Global Journalism Research


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This presentation by Mindy McAdams serves as an introduction to major themes and approaches to research about journalism work and journalism products in the 21st century. It centers on five chapters in the 2008 book "Global Journalism Research" (Loffelholz & Weaver, Eds.) and adds five examples of published journal articles to demonstrate the range of research topics in journalism studies today. It also touches briefly on the work of Peter Berglez (about "global journalism" as a news style). For more about Berglez and the practices of international news reporting, SEE ALSO (this presents a comparison of 3 differing concepts of "global journalism").

Published in: News & Politics, Education

Global Journalism Research

  1. Introduction   a nd   E xamples  
  2. Peter  Berglez:  Global  Journalism     Global  Journalism  Research   M.  Loffelholz  &  D.  H.  Weaver,  editors  
  3. 1.  A  style  of  reporting  and  analyzing  news  events  (and   issues)  with  a  global  context  2.  People:  Comparing  journalists  around  the  world;   studies  of  how  journalists  do  their  jobs  3.  Reporting  from  or  about  other  countries:   a.  International  news  reporting   b.  Differences  in  news  coverage  
  4. 1.  A  style  of  reporting  and  analyzing  news  events  (and   issues)  with  a  global  context  2.  People:  Comparing  journalists  around  the  world;   studies  of  how  journalists  do  their  jobs  3.  Reporting  from  or  about  other  countries:   a.  International  news  reporting   b.  Differences  in  news  coverage    Research  can  take  any  one  of  these  as  its  focus.    
  5. Peter  Berglez  says   global  journalism   is  “an  emerging   news  style.”   Berglez  is  a  Swedish  researcher   in  communications,  and  an   associate  professor  at  Örebro   University,  Sweden.  Peter  Berglez    
  6. —  Berglez,  P.  (2008).  What  is  global  journalism?   Journalism  Studies,  9(6),  845–858.    
  7. —  Choose  a  news  topic,   such  as  climate  change,   or  deforestation   —  Compare  and  analyze   news  coverage  about   that  topic  from  many   different  sources   —  Content  analysis:  Look   for  the  elements   (identified  by  Berglez)   that  indicate  the  global  Peter  Berglez     style    
  8. —  Loss  of  rainforests   —  Palm  oil  plantations  (perkebunan  kelapa  sawit)   —  Orang-­‐utan  habitats  —  Migrant  workers  (workers  from  Indonesia,  working  in   other  countries)  —  Human  rights  (especially  in  Papua;  and  also,  attacks   on  religious  freedom  in  all  provinces)  
  9. Berglez’s  “global  issues”  and  content  analysis  of  news  reports  represent  only  one  possibility  for  a  research  agenda.  
  10. —  Part  I:  Introduction  to   Journalism  Research   —  Part  II:  Theories  of   Journalism  Research   —  Part  III:  Methodology  and   Methods  of  Journalism   Research   —  Part  IV:  Selected   Paradigms  and  Findings  of   Journalism  Research   —  Part  V:  The  Future  of  Published  2008.  M.  Loffelholz  &     Journalism  Research  D.  H.  Weaver,  editors  
  11. The  book  provides  a   summary  of  research   about  journalism  from   around  the  world,  starting   from  the  1930s—but   focusing  on  what’s  new.     It  explains  trends  in   journalism  research  and   suggests  new  paths  for  the   future.  Published  2008.  M.  Loffelholz  &    D.  H.  Weaver,  editors  
  12. Published  2008.  M.  Loffelholz  &     Peter  Berglez    D.  H.  Weaver,  editors  
  13. —  Many  OLD  studies  are  focused  on  the   audience  and  “media  effects”  —  OLD  studies  about  journalists  and   newsrooms  often  were  anecdotal  —  NOT   empirical  —  Today,  the  production  of  news  and  news   products  has  become  a  NEW  focus  of  study  —  Comparisons  among  and  between  different   countries:  Also  well  received  (also  NEW)  —  Empirical  methods  dominate:  content   analysis,  surveys,  and  systematic   observation  
  14. 5  Five  theoretical  approaches  to  research  about  journalism  
  15. “Efforts  to  differentiate  between  journalism,  public  relations,  advertising  and  propaganda  …  are  all  rather  new.  But  all  these  persuasive  systems  can  be  analyzed  on  three  social  levels”:    —  Organizations    —  Markets  (Economies)  —  Society     —Rühl,  p.  32,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  16. “In  this  view,  journalism  is  always  dependent  on  a  broader  societal  system,  which  can  be  socio-­‐historically  identified.”     —Loffelholz,  p.  20,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  17. “In  this  view,  journalism  is  always  dependent  on  a  broader  societal  system,  which  can  be  socio-­‐historically  identified.”     —Loffelholz,  p.  20,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  This  is  different  from  an  older  style  of  journalism  research  that  focused  on  the  individual,  e.g.  a  reporter  or  an  editor  (for  example,  White’s  1950  study  about  “Mr.  Gates”),  or  one  media  organization.  
