunity to participate to the extent of his ability in the educational, recreational, and character and citizenship building programs that are inherent objectives of Scouting.” - Chester A. Swinyard, M.D., Ph.D., professor of rehabilitation, New York University Medical Center
  3. 3. Building Self-Esteem Though Scouting Scouting can raise self esteem by providing experiences that foster feelings of success and accomplishment. The following principles of good communication work for all people, not just those with disabilities. 4. Remember that frustration is not all bad.1. Help set realistic goals. • Allowing a Scout to feel frustration can be an2. Give the Scout frequent, specific, and important part of the learning process. Don’t positive feedback. offer a “quick fix”; rather provide support and • Do not confuse the Scout (“you are good”) offer to help explore options. • It may be hard for a Scout to think of with the behavior (“you did well”). alternative ways to approach a task once • Feedback should acknowledge good effort frustrated. Whenever possible identify and address areas of suggested possible repair strategies BEFORE improvement. beginning a task to decrease anxiety and to3. Accentuate the positive. promote perseverance. • Focus on strengths to keep motivation high. 5. Expect that mistakes will happen. • Boost enthusiasm and pride by capitalizing 6. Help Scouts strive toward independence. on special talents and interests. 7. Encourage careful planning, risk taking, and evaluation of consequences.
  4. 4. Five Categories of Disabilities Emotional or Learning Cognitive Developmental Physical Behavioral Disability Disability Disability Disability Disability LD CD DD EBD PD A condition in An impairment in which a student A condition in which a student functions below his which a person An emotional or functions below chronological age functions below A physical behavioral level in one or level in all areas of academic level in impairment impairment more academic or intellectual or all academic or skill areas. cognitive skill areas functioning
  5. 5. Terms Associated With Disabilities Accomodations Cognitive processing Dyscalculia Adapative physical Collaboration Dysgraphia education Comorbid conditions Dyslexia Attention Developmental delay Dysnomia Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ( ADD or Developmental lag ADHD) Disability AttributionAuditory discrimination Auditory perception
  6. 6. Terms Associated With Disabilities continued… Elgibility criteria Language disorder Maturation lag Heterogeneous Learning Mental retardation Inclusion disabilities Multiple disabilities Individualized Learning strategies Education Plan Life skills (IEP)
  7. 7. Terms Associated With Disabilities continued… Perception Self-esteem Task analysis Perceptual Short-term memory Visual disorder Social skills discrimination Phonological Speech or Visual impairment awareness language Remediation impairmentResource room
  8. 8. Key Issues Related to Different Disability Categories Kneel, squat, or sit when Never pat a person sitting Physically talking with someone in a in a wheelchair on the wheelchair so you are head. This is a sign of Challenged face to face with him. disrespect. Remember that people Find a place to sit during Ask how the equipment who use adaptive long talks. Look the works if you are equipment may be person in the eye when unfamiliar with it BEFORE consider their equipment talking. helping. a part of their own body. Prevent neck strain of the Before you go out, make person in the wheelchair Never move equipment sure facilities at the by standing a few feet out of a person’s reach. destination are away or sitting near him accessible. when talking.
  9. 9. Key Issues Related to Different Disability Categories Use visual Hearing demonstrations and applicances (i.e. In large groups, it is important that only ONE Impairments handouts) to assist in person speak at a time. verbal direction. Make sure the person is Ask if directions need to Speakers should face the looking at you and can be repeated, and watch to source of light and keep see your mouth clearly make sure directions their mouth clear of hair, before you begin to talk. were understood. hands or food. Speaking slowly may help Shouting at a person who but some people who lip is deaf or hard of hearing read have more difficulty Use gestures to help does not help. It distorts with this. It is more communication. your speech and impedes important to enunciate lip reading. clearly.
  10. 10. Key Issues Related to Different Disability Categories If you meet someone who is If you meet someone with a using a white cane, don’t Visual guide dog, do not distract the dog by petting it or touch the cane. If the cane should touch you, step out Impairments feeding it. Keep other animals/pets away. of the way and allow the person to pass. Identify yourself to people When you stop helping, with visual impairments announce your departure. when entering the room. Volunteer to read aloud Offer your arm, but don’t try signs, news, changing to lead the person. street lights, or warnings about street construction.
