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The Telegraph (2): Erasing Time,  Compressing Space Presentation by Mindy McAdams Week 8.2 / MMC 2265
Electricity and Magnetism <ul><li>Ampère:  electromagnetism (1775 – 1836) </li></ul><ul><li>Faraday:  electromagnetism (17...
Britain’s Electrical Telegraph <ul><li>Charles  Wheatstone  (1802 – 1875), originally a musical instrument maker </li></ul...
Britain’s Electrical Telegraph (2) <ul><li>Wheatstone : A scholar in the science of electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Cooke : ...
The First Telegraph <ul><li>The Wheatstone-Cooke  system was  simple  to use: A child could do it </li></ul><ul><li>The fi...
First  U.S.  Telegraph Line <ul><li>Between Baltimore, Maryland, and Washington, D.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operated by th...
 
Pony Express <ul><li>Young men on horseback carried messages and mail from St. Joseph,  Missouri,  to Sacramento,  Califor...
A demand to link the U.S. coasts <ul><li>Business interests wanted a telegraph line to cross the empty western plains  </l...
1861:   Transcontinental railroad  completed
Let’s roll back to 1832,  before Wheatstone and Cooke  and their little experiment  in England …
Samuel F. B. Morse <ul><li>Born 1791 in Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Attended Yale </li></ul><ul><li>Became a portrait ...
Morse’s Hardware <ul><li>1835: He built a working model in a building at New York University, where he taught art classes ...
Morse Code <ul><li>Morse’s patent application included a description of a system of dots and dashes </li></ul><ul><li>Simp...
Morse code Chappe’s code
Flashback to ancient Sumer and cuneiform:  How efficient is the Latin alphabet? How has it helped the western world to adv...
After Years of Rejection <ul><li>1843:  Morse finally receives funding from Congress to construct the  first  telegraph li...
Commodities and Futures <ul><li>“Transportation” and “communication” used to be synonymous </li></ul><ul><li>The telegraph...
Commodities and Futures (2) <ul><li>Wholesale prices used to be radically different in different U.S. cities </li></ul><ul...
Linking the Old World and the New World
Transatlantic Cable <ul><li>Shortest distance: 2,200 miles </li></ul><ul><li>Cables:  Made of strands of copper wire, insu...
Laying undersea cable in the 1800s
Transatlantic Cable (2) <ul><li>Between Ireland and Newfoundland </li></ul><ul><li>1857 :  The first attempt </li></ul><ul...
2,700 miles of cable from Ireland to Newfoundland
Transatlantic Cable (3) <ul><li>Edward Whitehouse, the electrical engineer behind the first phase, did not fully understan...
Transatlantic Cable (4) <ul><li>A new 2,700-mile cable was completed soon after the end of the U.S. Civil War </li></ul><u...
Writer Arthur C. Clarke  described the laying  of the transatlantic cable as  the Victorian equivalent  of putting a man  ...
The Telegraph (2): Erasing Time,  Compressing Space Presentation by Mindy McAdams University of Florida
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The Telegraph, Part 2

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Professor McAdams's lecture about the invention and adoption of of the electric telegraph