  18. Characteristics  of  a  systems  approach:  —  Analysis  of  different  spheres,  contexts  or  problems   (not  individual  “subjects”).    —  Identification  of  different  (separate)  systems  that   influence  or  affect  each  other  (e.g.,  the  national   political  system,  and  the  national  print  media  or   newspaper  system).    —  Identification  of  boundaries  between  systems.   —Görke  &  Scholl,  2006,  pp.  645–646  
  19. “In  general,  systems  solve  specific  problems  within  and  for  societies.  That  is  what  we  call  the  function  of  a  specific  social  system.”  (my  italics)    “Modern  society  organizes  itself  by  delegating  different  functions  to  specialized  societal  systems  in  order  to  cope  with  societal  problems  …”   —Görke  &  Scholl,  2006,  pp.  646–647  
  20. Although  Rühl  does  not  mention  it  in  his  chapter,  the    field  theory  of  Pierre  Bourdieu  has  much  in  common  with  the  theory  of  social  systems  that  Rühl  discusses—which  is  based  on  the  work  of  Niklas  Luhmann  (who,  like  Rühl,  is  German).    However,  systems  theory  is  not  the  basis  for  Bourdieu,  whose  work  is  characterized  by  struggle  (between  and  within  fields)  and  the  “polarity”  of  a  field  (autonomy  vs.  outside,  or  heteronomous,  forces).       —Rühl,  pp.  28–38,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  21. —  Mabweazara,  H.  M.  (2011).  Newsmaking  practices  and   professionalism  in  the  Zimbabwean  press.  Journalism   Studies,  5(1),  100–117.   EXAMPLE    
  22. —  Ethnographic  approach:  In-­‐depth  semi-­‐structured   interviews     40  journalists    —  More  than  —  From  6  Zimbabwe  newspapers  (2  dailies,  4  weeklies;   in  2  cities)  —  Theory  section  refers  to  “sociology  of  news”  tradition   (e.g.,  Schudson)  as  well  as  Tuchman,  Zelizer,  etc.    —  Findings  and  conclusion  include  references  to  social   systems      EXAMPLE     —Mabweazara,  2011,  pp.  102,  103    
  23. Example  from  findings:    “The  sourcing  routines  are  entrenched  in  the  dynamics  of  the  political  context  as  journalists  selectively  refer  only  to  those  sources  that  consolidate  their  newsrooms’  political  positioning.  The  processes  of  sourcing  stories  in  the  newsrooms  …  also  involves  carefully  selecting  and  cultivating  new  sources  whose  political  orientation  rubber  stamp  the  newspapers’  editorial  slants.”        EXAMPLE     —Mabweazara,  2011,  p.  108    
  24. Example  from  conclusions:    “[N]ewsmaking  practices  and  professional  cultures  in  Zimbabwe  can  be  seen  as  shaped  by  a  combination  of  factors  that  include  internal  organisational  and  occupational  demands,  as  well  as  the  wider  socio-­‐political  and  economic  factors.  …  the  Anglo-­‐American  model  of  journalism  does  not  fit  the  rest  of  the  world.  In  particular,  the  Zimbabwean  case  shows  how  the  generic  Anglo-­‐American  ideals  of  journalism  tend  to  blind  researchers  to  actual  situations  in  various  contexts  of  journalism  practice.”    EXAMPLE       —Mabweazara,  2011,  p.  114      
  25. Classic  readings  include:    —  Adorno,  The  Culture  Industry  —  Durkheim,  The  Division  of  Labor  in  Society  —  Weber,  Economy  and  Society  —  Wiener,  Cybernetics    Helpful  (and  short):  —  Görke,  A.,  &  Scholl,  A.  (2006).  Niklas  Luhmann’s  theory  of   social  systems  and  journalism  research.  Journalism  Studies,   7(4),  644–655.  