  11. 11. Key Issues Related to Different Disability Categories Ask the person to repeat himself Speech or if you did not understand. Repeat Ask short questions that can be to the speaker what you heard so Language answered with yes or no. that if you say something other Impairments than the intended message, the speaker knows to try again. Allow people with a speech impairment more time to process Avoid noisy situations. and express themselves. Repeat Background noise makes what was said to allow them to Give your full attention. communication difficult for hear what you heard. Allow to everyone. them to rephrase or offer to paraphrase for them. Model slow speech with short Be patient. People with speech phrases. If someone is using an impairments want to be alternative or augmentative Don’t shout. Most people with understood as much as you want communication device, ask if her speech impairments have no to understand. Don’t interrupt by or she wants you to predict what hearing impairment. finishing sentences or supplying he or she is saying. If not, allow words. him or her to finish complete thoughts before responding.
  12. 12. Key Issues Related to Different Disability Categories Be understanding. People with Cognitive, Intellectu below-average mental al, or Don’t take advantage. Never performance are aware of ask a person to do anything their limitations but they have Developmental you wouldn’t do yourself. the same needs and desires Disabilities as people without the disability. These individuals may learn Use pictures and graphic slowly and have a difficult time depictions instead or, or in using their knowledge, but addition to, text or print they can learn and have materials. knowledge skills. Don’t use complex sentences Be clear and concise. or difficult words.
  13. 13. Key Issues Related to Different Disability Categories Social or Emotional Offer to get assistance. Offer to contact a family Disabilities member, friend or counselor. People with social or emotional impairments such as Pervasive Developmental If the person is obviously Disorder (PDD) or those with upset, remain calm. an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have disorders that can make daily life difficult.
  14. 14. Key Issues Related to Different Disability Categories Attention Deficit / Attention Deficit Begin a formal achievement Work closely with parents and program. Weekly reports to Hyperactivity parents could increase their members of the Scout’s education team. Disorder (ADD involvement. /ADHD) Structure Scout meeting Test the Scout’s knowledge Be sensitive to the Scout about time, activities, and rules so and not just his ability to take his medication. Avoid that the Scout with ADD/ADHD tests. Test orally or in several statements such as, “Johnny, knows what to expect. shorter testing sessions. go take a pill.” Monitor behavior through Post a calendar of events and charts that explain Give written instructions so he stick to it. expectations for behavior and can see the assigned task. rewards for reaching goals. Be realistic about behavior and assignments. Many individuals Simplify complex instructions with ADD/ADHD cannot sit for Be positive. giving one or two steps at a long or extended periods of time. time. Hands-on activities make learning interesting.
  15. 15. Key Issues Related to Different Disability Categories Learning Stay with a regular schedule, as much as possible, allowing the Use short, direct instructions that help the Scout know what is Scout to help with assigned Disabilities duties. expected of him. These disabilities (including minimal brain damage, perceptual disabilities, Give the Scout extra time when Let other unit members use their communication disorders, and needed. Don’t rush answers. friendship and support to show others) are usually disorders of Reword instructions or questions the Scout he belongs. the central nervous system that if necessary. interfere with basic learning functions. Listen and observe carefully to find clues as to how this Scout Remember that praise and approaches problems and to encouragement build self- determine what his difficulties esteem. are.
  16. 16. Information About Learning Disabilities Learning disabled children often want to be part of the group but withdraw, too shy to make the effort. No two people are affected in the same way by learning disabilities; some may have difficulties in one or more areas. Anybody can have Specific learning disabilities are: learning •Present in 3 to 7 percent of the U.S. population •Characterized by difficulties in acquiring, remembering, organizing, recalling, or disabilities: expressing information •Can be overcome with appropriate intervention, support, and accommodations •Boys & girls •Not the same as, nor at they caused by, mental •Youth & adults challenges, autism, deafness, blindness, or behavioral disorders. •Not caused by environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage •People of all social Learning disabilities are a •reading, & cultural group of disorders that can •writing, backgrounds affect: •speaking, •People at all •listening, economic levels •perceptual-motor skills, •People of all ages •cognition, and •social skills.
  17. 17. ACTIVITY BREAKRead the following passage.
  18. 18. ACTIVITY BREAK 1"current micltae het in ofdiwennigpraticularlypratcipiatino, intohsestintiutions that not do bratitiollnayoffer unit a leanirng-ruppost, it will veproto invaluadle staff to medcrae newmehtosb to prubocecrousematrelias andteaching and, or to gain an stannbigunderof the ffiberentpytes ofbifficultiesroganisational thatdsylexictsuednts have."