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The Telegraph, Part 2

  1. 1. The Telegraph (2): Erasing Time, Compressing Space Presentation by Mindy McAdams Week 8.2 / MMC 2265
  2. 2. Electricity and Magnetism <ul><li>Ampère: electromagnetism (1775 – 1836) </li></ul><ul><li>Faraday: electromagnetism (1791 – 1867) </li></ul><ul><li>Oersted: electromagnetism (1777 – 1851) </li></ul><ul><li>Volta: electric battery (1745 – 1827) </li></ul><ul><li>Ohm: voltage, current and resistance (1789 – 1854) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Britain’s Electrical Telegraph <ul><li>Charles Wheatstone (1802 – 1875), originally a musical instrument maker </li></ul><ul><li>William Fothergill Cooke (1806 – 1879), originally a maker of anatomical models </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrated their electrical telegraph to the public in July 1837 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Britain’s Electrical Telegraph (2) <ul><li>Wheatstone : A scholar in the science of electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Cooke : An entrepreneur seeking a fortune </li></ul><ul><li>Their first model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used six wires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five galvanometer needles in a row </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A grid of 20 letters of the alphabet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmitted 25 characters per minute </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Later models: Fewer wires, fewer needles </li></ul>
  5. 5. The First Telegraph <ul><li>The Wheatstone-Cooke system was simple to use: A child could do it </li></ul><ul><li>The first experimental line ( 1837 ): Two stations of the Great Western Railway Company (England) were connected </li></ul><ul><li>Distance: 1.5 miles </li></ul><ul><li>A physical wire had to run from one station to another </li></ul>
  6. 6. First U.S. Telegraph Line <ul><li>Between Baltimore, Maryland, and Washington, D.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operated by the U.S. Postal Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1845 – 1847 (started 8 years after Wheatstone and Cooke) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length: 40 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1852 , there were 23,000 miles of telegraph wires in the U.S. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Pony Express <ul><li>Young men on horseback carried messages and mail from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California (1,800 miles) </li></ul><ul><li>Trip duration: About 10 days </li></ul><ul><li>Rider relay: A new rider took over every 75 to 100 miles </li></ul><ul><li>Horse relay: A rider got a fresh horse every 10 to 15 miles </li></ul><ul><li>Service provided only from April 1860 to October 1861 ( hmm, what happened?) </li></ul>
  8. 9. A demand to link the U.S. coasts <ul><li>Business interests wanted a telegraph line to cross the empty western plains </li></ul><ul><li>Many people believed it would be impossible </li></ul><ul><li>On June 16, 1860, Congress passed the Pacific Telegraph Act of 1860 </li></ul><ul><li>Bids were requested; three companies made bids, but two dropped out </li></ul><ul><li>The only bidder left then won the contract -- Western Union Telegraph Company </li></ul>
  9. 10. 1861: Transcontinental railroad completed
  10. 11. Let’s roll back to 1832, before Wheatstone and Cooke and their little experiment in England …
  11. 12. Samuel F. B. Morse <ul><li>Born 1791 in Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Attended Yale </li></ul><ul><li>Became a portrait painter </li></ul><ul><li>In 1832 , on a ship returning to the U.S. from Europe, he overheard a conversation about the electromagnet (which had been invented in 1825) </li></ul><ul><li>He hatched an idea for an electric telegraph </li></ul>
  12. 13. Morse’s Hardware <ul><li>1835: He built a working model in a building at New York University, where he taught art classes </li></ul><ul><li>1837: He acquired two partners to help him, a scientist and a mechanic </li></ul><ul><li>1837 : Morse applied for a patent </li></ul><ul><li>1838: Morse demonstrates his telegraph in New York, transmitting 10 words per minute </li></ul>
  13. 14. Morse Code <ul><li>Morse’s patent application included a description of a system of dots and dashes </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity: Total of four signals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dot, dash, short space, long space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combinations of dots and dashes represent individual letters of the alphabet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be memorized (no codebook needed) </li></ul>
  14. 15. Morse code Chappe’s code
  15. 16. Flashback to ancient Sumer and cuneiform: How efficient is the Latin alphabet? How has it helped the western world to advance?
  16. 17. After Years of Rejection <ul><li>1843: Morse finally receives funding from Congress to construct the first telegraph line in the U. S. (Baltimore to Washington) </li></ul><ul><li>Afterward, private companies fund the expanding telegraph network </li></ul><ul><li>Morse becomes a wealthy man by 1847, (when he buys a house with 100 acres of land) </li></ul><ul><li>Dies in 1872, age 80 </li></ul>
  17. 18. Commodities and Futures <ul><li>“Transportation” and “communication” used to be synonymous </li></ul><ul><li>The telegraph decoupled the two </li></ul><ul><li>Information that is detached from the goods it represents can both simulate the goods and control them </li></ul><ul><li>Buy low, sell high </li></ul><ul><li>Instantaneous communication eliminates boundaries to commerce </li></ul>
  18. 19. Commodities and Futures (2) <ul><li>Wholesale prices used to be radically different in different U.S. cities </li></ul><ul><li>Information is power </li></ul><ul><li>“The telegraph put everyone in the same place for purposes of trade” </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as you know the crop conditions, you can sell your receipts (high or low) </li></ul><ul><li>The abstraction of commerce </li></ul>
  19. 20. Linking the Old World and the New World
  20. 21. Transatlantic Cable <ul><li>Shortest distance: 2,200 miles </li></ul><ul><li>Cables: Made of strands of copper wire, insulated with gutta percha (similar to rubber) and tarred hemp </li></ul><ul><li>Outside wound with 300,000 miles of iron wire for protection on the sea floor </li></ul><ul><li>No single ship was big enough to carry all of the cable required </li></ul><ul><li>The cable had to be spliced in the middle of the Atlantic </li></ul>
  21. 22. Laying undersea cable in the 1800s
  22. 23. Transatlantic Cable (2) <ul><li>Between Ireland and Newfoundland </li></ul><ul><li>1857 : The first attempt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Halfway across the Atlantic, during a storm, the cable broke </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1858 : Another storm, another failure </li></ul><ul><li>Later that year: Success! (Aug. 16) </li></ul><ul><li>But the cable quit working in September </li></ul><ul><li>What happened? </li></ul>
  23. 24. 2,700 miles of cable from Ireland to Newfoundland
  24. 25. Transatlantic Cable (3) <ul><li>Edward Whitehouse, the electrical engineer behind the first phase, did not fully understand the properties of electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Cyrus Field, a businessman who raised the money to lay the cable (three times), had hired Whitehouse </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Civil War, 1861 – 1865 </li></ul><ul><li>There was no money for another attempt </li></ul>
  25. 26. Transatlantic Cable (4) <ul><li>A new 2,700-mile cable was completed soon after the end of the U.S. Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Cyrus Field still involved; Whitehouse gone </li></ul><ul><li>Cable snaps again, only 600 miles from the end; new cable must be made </li></ul><ul><li>1866 : At last! A cable that connects two continents and keeps on working! </li></ul>
  26. 27. Writer Arthur C. Clarke described the laying of the transatlantic cable as the Victorian equivalent of putting a man on the moon
  27. 28. The Telegraph (2): Erasing Time, Compressing Space Presentation by Mindy McAdams University of Florida

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