  26. —  Critical  theory,  not  quantitative  —  Focus  on  readers,  viewers,  audiences  —  Intersection  of  politics,  economics  and  culture  —  Production  and  circulation  of  meaning  —  Message  senders  (corporate  “big  media”)  and  message   receivers;  encoding/decoding  (Hall,  1973)  —  The  ideological  practices  of  journalism  (not  the   professional  practices)   —Hartley,  pp.  39–41,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  27. “If  ‘everyone  is  a  journalist’  …”  (because  of  the  Internet  and  social  media),  researchers  have  a  whole  new  arena  to  explore.      “For  the  consumer  (reading  public)  is  transformed  into  the  producer  (journalist).”     —Hartley,  p.  42,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)   (Italics  in  the  original.)  
  28. A  cultural  studies  approach  to  journalism  research  will  focus  on  how  the  consumers  of  journalism  make  meaning  from  the  products  of  journalism.    Such  research  will  also  examine  a  broader  definition  of  “journalism,”  exterior  to  the  professional  and  corporate  practices  and  products,  and  pay  attention  to  producers  who  would  not  have  been  called  “journalists”  in  the  past.   —Hartley,  pp.  44–45,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  29. “Seeing  journalism  as  culture  thus  opens  journalism’s  definition  to  activities  that  go  under  the  radar  of  conventional  views  of  what  journalism  does.  Under  consideration  here  are  alternative  venues  like  the  Internet  and  camera  phones,  opinion-­‐driven  formats  like  cartoons  and  citizens’  views,  and  forums  situated  explicitly  on  journalism’s  margins  like  the  satirical  comedy  show  and  reality  television”  (Zelizer,  2008,  p.  88).  Zelizer,  B.  (2008).  How  communication,  culture,  and  critique  intersect  in  the  study  of  journalism.  Communication,  Culture  &  Critique,  1(1),  86–91.  