  19. 19. ACTIVITY BREAK DISCUSSION•What was the passage about?•Did you feel frustrated while reading your sentence?•Did it slow you down?•If this were how you saw words, would you want toleave the group when it was your turn to read?•How did you feel when other people helped you?•Were you angry at yourself? Were you angry at otherpeople?•If this were the Boy Scout Handbook, could you readit and understand it?•What alternatives or resources could you offer aScout who had this learning disability?
  20. 20. What it REALLY said… "In the current climate of widening participation, particularly in those institutions that do not traditionally offer a learning-support unit, it will prove invaluable to staff to embrace new methods to produce course materials and/or teaching, and to gain an understanding of the different types of organizational difficulties that dyslexic students have."
  21. 21. Tips for Scout LeadersScouting provides a wonderful experience forall youth with learning disabilities and theyshould be fully included in all activities. Inmost cases, small adaptations and minimalmodifications are all that will be needed toensure that youth members have enjoyableand productive Scouting experiences. Thefollowing are good principles ofcommunication for all people, not just thosewith learning disabilities, nor even justScouts.
  22. 22. Give Scouts specific tasks.• Select tasks that can be readily accomplished and that will contribute to the overall goals of the activity.• Assign meaningful tasks; Scouts need to know that their efforts are worthwhile.
  23. 23. Keep instructions clear and simple.• Break tasks into smaller steps. Clarify language and demonstrate tasks as needed.• Create lists of steps for longer tasks.• Discuss desired outcomes and plan routines carefully.• Check for understanding by asking Scouts to repeat instructions.• Use diagrams or pictures to help Scouts who have trouble reading.
  24. 24. Establish clear andconsistent routines.• Scouts often function best in structured environments.• Let Scouts know what to expect and what is expected of them.• Post a written and picture schedule and stick to it as much as possible.
  25. 25. Minimizedistractions.• Some tasks can be more easily accomplished in an environment free of distractions.
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Be patient and offer helpfulreminders.• Forgetfulness is not intentional; reminders should be helpful not punitive.• Secure the Scouts’ attention (i.e. with eye contact, by stopping other activities) when offering explanations or reminders.
  28. 28. Reward efforts as well aswork done well.• Positive feedback can be as simple as a smile or as elaborate as a long-awaited reward. Try both.• Give immediate feedback so that Scouts can connect praise with specific actions.• Praise, praise, praise!
  29. 29. Keep a sense ofhumor and maintaina positive outlook.• Keep expectations high but realistic.
  30. 30. Refrain fromnagging.•Do not allow whining.
  31. 31. Don’t bribe Scouts withgifts and do not makepromises thatcontingent uponfactors beyond your oryour Scout’s control.
  32. 32. Keep the entire group in mind.• Do not let one Scout’s needs become all-consuming.• If appropriate, help other group members to understand the nature of learning disabilities and their consequences. Find ways to involve peers in a positive way.• Have another unit adult quietly provide support.
  33. 33. Be consistent.• Establish and post clear rules and be sure that everyone in the group understands these rules.• Be consistent with discipline and praise.
  34. 34. Look for areas ofstrength.• Establish and post clear rules and be sure that everyone in the group understands these rules.• Be consistent with discipline and praise.
  35. 35. Try to anticipate areas of difficulty.• Identify activities that will pose special challenges to Scouts with learning disabilities.• Think of alternative ways to explain tasks and break down activities into smaller steps.• Provide support during activities by example.• Periodically check on the progress of Scouts for whom you have specific concerns.
  36. 36. Be sure to protect thedignity of every individual.• It may be important to address an individual Scout’s difficulties with the group. This should only be done, however, after discussion with parents and with the permission of the Scout.
  37. 37. Sports and the Scout With Learning DisabilitiesLearning disabilities can affect many skillsnecessary for sports including: •Motor •Balance coordination •Sequencing •Directionality •Understanding •Spatial complex rules relationships or strategies
  38. 38. General Guidelines for Teaching Sports1. Always explain the rules of the sport before starting an activity.2. Introduce a new skill in easily understood language.3. Avoid presenting too much new information at one time.4. Discourage competition between Scouts when teaching a skill.5. Take time to explain and demonstrate on-side/off-side boundaries.6. Play lead-up games to have fun and to learn rules, strategies, and scoring.7. When playing games, encourage personal growth and team spirit.8. Change team rosters frequently. (Hint: It may help to designate teams in advance so that no youth is singled out or always picked last.)
