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Reported speech

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Reported speech

  1. 1. Reported Speech Based on a presentation by Carmen Torres
  2. 2. DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH   REPORTED SPEECH ' I know quite a lot of people here .' Robert said. Present Simple Simple Past He said that he knew quite a lot of people there 'John is feeling much better ' Paul said. Present Continuous Past Continuous He said that John was feeling much better ' I enjoyed my holiday in the States' David said. Simple Past Past Perfect He said that he had enjoyed his holiday in the States 'Jackie wasn´t feeling very well ‘, the teacher said. Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous He said that Jackie hadn’t been feeling very well ' They've seen the Eiffel Tower ‘ John said. Present Perfect Past Perfect He said that they had seen the Eiffel Tower ' I have been waiting for ages ‘ my father said. Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous He said that he had been waiting for ages ' Nobody had warned them about the storm ' the politician said. Past Perfect Past Perfect He said that nobody had warned them about the storm ' She had been reading all day ‘ Brenda said. Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous She said that she had been reading all day
  3. 3. REPORTED SPEECH ' I will be here with you.' Robert promised me. Future Simple Conditional Present Robert promised that he would be there with me 'John is going to study French ‘ Paul said. Be going to Was/Were going to Paul said that John was going to study French ' We can start the lesson' David said. Can Could David said that we could start the lesson ' They may come home ' My husband said. May Might My husband said that they might come home ' You must be quiet in class ' the teacher said. Must Had to The teacher said that we had to be quiet in class
  4. 4. REPORTING STATEMENTS Useful introductory verbs. ACCUSE sb of ADMIT to + ing ARGUE ASSURE BOAST about COMPLAIN about CONGRATULATE sb on DENY + ing EXPLAIN OBJECT to + ing POINT OUT PROMISE PROTEST against /about REMARK REMIND someone of… REPLY THREATEN SAY & TELL
  5. 5. <ul><li>agree, refuse, offer, promise, threaten + infinitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ann: Would you wait half an hour’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tom: All right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chris: Would you lend me another €50? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David: No, I won´t lend you any more money </li></ul></ul><ul><li>accuse of, admit, apologize for, deny, insist on + gerund </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You took me the money! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I stole/ didn´t steal it! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I am sorry I’m late </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let me pay, please, let me </li></ul></ul>REPORTING STATEMENTS
  6. 6. YES / NO QUESTIONS <ul><li>There is no inversion (subject/verb) </li></ul><ul><li>If or whether after the reporting verb </li></ul><ul><li>“ Are you working these days?” he said. </li></ul><ul><li>He inquired if/whether I was working those days </li></ul><ul><li>“ Did you speak to John last night?” she asked </li></ul><ul><li>She wanted to know if I had spoken to J. the night before. </li></ul>REPORTING QUESTIONS
  7. 7. WH- QUESTIONS <ul><li>When Who or What are subjects of the sentence we don’t </li></ul><ul><li>change the word order </li></ul><ul><li>“ Who told you this story?” He asked me who had told that story </li></ul><ul><li>“ What happens?” He wanted to know what happened. </li></ul><ul><li>The word order is a positive one, without inversion (subject/verb) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Where did you go last summer?”. </li></ul><ul><li>He asked me where I had gone the previous summer. </li></ul><ul><li>Some verbs we can use as reporting verbs: ask, enquire, wonder, </li></ul><ul><li>would like to know, want to know </li></ul>REPORTING QUESTIONS
  8. 8. <ul><li>The imperative changes into infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>He said to us: “Stay here” He told us to stay here </li></ul><ul><li>The reporting verb must indicate “order” </li></ul><ul><li>He said: “Be quiet” He told me to be quiet </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from Tell other verbs can be used: ask, beg, invite, warn, order, command, instruct,... </li></ul><ul><li>“ Say that again”, he said to me He asked me to say that again </li></ul>REPORTING COMMANDS
  9. 9. <ul><li>The verbs used are : beg, ask, demand & request and they are situated before the requested person. </li></ul><ul><li>The word “please” is omitted </li></ul><ul><li>When let is used in direct speech it must appear in the reported too but omitting the modal verb. </li></ul><ul><li>When let is not used the modal is not omitted . </li></ul><ul><li>“ John, don’t open the window, please” I said </li></ul><ul><li>I asked /requested/begged John not to open the window. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Can you let me use your phone, please?” I asked my neighbour </li></ul><ul><li>I asked my neighbour to let me use her phone </li></ul><ul><li>“ Can I use your phone?” I asked my neighbour </li></ul><ul><li>I asked my neighbour if I could use her phone. </li></ul>REPORTING REQUESTS
  10. 10. <ul><li>We normally use suggest + gerund to report them </li></ul><ul><li>Also suggest that + subordinate sentence </li></ul><ul><li>The suggestions : Let’s, why don’t we, shall we, why not… </li></ul><ul><li>are omitted </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let’s go to the theatre” she said. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why don’t we go to the theatre?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shall we go to the theatre?” </li></ul><ul><li>She suggested going to the theatre </li></ul><ul><li>She suggested that we could go to the theatre </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let’s not argue again,” he said. </li></ul><ul><li>He suggested not arguing again </li></ul><ul><li>He suggested that they should not argue again. </li></ul>REPORTING SUGGESTIONS

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