  30. —  Sanderson,  J.  (2010).  “The  nation  stands  behind  you”:   Mobilizing  social  support  on   Communication  Quarterly,  58(2),  188–206.   EXAMPLE    
  31. —  “[T]he  Internet  and  the  accessibility  of  its  computer-­‐ mediated  communication  (CMC)  channels  afford   professional  athletes  the  capability  to  bypass  sports   journalists  and  communicate  messages  directly  to   fans  …”  (p.  189)  —  “This  article  presents  an  interpretive  analysis  of  blog   readers’  comments  in  response  to  two  entries  posted   by  Boston  Red  Sox  pitcher,  Curt  Schilling,  on  his  blog   …  which  described  two  problematic  incidents  he  faced   …”  (p.  189)  —  “Schilling  seems  to  use  his  blog  to  reinforce  his   identity  as  an  active  sports  media  participant  and  as  a   sports  journalist  critic”  (p.  192).  EXAMPLE     —Sanderson,  2010    
  32. As  a  specific  case  study,  Sanderson’s  (2010)  article  does  not  follow  a  typical  cultural  studies  approach.  However,  Sanderson  does  explore  the  idea  that  a  sports  star  can  be  both  an  active  participant  in  professional  sport  and  also  “a  journalist”  and  media  critic,  using  his  own  blog.    Research  method:  Case  study.  “An  interpretive,  thematic  analysis  was  conducted  of  1,337  blog  postings”  [comments]  that  appeared  on  two  blog  entries  written  by  Curt  Schilling  on  The  author  identified  two  significant  themes  in  the  blog  readers’  responses  to  Schilling  (identity  validation  and  collective  significance).  EXAMPLE    
  33. “If  blog  readers  legitimize  professional  athletes  taking  their  grievances  directly  to  blogs,  both  sports  organizations  and  mass  media  outlets  may  increasingly  be  circumvented.  Professional  athletes  then  become  empowered  and  bypass  traditional  reporting  channels  and,  through  support  networks  that  emerge  on  their  blogs,  gain  a  sympathetic  audience.”   —Sanderson,  2010,  p.  201    EXAMPLE    
  34. Recommended  reading:  —  Bruns,  A.  (2005).  Gatewatching:  Collaborative  Online  News   Production  —  Durham  and  Kellner,  Eds.  (2006).  Media  and  Cultural   Studies:  Keyworks  (Revised  Edition)  —  Jenkins,  H.  (2006).  Convergence  Culture:  Where  Old  and   New  Media  Collide  —  Zelizer,  B.  (2008).  How  communication,  culture,  and   critique  intersect  in  the  study  of  journalism.   Communication,  Culture  &  Critique,  1(1),  86–91.    
  35. —  The  newsroom  is  an  organizational  structure,   operating  inside  the  larger  media  organization.  —  Structures  (including  work  practices)  in  the   organization  constrain  what  reporters  can  and  cannot   do.    “These  structures  affect  the  way  news  is  produced  because  they  influence  what  journalists  report,  what  news  an  editor  writes,  and  also  the  decisions  about  what  should  be  published.”   —Altmeppen,  p.  55,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  36. Organizational  studies  can:  —  Compare  work  in  different  news  organizations  —  Identify  and  analyze  the  division  of  labor  in  a   newsroom  —  Identify  and  analyze  chain-­‐of-­‐command  —  Analyze  interactions  between  departments,  e.g.,   between  the  advertising  staff  and  the  newsroom     —Altmeppen,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  37. “In  nearly  all  cases  of  organizational  research  on  journalism,  researchers  attempt  comparisons.”    Most  current  research  focuses  on  “the  causes  and  consequences  of  structural  change  induced  through  new  requirements  for  the  newsroom,  such  as  marketing  orientation,  and  being  more  conscious  of  the  needs  of  audiences.”   —Altmeppen,  pp.  59,  60,  in     Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  38. —  Reich,  Z.  (2011).  Comparing  reporters’  work  across  print,   radio,  and  online.  Journalism  &  Mass  Communication   Quarterly,  88(2),  285–300.   EXAMPLE    