  39. 39. Lead Up Games Fly Up Relays Relays Pepper Keep away 5-3-1 Kickball Line soccer Around the T-ball Zone soccer World Running bases Horse Pig Sideline basketball
  40. 40. Special Equipment or Game ModificationsUsing special or modified equipment or rules modifications can make playing some games more fun: FOOTBALL • Foam practice balls • Junior-sized football • Decrease field size SOCCER • Use walking instead of running • Allow those in a wheelchair to carry ball in lap • Reduce playing area BASEBALL/SOFTBALL • Batting tee • 16 inch softball TENNIS • Oversized (Junior) tennis rackets • Oversized tennis balls BASKETBALL • Junior-sized basketballs VOLLEYBALL • Lower nets for volleyball • Use lighter, softer, brightly colored balls • Allow a bounce on the ball
  41. 41. Adapting Activities Adaptations for Read sections of Scouting the book aloud to handbooks and the group. pamphlets Listen to the book on audiotape. Pictures in Scouting books • Sections can be taped in advance. should be used to • Taped versions may help Scouts be available. understand • Boy Scout Handbook concepts and is available on skills. audiotape.
  42. 42. Storytelling All young people can enjoy and benefit from the age-old art of sharing a story. If language problems make storytelling a difficult task, several strategies and accommodations can ensure success for all Scouts:1. Read the story aloud. 1. Have the Scout retell the story to you or to the group. 2. Ask a Scout to imagine other ways that the story might have ended. 3. Ask whether Scouts would have acted in the same way as the characters. 4. Have Scouts act out (role play) the story. 5. Have Scouts invent a sequel to the story.2. Engage in projects that help youth explore concepts and improve storytelling skills. 1. Create timelines. 2. Construct dioramas. 3. Draw cartoons of the story. 4. Choose a character and “dress up” or play charades being that character.
  43. 43. Writing
  44. 44. Organizing and Planning Help Scouts break down larger tasksCheck progress at into smaller, more regular intervals easily and offer accomplished redirection as steps when necessary. working toward a goal. Give adequate Involve Scouts in notice before the design and starting orimplementation of stopping an plans of action. activity.
  45. 45. Autism Spectrum Disorders Autism Asperger’s SyndromePervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)
  46. 46. ACTIVITY BREAK Sit on the floor with your knees up, head down, arms around your knees and thinkabout a time when you felt very alone. You can rock or hum, but do not talk. Try to focus only on your feelings.
  47. 47. ACTIVITY BREAK DISCUSSION•Was it easy or difficult to concentrate?•How did you feel during the activity?•Were you angry at yourself? Were youangry at other people?•What actions (if any) did you take toreduce the distractions?•What was the most distracting thing thatoccurred? What bothered you the most?What bothered you the least?
  48. 48. Definition: Autism & Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)Autism is a complex developmental disability that causes problems with socialinteraction and communication. Symptoms usually start before age three and cancause delays or problems in many different skills that develop from infancy toadulthood.Different people with autism can have very different symptoms. Health careproviders think of autism as a “spectrum” disorder, a group of disorders with similarfeatures. One person may have mild symptoms, while another may have serioussymptoms. But they both have an autism spectrum disorder. Currently, the autismspectrum disorder category includes: • Autistic disorder (also called “classic” autism) •Asperger syndrome • Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (or atypical autism)In some cases, health care providers use a broader term, pervasivedevelopmental disorder, to describe autism. This category includes the autismspectrum disorders above, plus Childhood Disintegrative Disorder and Rettsyndrome. (“Autism Spectrum Disorders,” 2010)
  49. 49. Incidence Research Indicated Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders In the United States1990 One child in every 10,000 children has an ASD2004 One child in every 1,000 children2006 One child in every 110 children2009 One boy in every 94 boys (Autism Speaks most recent statistics now indicate that number is as low as 1 in every 70 boys)•These disorders are four times more likely to occur in boys than girls (with the exception of Rettsyndrome, which occurs mostly in girls).•The increase in frequency is largely attributable to increased diagnosis and awareness.
