An operating system (OS) is a set ofprograms that manage computerhardware resources and providecommon services for applicationsoftware. The operating system is themost important type of systemsoftware in a computer system. Auser cannot run an applicationprogram on the computer without anoperating system
1. Real-time:- A real-time operating system is a multitasking operating system that aims at executing real-time applications.2. Multi –User:-A multi-user operating system allows multipleusers to access a computer system concurrently.Time-sharing system can be classified as multi-usersystems as they enable a multiple user access to acomputer through the sharing of time.
3. Multi-tasking vs. Single-tasking:- When only a single program is allowed to run at a time, the system is grouped under a single-tasking system. However, when the operating system allows the execution of multiple tasks at one time, it is classified as a multi- tasking operating system.
1. Resource Management:-The resource management function of an OS allocates computerresources such as CPU time, main memory, secondary storage,and input and output devices for use.2. Data Management:-The data management functions of an OS govern the input andoutput of the data and their location, storage, and retrieval.3. Job (task) Management:-The job management function of an OS prepares, schedules,controls, and monitors jobs submitted for execution to ensurethe most efficient processing. A job is a collection of one or morerelated programs and their data.
There are two types of interface:-1. Command line Interface2. Graphical user interface
Command-line Interface A CLI (command line interface) is a user interface to a computers operating system or an application in which the user responds to a visual prompt by typing in a command on a specified line, receives a response back from the system, and then enters another command, and so forth. The MS-DOS Prompt application in a Windows operating system is an example of the provision of a command line interface.
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE In computing, a graphical user interface (GUI, sometimes pronounced gooey) is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices with images rather than text commands. GUIs can be used in computers, hand-held devices such as MP3 players, portable media players or gaming devices, household appliances and office equipment . A GUI represents the information and actions available to a user through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation. The actions are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements
UNIX:-Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes alsowritten as UNIX) is a multitasking, multi-usercomputer operating system originally developed in1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs,including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie The Unixoperating system was first developed in assemblylanguage, but by 1973 had been almost entirely recodedin C, greatly facilitating its further development andporting to other hardware.
MS-DOS:-MS-DOS ( short for Microsoft Disk OperatingSystem) is an operating system for personalcomputers. It was the most commonly usedmember of the DOS family of operatingsystems, and was the main operating systemfor IBM PC compatible personal computersduring the 1980s to the mid 1990s, until it wasgradually superseded by operating systemsoffering a graphical user interface (GUI), inparticular by various generations of theMicrosoft Windows operating system.
WINDOWS:-Microsoft Windows is a series of operatingsystems produced by Microsoft.Microsoft introduced an operating environmentnamed Windows on November 20, 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interestin graphical user interfaces (GUIs). MicrosoftWindows came to dominate the worlds personalcomputer market, overtaking Mac OS, which hadbeen introduced in 1984.FOLLOWING ARE THE VERSIONS OF WINDOWS1.WINDOWS XP2.WINDOWS VISTA3.WINDOWS 7
LINUX:-Linux (often pronounced LIH-nuhks with a short "i") is aUnix-like operatingsystem that was designed to providepersonal computer users a free or very low-cost operatingsystem comparable to traditional and usually moreexpensive Unix systems. Linux has a reputation as a veryefficient and fast-performing system. Linux‘ kernel (thecentral part of the operating system) was developed byLinus Torvalds at the University of Helsinki in Finland. Tocomplete the operating system, Torvald and other teammembers made use of system components developed bymembers of the Free Software Foundation for the GNUProject.Linux is a remarkably complete operating system, includinga graphical user interface