The Three Committments


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Macheo Payne successfully defended his dissertation on Monday December 3, 2012. This is a short presentation given at the defense.

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  • Contact Macheo Payne at 510-846-5402
  • Contact Macheo Payne at 510-846-5402
  • The Three Committments

    1. 1. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 The Three Commitments: Critical Race Theory and Disproportionate Suspension of Black Males Macheo Payne Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    2. 2. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Overview of Presentation  Purpose and Intent  Statement of Problem  Theoretical Frame: CRT In Education  Review of Literature: Key Themes  Research Questions  Research Design  Findings: The Three CommitmentsMacheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    3. 3. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Purpose & Intent of Study The purpose of this study is to explain the contributing factors to disproportionately high suspension rates of black males in schools by examining classroom teachers with effective, low-referring discipline practices.  The intent of this study is to identify key elements of effective discipline practices in the classroom that significantly reduce out of class referrals of black male students, mitigating disproportionate suspension of black male students.Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    4. 4. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Statement of the Problem Black male students are suspended from school at a rate 2 to 3 times more than White male students nationwide (UCLA Civil Rights Project, 2010). Black males who have been suspended at least once, are 10 times more likely than white students to be incarcerated. School-to-prison pipeline (Noguera, 2003; CDF, 2008, Nicholson-Crotty, 2009) . Black males earn college degrees at half the rate of white males. Black males have twice the unemployment rate, 10 times the incarceration rate, and 16 times the murder rate of White males (Kaiser, 2006).Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    5. 5. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Statement of the Problem The discipline gap is linked to low academic achievement, low graduation rates, high dropout/pushout rates and the school-to-prison pipeline (Noguera, 2003; CDF, 2008). This trend has existed for 35 years and is getting worse (Skiba, Michael, Nardo & Peterson, 2002). Thisis a race-based issue, an equity issue, and a civil rights issue (UCLA Civil Rights Project, 2010). This suspension disparity begins with teacher out-of-class referrals (Furgeson, 2010).Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    6. 6. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Statement of the Problem Current intervention policies are race-neutral and aimed at student behavior when they should be race-based and aimed at the institution. (Payne, 2010). Positive Behavior Supports is the #1 intervention offered up and at best, studies have shown that PBIS reduces overall suspensions but disparities by race remain.Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    7. 7. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Statement of the ProblemMacheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    8. 8. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Critical Race Theory in Education Racism is normal (commonplace) and still ever present in American schools. By default, the laws, policies, and practices continue to benefit and privilege “whiteness” (white students) and put non-whites at a disadvantage. With roots in critical theory, legal studies, feminist studies, CRT looks beyond the symptoms of this broken system and points to the very roots of injustice: systemic injustice based on white supremacy.Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    9. 9. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Critical Race Theory in Education KEY TENETS TO CRT Centrality of Whiteness-White ideology, values, and interests are at the center of all aspects of dominant culture & policy (Soloronzano, 1997) The Challenge to Dominant Ideology-Countering the claims that the legal system of justice and public education is colorblind, race-neutral and provides equal opportunity (Brown v. Board, Affirmative Action, etc.) (Soloronzano, 1997)Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    10. 10. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Review of Literature: “The Three D’s” RESEARCH REVIEW (primary reasons given for suspension) Disruption-Interrupt teaching or learning for one or more students. This can merely be an off task student or a student access learning outside of prescribed avenues (asking academic questions out of turn). Defiance- Violating teacher direction or expectation. This can be a student moving too slow, daydreaming or being nonresponsive. Disrespect-Directly challenging teacher or any offensive language or behavior. This is often a student asking a question about pedagogy or teaching method, using humor. Skiba, R., Michael, R., Nardo, A., Peterson, R. (2002). Gregory, A., Skiba, R., Noguera, P. (2010).Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    11. 11. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Review of Literature: Key Themes RESEARCH REVIEW (primary lenses) Teacher Bias-Hidden stereotypes compel adults to have different expectations and treat black students differently Institutional Bias- Inequality is reproduced regardless of individuals in the institution or assumed institutional intolerance of racism Cultural Mismatch-Black students culture is pathologized and viewed as incompatible with the educational setting (Skiba 2002, Noguera 2010 and Monroe 2005)Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    12. 12. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Research Questions 1. What are the features of discipline strategies and practices that mitigate disruption and office discipline referrals among black male students? 2. Are there beliefs and assumptions (personal values) that effective teachers have about their students and their behavior that challenges race neutrality or the colorblind myth? a. How do those beliefs support effective discipline strategies & practices?Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    13. 13. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Research Design  METHODOLOGY- Multiple Case Study of 2 teachers  SELECTION: Principal nomination of effective low referring teachers  DATA COLLECTION: Observe classroom discipline practices, follow up interviews of teachers  ANALYSIS: Identify effective practices for minimizing out of class referrals  ANALYSIS: Identify underlying values and beliefs that inform effective practices  REPRESENTATION: Case representation of common themesMacheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    14. 14. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Findings: The Three Commitments The Three Commitments Critical Race framing of teacher practice that keeps black males in the classroom. Effective Element Description of Element Key Features Courageous Commitment Teachers taking extraordinary • Learning focused discipline (addresses institutional bias) steps to ensure students stay in • Multiple avenues to access class and learn. learning Emotional Commitment Utilizing a wide array of tools to • Socio-emotional attunement (addresses cultural mismatch) manage their own emotions. • Relationship building • Emotionally struggle with practice Commitment to Social Justice Addressing institutional racism • Beliefs informing practice (addresses teacher bias and toward black males at the • Personal regard for students institutional bias) classroom level, based on & teaching teacher beliefs & experiences. • Social justice chargeMacheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    15. 15. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Findings: Courageous Commitment The Courageous Commitment “If they fail, I failed.” Teacher taking extrordinary steps to keep students in class and learning (expansive view). Key Features Ineffective Practices • Learning Focused • Compliance focused: Following rules & teacher direction creates power struggles where learning gets lost. • Multiple avenues to access learning • ‘Out the door’ practices: Discipline that relies heavily on threats and ‘cumulative intolerance’ of ‘frequent flyers’ • Student centered discipline policies • ‘Set Up To Fail’ discipline policy: Rigid, one- way discipline policies that set students up to fail.Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    16. 16. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Findings: Courageous Commitment Background beliefs that support this level of courage: “I view them as the product of whatever I am teaching them so I want them to learn as much as they can in my class because I feel like thats a reflection about me as a teacher.”Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    17. 17. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Findings: Emotional Commitment The Emotional Commitment “I’m not mad, I’m the adult.” Teachers utilizing a wide array of tools to manage their own emotions. Key Features Ineffective Practices • Socio-emotional attunement • Emotionally tone deaf: Teacher misreads or is unresponsive to student emotional cues. • Relationship building • Doing the minimum to get to know students personally • Emotionally struggle with practice • Blame outside factors: Teacher points to external factors outside of their control as a determinant for classroom challenges and student failure in their class.Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    18. 18. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Findings: Emotional Commitment “I’m not mad, I’m the adult.” “So my students are really angry, upset and don’t know how to articulate it so in my head theoretically what I do is I try and help them articulate why they are angry and use that anger and divert it into action. And I think that there are so many reasons, rightful, just reasons why they are angry that if I could learn how to take that anger and help them articulate why they are angry and then give them a little bit of understanding of the social, cultural, political, context of this country, that anger could be used to fuel (the student) kicking ass and getting an A.”Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    19. 19. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Findings: Commitment to Social Justice Commitment to Social Justice Responding to institutional racism toward black males at the classroom level, based on teacher beliefs & experiences. Key Features Addressing CRT & Literature • Beliefs informing practice • Addresses Teacher Bias: Teacher rejects colorblind myth Teacher can relate to institutional racism and accepts the reality of race-based inequity for black through reflection of personal experience males in education. • Personal regard • Addresses Cultural Mismatch: Teacher loves and Expressed love for students and teaching appreciates the cultural and racial identity of students as important and is personally committed to making the educational setting culturally compatible to them. • Social justice charge • Addresses Institutional Racism: Teacher educates for a Deliberate attempt to address institutional higher purpose of supporting black male students to racism and inequity. overcome institutional racismMacheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    20. 20. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Findings: Commitment to Social Justice Teaching for a Purpose “I love my students.” Both teachers expressed & demonstrated a love and empathy for their students. “I choose to teach in (black schools).” Both teachers chose to teach in high poverty schools for personal and political reasons. “I address inequality by providing access to black male student to learning and achievement.” Both teachers integrated social justice in their academic approach.Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    21. 21. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Theoretical TensionAlthough Critical Race Theory locates the root of the problem on a systemic and institutional level, due to researcher limitations in scope, this intervention examines the classroom level.It is possible that this study’s findings (the Three Commitments) can potentially be applied not only at the classroom level but at the institutional and systemic level (Santa Monica Board member), however this research does not discover those applications and further studies would need to be conducted to explore those applications.Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402
    22. 22. Macheo Payne Ed.D., 510-846-5402 Directions for Further Research & PracticeContinue work with OUSD AAMA integrating the 3 C’s at the institutional, school and classroom levelPresent the 3 C’s to other districts in California (Santa Monica, San Diego, Castro Valley, San Leandro, etc.) working with School Boards & district leaders.Revise findings and application into a manual and workbook for training and compliment system to existing efforts (PBS, RJ, RTI, etc.)Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW. 510-846-5402