  50. 50. Characteristics Communication issues Social issues Behavioral issues Routine issues Play issues • Difficulty using language • Difficulty relating to • Demonstrates repetitive body • Difficulty with changes in routine • Unusual play with toys and other • Difficulty understanding people, objects or events movements or behavior patterns • Difficulty with changes in familiar objects language • Avoidance of eye contact (i.e. hand surroundings • May prefer to play alone rather • Difficulty with idiomatic language • May relate to younger children or flapping, rocking, obsessive/com than with others adults better than peers pulsive behaviors) •Children with autism vary widely in abilities, intelligence, and behaviors. Some do not speak; others have limited language that often includes repeated phrases or conversations. People with more advanced language skills tend to use a small range of topics and have difficulty with abstract concepts. •Repetitive play skills, a limited range of interests, and impaired social skills are generally evident as well. •Unusual response to sensory information – for example loud noises, lights, certain textures of food or fabrics – are also common.
  51. 51. Red Flags of Autism Communication Social issues Behavioral issues Routine issues Play issues issues •The child does not •Avoidance of eye •The child doesn’t •Child spends a lot •The child shows respond to his/her contact follow directions. of time lining things unusual name. •The child has poor •The child throws up or putting things attachments to toys •The child cannot eye contact. intense or violent in a certain order. or objects explain what he/she •The child doesn’t tantrums. •The child gets (i.e., always holding wants. smile when smiled •The child is very “stuck” doing the a string or having a •At times, the child at. independent for same things over favored item). seems to be deaf. •The child is not his/her age. (“Little and over and can’t •The child doesn’t •The child seems to interested in other Professors”) move on to other know how to play hear sometimes, children. •The child has odd things. with toys. but not other times. •The child gets movement patterns. •The child shows •The child seems to •The child seems to things for •The child is overly unusual prefer to play alone. be in his/her “own him/herself only. active, uncooperativ attachments to a world.” e, or resistant. schedule or routine (i.e., always having •The child seems to to put socks on tune people out. before pants). •The child focuses on a specific topic or issue or dominates conversation with specific topic or issue
  52. 52. Educational ImplicationsLearning Environment• Learning environment should be structured so that the program is consistent and predictable.• ASDers learn better when information is presented visually as well as verbally.• ASDers need interaction with non-disabled peers to see appropriate social behaviors modeled.
  53. 53. Tips for Scout LeadersAutism Spectrum Disorders
  54. 54. Provideconsistent, predictablestructure.
  55. 55. Give warningsbefore activitytransitions.
  56. 56. Respect bodyspace.
  57. 57. Create andimplement awritten Scoutingprogram plan
  58. 58. Provide avisual schedule
  59. 59. Monitor closely fordangerous situationssince children withautism may not haveappropriate fear ofsuch
  60. 60. Have written rulesformeetings, campouts, and outings
  61. 61. Focus on gamesthat developsocial skills (goodfor all Scouts)
  62. 62. ADD / ADHD Attention Deficit DisorderAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  63. 63. Definition: ADHD Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a condition thatcan make it hard for a person to sit still, control behavior, andpay attention appropriately. These difficulties usually beginbefore the person is 7 years old. Doctors do not know what causes ADHD, howeverresearchers who study the brain are coming closer tounderstanding the causation of ADHD. They believe that somepeople with ADHD do not have enough of certain chemicals(called neurotransmitters) in their brain. These chemicals helpthe brain control behavior. Parents and teachers do not cause ADHD.
  64. 64. How Common Is ADHD? 5 of every 100 children Boys are 3x more likely than girls to have ADHD.
  65. 65. What Are the Signs of ADHD? There are three main signs, or symptoms, of ADHD. These symptoms have led to three types of ADHD. • The person can’t • The person is • The person often seem to get very active or acts without focused or stay cannot sit still for thinking or focused on a extended speaks without task or activity. periods of time. thinking. Problems with Being very Acting before paying attention active (called thinking (called appropriately. “hyperactivity”). “impulsivity”). Combined Type: The person is inattentive, impulsive and overactive.
  66. 66. ADHD Inattentive Type Children with the inattentive type of ADHD often: Lack focus and attentiveness Do not pay close attention to Can’t stay focused on play or details schoolwork Do not follow through on instructions Can’t seem to organize tasks Get distracted easily and activities Lose things such as: Toys Books or schoolwork
  67. 67. “The Squirrel” N26zg
  68. 68. ADHD Hyperactive-Impulsive Type Run around or Blurt out Have trouble climb constantly answers waiting turns Gets out of chair when not Talks too much Interrupt others supposed to Butt in on Fidgets or Have trouble others’ activities squirms playing quietly or games
  69. 69. “The Tigger” MRcg
  70. 70. ADHD Combined Type Children with combined type of ADHD have symptoms of both types previously described. From time to time all children are inattentive, impulsive and overly active. With children who have ADHD these behaviors are the rule NOT the exception.