  39. “This  paper  seeks  to  help  resolve  the  scholarly  dispute  regarding  distinctiveness  of  reporting  patterns  across  media  by  studying  how  reporters  actually  obtain  their  news  information.”   —Reich,  2011,  p.  286  EXAMPLE    
  40. “This  paper  seeks  to  help  resolve  the  scholarly  dispute  regarding  distinctiveness  of  reporting  patterns  across  media  by  studying  how  reporters  actually  obtain  their  news  information.”   —Reich,  2011,  p.  286  To  do  so,  Reich  interviewed  reporters  at    3  daily  newspapers,  3  radio  stations,    and  3  websites,  all  in  Israel  (where  Reich  is  a  university  professor).  EXAMPLE    
  41. 3  daily  newspapers,  3  radio  stations,    and  3  websites:  Total  number  of  reporters  interviewed:  80    4  Research  Questions  Do  print,  radio,  and  online  reporters:  —  Invest  similar  effort  to  obtain  raw  news  information?  —  Maintain  similar  source  relations?  —  Treat  their  sources  with  similar  levels  of  skepticism?  —  Maintain  a  similar  newswork  structure?    EXAMPLE     —Reich,  2011,  pp.  288–289    
  42. Findings:  —  Print  reporters  “do  not  use  substantially  more  sources   per  item,  more  legwork,  more  initiative,  or  more   cross-­‐checking;  they  do  …  rely  more  on  leaks  and  less   on  PR  contributions  [than  the  radio  and  online   reporters].”  —  “[D]ifferences  among  media  during  the  early  stages  of   news  reporting  were  found  to  be  minor  …”  —  “These  findings  suggest  that  the  studied  media  are   not  unique  factories  of  news,  but  rather  unique   packing  and  distribution  houses  of  similarly  obtained   raw  materials.”  EXAMPLE     —Reich,  2011,  pp.  294–296  
  43. Recommended  reading:  —  Boczkowski,  P.  J.  (2004).  Digitizing  the  News:  Innovation  in   Online  Newspapers.  —  Deuze,  M.,  Ed.  (2011).  Managing  Media  Work.  —  Gans,  H.  J.  (1979).  Deciding  What’s  News:  A  Study  of  CBS   Evening  News,  NBC  Nightly  News,  Newsweek  and  Time.  —  Giddens,  A.  (1984).  The  Constitution  of  Society:  Outline  of   the  Theory  of  Structuration.  —  Shoemaker,  P.  J.,  &  Reese,  S.  D.  (1996).  Mediating  the   Message:  Theories  of  Influence  on  Mass  Media  Content.      
  44. —  A  focus  on  the  mind  of  the  journalist:  How   individual’s  decisions  are  made,  value  judgments,  etc.  —  Attitudes;  perceptions.  —  The  theory  of  “shared  reality”:  Journalists  are  expected   to  extract  the  same  information  from  (for  example),  a   press  conference.  “Journalists  have  to  decide  what  is  true,  what  is  relevant,  and  what  is,  in  a  moral  sense,  good  or  bad.”   —Donsbach,  pp.  66–68,     in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  45. Journalists’  decisions  are  affected  by  their  “in-­‐group”:  Other  journalists.    As  peers,  other  journalists  “represent  professional  norms.  Therefore,  they  are,  from  the  journalist’s  point  of  view,  perceived  as  the  most  legitimate  influence  on  his  or  her  decision-­‐making.”   —Donsbach,  p.  68,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  46. Factors  affecting  a  journalist’s  daily  decision-­‐making:    —  Severe  time  constraints  —  Pressure  from  competition  —  Absence  of  objective  criteria  (in  the  situation)  —  Risk  of  public  failure   —Donsbach,  p.  66,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  47. News  ideologies  and  news  frames:    Repeated  patterns  in  news  coverage  “can,  at  least  to  a  certain  extent,  be  explained  by  journalists’  need  to  validate  their  professional  decisions  about  what  is  newsworthy:  because  similar  events  have  been  covered  before,  something  that  fits  the  pattern  will  be  covered  with  higher  priority”  later  on.   —Donsbach,  p.  69,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  48. —  Besley,  J.  C.,  &  McComas,  K.  A.  (2007).  Reporting  on  fairness   in  civic  life:  Interviews  with  journalists  about  writing  on   local  political  leaders.  Journalism  Practice,  1(3),  339–355.   EXAMPLE    
