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Proteins
Essential Amino Acids <ul><li>Histidine </li></ul><ul><li>Isoleucine* </li></ul><ul><li>Leucine* </li></ul><ul><li>Lysine ...
Dietary Protein <ul><li>.36 gm X wt. In pounds </li></ul><ul><li>.8 X wt. In kg. </li></ul>
Athletes and Protein Strength Activities <ul><li>Appears that intake exceeding 1.35 gm/kg.wt had no additional benefit </l...
Endurance-Type Athletes <ul><li>Current recommendations range from .97-1.6 gm/kg. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse performance po...
Calculation <ul><li>1 lb. Muscle weighs 454 grams </li></ul><ul><li>70% is water </li></ul><ul><li>7% lipids </li></ul><ul...
Briefly <ul><li>12% of total dietary intake= 1.5-1.7 gms /kg </li></ul><ul><li>15% of total dietary intake= 1.9-2.1gms/kg ...
Protein Intake <ul><li>Animal products contain all essential amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>average intake for essentia...
Protein Function <ul><li>Formation of all body tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Energy ...
What Do Amino Acids Do? <ul><li>Form specific proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>structural proteins: muscle tissue </li></ul>...
<ul><li>By-product of AA breakdown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogen and alpha-ketoacid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogen t...
High Protein Low Carb Diets <ul><li>Generally: low in fiber and high in fat </li></ul><ul><li>Not advised for persons with...
<ul><li>Increased ketones raise acidity levels in body fluids - acidosis/ketosis </li></ul>
Possible Hazards <ul><li>Elevated serum uric acid levels </li></ul><ul><li>Altered electrolytes: can effect cardiac rhythm...
Do People Loose Weight? <ul><li>Absolutely </li></ul><ul><li>Most gain back once they go off the diet </li></ul><ul><li>No...
Ergogenic <ul><li>Supplements: easy and convenient for getting extra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific AA’s -  </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Most research does not support the use of individual AA’s to enhance performance or delay fatigue </li></ul>
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Protein

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Protein

  1. 1. Proteins
  2. 2. Essential Amino Acids <ul><li>Histidine </li></ul><ul><li>Isoleucine* </li></ul><ul><li>Leucine* </li></ul><ul><li>Lysine </li></ul><ul><li>Methionine </li></ul><ul><li>Phenylalanine </li></ul><ul><li>Threonine </li></ul><ul><li>Tryptophan </li></ul><ul><li>Valine* </li></ul>
  3. 3. Dietary Protein <ul><li>.36 gm X wt. In pounds </li></ul><ul><li>.8 X wt. In kg. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Athletes and Protein Strength Activities <ul><li>Appears that intake exceeding 1.35 gm/kg.wt had no additional benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Need for better designed and controlled studies </li></ul>
  5. 5. Endurance-Type Athletes <ul><li>Current recommendations range from .97-1.6 gm/kg. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse performance possible on 20% intake </li></ul>
  6. 6. Calculation <ul><li>1 lb. Muscle weighs 454 grams </li></ul><ul><li>70% is water </li></ul><ul><li>7% lipids </li></ul><ul><li>22% protein (100gms.) </li></ul><ul><li>gm. required + gm. for gain + gm. Loss = daily need </li></ul>
  7. 7. Briefly <ul><li>12% of total dietary intake= 1.5-1.7 gms /kg </li></ul><ul><li>15% of total dietary intake= 1.9-2.1gms/kg </li></ul>
  8. 8. Protein Intake <ul><li>Animal products contain all essential amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>average intake for essentials: 45 gms. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant products: incomplete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>average intake about 65 gms to meet nutritional needs </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Protein Function <ul><li>Formation of all body tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Energy source </li></ul>
  10. 10. What Do Amino Acids Do? <ul><li>Form specific proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>structural proteins: muscle tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>functional proteins: enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AA’s to non-protein nitrogen: creatine </li></ul><ul><li>Excess AA’s cannot be stored </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>By-product of AA breakdown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogen and alpha-ketoacid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogen to ammonia to urea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alpha-ketoacid (ketogenic AA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recombine with other AA groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>liver metabolism to acetyl C o A and into the Krebs Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. High Protein Low Carb Diets <ul><li>Generally: low in fiber and high in fat </li></ul><ul><li>Not advised for persons with liver or kidney problems </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of carbs contributes to incomplete fat metabolism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>production of acetoacetate and hydroxybutyrate (ketones) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Increased ketones raise acidity levels in body fluids - acidosis/ketosis </li></ul>
  14. 14. Possible Hazards <ul><li>Elevated serum uric acid levels </li></ul><ul><li>Altered electrolytes: can effect cardiac rhythms </li></ul><ul><li>Aggravate kidney problems </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate blood lipids </li></ul><ul><li>deplete glycogen stores </li></ul><ul><li>dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>loss of lean tissue </li></ul>
  15. 15. Do People Loose Weight? <ul><li>Absolutely </li></ul><ul><li>Most gain back once they go off the diet </li></ul><ul><li>Not safe for everyone: good for those who need to correct due to carb metabolism (hypoglycemia) </li></ul><ul><li>Needs monitored and supplemented </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ergogenic <ul><li>Supplements: easy and convenient for getting extra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific AA’s - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argenine, Lysine, Ornithine: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>infused increases HGH to growth factor -1 (oral questionable results) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most research does not support this theory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Most research does not support the use of individual AA’s to enhance performance or delay fatigue </li></ul>

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