  71. 71. “The Calvin”
  72. 72. Tips for Scout Leaders ADHD
  73. 73. Learn moreabout ADHD.
  74. 74. Notice whatspecific thingsare hard forthe youth.
  75. 75. Postrules, schedules,and assignments.
  76. 76. Show the youthhow to use anassignment bookand a dailyschedule.
  77. 77. Help the youthchannel his orher physicalactivity.
  78. 78. Provideregularlyscheduledbreaks.
  79. 79. Make sure directionsare given step bystep and that theyouth is following thedirections.
  80. 80. ACTIVITY BREAKWrite the directions for making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich.
  81. 81. ACTIVITY BREAK DISCUSSION•Were your directions complete?•How could you have improved yourdirections?•Were your directions step by step?•Did you check for understanding of thedirections?•What other things did you notice?
  82. 82. Let the youthdo work on acomputer.
  83. 83. Work together withparents to create andimplement aneducational plantailored to meet theyouth’s needs.
  84. 84. Have highexpectations for theyouth but be willingto try new ways ofdoing things.
  85. 85. Maintain eyecontact whentalking to ADD orADHD children.
  86. 86. Eliminate orreduceexternalstimuli.
  87. 87. Request that thechild repeatdirections to youfor understanding.
  88. 88. Give directionsslowly andrepeat ifnecessary.
  89. 89. Give a fewdirections at atime.
  90. 90. Be cognizantthat ADD doesnot go away.
  91. 91. Be aware thatADHD childrenmay oftenmisunderstandwhat is said.
  92. 92. Give positivefeedback andignore negativebehavior wheneverpossible.
  93. 93. Consequences and Rewards:•Give short time-out periods•For younger children, give small amounts of work. (Time restrictions areNOT recommended.)•Reward positive behaviors. Immediate reinforcement is better than long-term.•Alternate techniques between two or more systems as one may onlywork for a short time.
  94. 94. Hearing / Speech /Language Disorders
  95. 95. General ObservationsScouting is aimed at the common interests of youth. A hearingimpairments does not change a youth’s interests, but unlesssomeone makes special efforts, the youth who is deaf oftenmisses out on things that interest him.Scouting’s emphasis on high ideals of social responsibility is agood influence on youth with hearing loss, who may beisolated from concerns outside their immediate surroundings.Often the recipients of service, youth with hearing loss canlearn to be givers as well.Scouting can provide youth with hearing loss the opportunityfor contact with hearing persons, lessening the isolation thatpeople with hearing impairments often experience.
  96. 96. Hearing Aids & Cochlear Implants Hearing Aid Cochlear Implant
  97. 97. Options for the Youth Who Is DeafConsider the following questions regarding a traditional unitor an exclusively deaf unit: •Does either unit have a decided advantage over the other such as stronger leadership, more active program, etc.? •Is the Scouting experience in one unit more likely to support and reinforce the formal education the youth is receiving than the other? •Does the youth have other opportunities to be with hearing children, or would his Scouting experience in a unit be his only “outside” contact? •Does the youth have friends in one unit and not in the other?
  98. 98. Advantages of a Unit Specifically Designed for YouthWho Are Deaf The unit is probably associated with the youth’s In many cases the youth own school and can be will be with their friends in counted on to support the a familiar place. school’s educational methods. Communication in a group The unit leaders are of youth who are deaf is usually more skilled in often easier than in a working with youth who mixed group of hearing are deaf. and hearing impaired boys. The unit’s schedule is planned to mesh with the school’s scheduled as to vacations, weekends, etc.
  99. 99. Advantages of a Unit of Hearing YouthThe youth who is deaf A neighborhood group can associated with may provide a greatermany new friends in a variety of experiences. new situation. Development of the The Scouting unit may boy’s communication be one opportunity in skills may progress which the youth who is further as he adapts to deaf can work, play, andthe language of hearing learn with boys who can boys and leaders. hear.