  49. —  Telephone  interviews  with   19  local  newspaper   reporters  and  5  television  reporters  (total:  24   interviews)  based  in  several  cities,  in  one  U.S.  state.  —  Interviews  lasted  20  to  30  minutes.  —  First  focused  on  questions  designed  to  find  out  what   the  journalists  considered  to  be  “making  a  fair   decision,”  related  to  decisions  made  by  elected   officials.  —  “The  interview  then  turned  to  questions  about  …  the   main  ways  that  fairness  content  appears  in  stories— including  the  relative  role  of  journalists’  news   judgments  and  the  use  of  sources.”  EXAMPLE     —Besley  &  McComas,  2007,  p.  343  
  50. Findings:    The  journalists  indicated  “that  they  would  be  more  likely  to  dig  into  a  story  if  they  personally  believed  that  unfairness  was  occurring  or  if  one  of  their  sources  made  a  convincing  argument  about  unfairness  …”    Journalists  seemed  reluctant  to  name  “fairness”  as  something  they  look  for  when  they  report  about  public  officials,  but  on  the  other  hand,  they  regarded  evidence  of  “unfairness”  as  newsworthy.    EXAMPLE     —Besley  &  McComas,  2007,  p.  345  
  51. Findings:    “Most  of  the  journalists  emphasized  one  or  another  of  these  dimensions  in  their  responses,  with  the  most  focus  put  on  (1)  issues  of  voice,  including  representation  of  all  sides  of  an  issue,  and  (2)  corruption  and  favoritism  …”    The  authors  based  their  questions  on  the  scholarly    literature  about  justice,  with  the  idea  that  the  public’s  perceptions  about  justice  in  their  government  are  closely  related  to  journalism’s  role  of  informing  the  people  about  their  leaders.  EXAMPLE     —Besley  &  McComas,  2007,  p.  347  
  52. Conclusions:    Journalists  do  use  judgments  about  fairness  when  they  decide  “to  investigate  and  report  on  political  authorities.”    “[T]he  results  …  suggest  that  journalists  are  particularly  keen  to  cover  stories  where  leaders  fail  to  live  up  to  some  defined  standard  of  behavior.  Behavior  by  leaders  to  deny  citizens  a  legitimate  voice  in  policy-­‐making  may  prove  especially  relevant  to  working  journalists.”  EXAMPLE     —Besley  &  McComas,  2007,  p.  350  
  53. Recommended  reading:  —  Gans,  H.  J.  (1979).  Deciding  What’s  News:  A  Study  of  CBS   Evening  News,  NBC  Nightly  News,  Newsweek  and  Time.  —  Lippmann,  W.  (1922).  Public  Opinion.  —  Mindich,  D.T.Z.  (1998).  Just  the  Facts:  How  “Objectivity”   Came  to  Define  American  Journalism.  —  Patterson,  T.  E.,  &  Donsbach,  W.  (1996).  News  decisions:   Journalists  as  partisan  actors.  Political  Communication,  13 (4),  455–468.  
  54. Like  the  other  approaches  discussed  here,  a  gender  approach  cuts  across  other  categories,  including  cultural  studies  and  psychology.    A  focus  on  journalism  work  and  workers:    —  How  women’s  experiences  as  reporters  differ  from   men’s  (beats;  story  assignments)  —  Management,  promotion,  pay      —Robinson,  pp.  79–89,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  55. In  her  chapter,  Robinson  focuses  only  on  women  in  journalism  organizations,  especially  “the  glass  ceiling.”    Another  branch  of  gender  studies  and  journalism  is  the  analysis  of  how  women  appear  in  the  products  of  journalism:  As  sources,  as  objects  of  reporting,  as  people  in  photographs.    —Robinson,  pp.  79–89,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  56. Gender  studies  are  (or  can  be)  distinct  from  feminism,  which  is  (often)  a  political  ideology.    Gender  studies  positions  gender  “as  a  primary  category  of  social  organization,  rather  than  a  secondary  add-­‐on  …  [to]  class,  education,  ethnicity,  and  religion.”      