  100. 100. Definitions: Deaf vs. Hard of Hearing Deaf Hard of Hearing• Cannot understand • Has lost some hearing spoken language with or but can understand without a hearing aid. normal speech by using• Lacks communication a hearing aid access as it is • May have difficulty impossible for him to following group hear and understand conversation. spoken language. • Presents no more issue• Has specific and unique than a boy who wears educational needs due glasses to see or a leg to communication brace to walk. impediment.
  101. 101. The Onset of Hearing Loss Prelingual Deafness • Occurs at birth or early in life, before the child acquires spoken language • Have difficulties learning to speak, read, and write in the way children with normal hearing do. • Note that children born deaf to deaf parents who use American Sign Language (ASL) are not considered or labeled “prelingually deaf” Postlingual Deafness • Occurs at or after age 5 • Make up about 5% of the school-age population with hearing loss • Has advantage of having acquired language but will have same difficulties understanding speech as the boy who is born deaf • May experience adjustment problems associated with hearing loss.
  102. 102. Educating Children Who Are DeafAuditory/OralCued Speech/LanguageTotal CommunicationAmerican Sign Language
  103. 103. How Scouting Can Help Youth Who Are Deaf Prelingually Deafened Youth Postlingually Deafened Youth • Accepts his disability because he has • Can begin or renew Scouting had no experience without it experience with little difficulty • May even pity hearing youth who lack • Understanding by hearing youth that manual conversation skills the postlingually deafened youth has • Probably has a smaller vocabulary same basic interests and needs as than hearing peers before • May have difficulty reading • May be embarrassment on both handbooks if younger youth sides of communication • Should be able to meet the majority • Speaking directly to the hearing of requirements but may need impaired youth will increase assistance with understanding what communication and lip reading is required to meet the achievement comprehension • May need to receive instructions or • Curb inclination to shout or make requirements in advance for exaggerated mouth movements preparation for skills • Learn to get attention by touch or • Needs to be included and accepted visual sign. by hearing peers • Make every effort to include and accept people just as they are
  104. 104. Communication Between Deaf and Hearing YouthThe deaf youth’s Scouting experience should reinforce his educationalprogram. Such reinforcement implies that ONLY those forms ofcommunication used in the youth’s school will be used in the Scoutingunit.Since speech and written messages are used in all methods ofinstruction, they can always be used by Scouting leaders.If a youth uses manual communication at school, the leader and theother boys in the troop should learn the manual alphabet in order tocommunicate. They may even want to learn sign language. Aninterpreter may be helpful until the leader and other Scouts haveacquired sign language proficiency. Without an interpreter the boy who isdeaf may miss important information.
  105. 105. Restrictions on Participation
  106. 106. Current Trends and InclusionThe Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Actof 2004 was passed to help ensureequity, accountability, and excellence in education forchildren with disabilities. It requires public schools to makeavailable to all eligible children with disabilities a freeappropriate public education in the least restrictiveenvironment appropriate to their individual needs.This means that more public schools have classes forchildren with hearing loss, resource rooms, and hearingclinicians and speech pathologists for tutoring. Deafstudents are integrated or mainstreamed into as manyclasses for the hearing as possible.
  107. 107. Current Trends and Inclusion 2 The quality of speech of the boy with a hearing loss may vary from normal speech in: •Voice inflection •Accent •Rhythm and •Articulation As hearing people are exposed to speech of people who are deaf, their understanding improves just as it does when listening to someone with a foreign accent.
  108. 108. Current Trends and Inclusion 3Lip reading ability varies according to vocabulary of the boyand his ability to get the meaning of the message. When lipreading is supplemented by amplification through the use ofa hearing aid or cochlear implant, his ability improves.The Scout leader must be able to substitute words of thesame meaning if the boy does not understand. He must besure his lips are not in a shadow and he must enunciateclearly. A beard and mustache do not help the lip reader.
  109. 109. The Youth Who Is Deaf in a Unit of Hearing Youth
  110. 110. AdvancementBoys with hearing loss can meet most of the requirementsfor Cub Scout and Boy Scout advancement as well ashearing boys.It is often a challenge for the boy who is deaf to understandwhat he is required to do. One task of the Scout leader is toexplain the requirements for advancement.Some requirements in Cub Scouting and Boy Scouting areso verbal in character that they discourage a boy withhearing loss from even trying. A second task for leaders isto devise ways for boys who are deaf to accomplish theverbal requirements in their own way.
  111. 111. Hearing/ Speech/ Language DisordersAdvancement in Cub Scouting
  112. 112. Advancement in Cub Scouting - BOBCAT
  113. 113. Advancement in Cub Scouting - TIGER Each of the The Tiger five Cub achievements receives is divided into recognition three in the form sections. of a bead to add to his All totem. advancementsare approved by This gives the immediate he or she feels recognition the Tiger has and incentive done his best. to continue. Because the adult partner is actively involved in all Tiger Cub den meetings and activities, communication with the hearing impaired Tiger Cub can be made in a manner to which he is accustomed.
  114. 114. Advancement in Cub Scouting – WOLF and BEAR Physical requirements are best communicated by demonstration. Requirements involving knowing rules are best met by having boys demonstrate following the rules rather than recite them. Requirements involving listing need not require a written list. Pointing out examples or acting out situations is appropriate evidence of comprehension.
  115. 115. Advancement in Cub Scouting - WEBELOS WEBELOS are Scouts in the 4th or 5th grade. They may work independently on activity badges of their choice. The many options make it relatively easy for boys who are deaf to avoid troublesome verbal requirements and concentrate on things they like. They may need assistance understanding requirements.
  116. 116. Hearing/ Speech/ Language DisordersAdvancement in Boy Scouting
  117. 117. Advancement in Boy Scouting Some requirements for rank may present problems for the Boy Scout who is deaf. The Scoutmaster should be willing to accept substitute activities when language becomes a stumbling block and should become proficient in designing such activities for the boy with hearing loss. EXAMPLES: •Tenderfoot Requirement 6 •Scoutmaster Conferences
  118. 118. Hearing/ Speech/ Language Disorders Activities in Scouting
  119. 119. Activities in ScoutingThe activities in Scouting are intended for ALL boys.Experience indicates that the activities suggested for hearingScouts are appropriate, in almost every case, for Scouts whoare deaf.•Activities in Cub Scouting •Den Meetings •Pack Meetings•Activities in Boy Scouting •Troop Meetings •Patrol Meetings•The Outdoor Program•Events with Hearing Youth•Scouting Program in School for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Youth
  120. 120. Special Activity Considerations - Swimming Scout leaders should: •Know and practice Safe Swim Defense regulations •Remember a whistle is not effect for these individuals Hearing impaired Scouts: •Should not swim in murky water or at dusk or after dark •Should not be paired with another hearing impaired Scouts in the swim buddy system •Should be watched by lifeguards carefully, particularly during diving
  121. 121. Special Activity Considerations - DarknessScout leaders should:•Make maximum effective use of daylight hours whilehiking and camping•Make sure that more than the usual amount of lightingis available for after-dark activities
  122. 122. Special Activity Considerations – Field Signals Scout leaders should: •Use when voice commands are inappropriate or impossible •Have these as part of the repertoire of every leader and every Scout
  123. 123. Special Activity Considerations - HikingScout leaders should:•Be positioned at the front and the back of any columnof hikers•Avoid night hikes•Teach Scouts what to do if they are lost (Calling out fora lost Scout will not work for a hearing impaired Scoutin all situations)
  124. 124. Hearing/ Speech/ Language DisordersSocial & Psychological Needs
  125. 125. Social and Psychological Needs Considering only physical differences, a Boy Scout who is deaf differs from a hearing boy only in the ability to hear. In most every aspect, the boy with hearing loss can perform as well as the hearing boy. However, an even greater handicap is the inability to learn language in a way that hearing children do, which could lead to academic delays.
  126. 126. Hearing/ Speech/ Language DisordersEstablishing a New Unit at a Residential School
  127. 127. Organizing a New Unit at a Residential School forYouth with Disabilities The Boy Scouts of America has developed standard plans for organzing new Scouting units. These plans are generally useful in resident schools, provided the differences noted on page 71 of Scouting For Youth With Disabilities Manual are followed.
  128. 128. Hearing/ Speech/ Language DisordersEarning the Interpreter Strip
  129. 129. Earning the Interpreter StripMay be earned by both hearing and hearingimpaired Scouts and adults.Requirements:Boy Scouts and adult leaders may wear thisstrip if they show their knowledge of a foreignlanguage or sign language by:1. Carrying on a five minute conversation in the language.2. Translating a two-minute speech or address3. Writing a letter in the language*4. Translating 200 words form the written word* Does not apply for sign language