Gender  structures  identity.     —Robinson,  p.  80,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  57. Journalism  as  a  culture:    —  “[J]ournalists  develop  a  special  worldview  with  unique  sets   of  ideals,  values,  and  rules.”    —  “[J]ournalism  varies  from  country  to  country  and  from  one   epoch  to  another.”  Thus,  the  position  of  women  in  journalism  (both  as  workers  and  as  objects  in  news  coverage)  differs  among  places  and  among  periods  of  time.   —Robinson,  p.  81,  in  Global  Journalism  Research  (2008)  
  58. —  Armstrong,  C.  L.,  Boyle,  M.  P.,  &  McLeod,  D.  M.  (2012).  A   global  trend:  How  news  coverage  of  protests  reinforces   gender  stereotypes.  Journalism  Studies,  13(4),  633–648.   EXAMPLE    
  59. Hypotheses:  —  In  news  stories  about  social  protest,  mentions  of  men   will  be  more  frequent  than  mentions  of  women.  —  “Female  sources  will  appear  more  frequently  when   they  are  supporting  protest  activities  than  when  they   are  opposing  protest  activities.”  (my  italics)  —  “The  disparity  between  male  and  female  sources  in   news  coverage  will  increase  as  the  goals  and  tactics  of   the  protesters  become  more  deviant.”  (my  italics)  EXAMPLE     —Armstrong  et  al.,  2012,  pp.  637–638  
  60. “This  study  suggests  that  cross-­‐cultural  factors—mainly  societal  views  about  women  and  their  roles  in  society—may  be  particularly  relevant  for  determining  the  emphasis  placed  on  women  in  protest  news.  That  is,  in  areas  of  the  world  in  which  more  patriarchal  views  of  women  are  held,    male  sources  will  be  more  likely  than  female  sources  to  be  more  [prominent].”  EXAMPLE     —Armstrong  et  al.,  2012,  pp.  637–638  
  61. Method:  —  Content  analysis  of   220  newspaper  stories  dealing   with  protest  events,  2007–2009.   13  newspapers  selected  to  create  the  —  Total  of   sampling  frame.  —  All  newspapers  in  the  English  language.  —  International:   6  newspapers  from  North  America;   4  from  Asia;  3  from  Middle  East.  EXAMPLE     —Armstrong  et  al.,  2012,  pp.  639  
  62. Findings:  “Consistent  with  prior  research  …  men  appeared  more  frequently  than  women  as  subjects  of  stories,  as  sources  in  stories,  and  in  bylines.  Further,  the  findings  indicated  that  gender  portrayals  in  protest  coverage  differ  based  on  the  region  of  the  world  where  the  newspaper  is  located  as  well  as  the  tactics  of  the  protest  group.  …  “[W]omen  were  most  likely  to  appear  in  coverage  when  the  story  was  nonpolitical,  the  tactics  were  more  peaceful,  and  when  the  disparity  between  male  and  female  sources  was  lower.”  (my  italics)  EXAMPLE     —Armstrong  et  al.,  2012,  p.  642  
  63. Recommended  reading:  —  Armstrong,  C.  L.  (2004).  The  influence  of  reporter  gender   on  source  selection  in  newspaper  stories.  Journalism  &   Mass  Communication  Quarterly,  81(1),  pp.  139–154.  —  Carter,  Branston,  &  Allan,  Eds.  (1998).  News,  Gender,  and   Power.    —  Eichler,  M.  (1980).  The  Double  Standard:  A  Feminist   Critique  of  the  Social  Sciences.  —  Zelizer,  B.  (1993).  Journalists  as  interpretive  communities.   Critical  Studies  in  Mass  Communication,  10(2),  219–237.  
  64. Summary  —  Social  systems  and  their  interactions,  e.g.,  the   journalism  system  and  the  political  system  —  Cultural  studies:  Focus  on  the  audience,  the   consumers,  and  how  they  make  meaning  from  media   messages  —  Organizational  studies:  Structures,  constraints,  and   structural  change  in  news  organizations  —  Psychology:  How  journalists  think  about  news  values   and  decide  what  is  newsworthy  —  Gender:  (1)  Women  as  newsworkers,  managers;     (2)  women  appearing  in  news  coverage    
  65. Mindy   M cAdams   University   o f   F lorida