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Presentation by Lynn Silipigni Connaway - June 2009, Glasgow University Library: "The library is a good source if you have several months": making the library more accessible

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  • Academic Libraries vying for information seekers’ attention in today’s increasingly crowded digital environment To remain viable, today’s librarians must re-engineer to accommodate users’ workflows and habits.
  • Focus Group Interviews, 2005 5 academic institutions 44 colleges and universities 100 mile radius from Columbus, Ohio Total of 8 focus group interviews 31 faculty 19 graduate students 28 undergraduate students Semi-structured dialogue, 2005 15 participants 6 faculty 4 graduate students 5 undergraduate students Situations Academic Recall how you go about writing your most recent assignment or research. What sources did you consult How did you decide on using them Where did you locate them? Personal Show us one of your favorite websites, one you use frequently. VRS 8 Focus Group Interviews, 2007 2 with VRS librarians 4 with VRS non-users Screenagers Rural Suburban Urban College students Graduate 2 with VRS users College students Graduate Undergraduate Adults
  • Undergraduate Students Human resources Dad Parents Professors Google Online Encyclopedia JSTOR Academic databases Lexis Nexis Personal library
  • Graduate Students: Internet/Web and Google Quick Easy Personal library Library Databases EBSCO Lexis-Nexis Online journals and abstracts Human resources Friends Advisors Professors Dad Peers Other experts Bookstores Faculty: Human resources Experts in academic community Colleagues Subscribed services and electronic databases (Prefer to Google for credibility) PsychInfo Google for personal information
  • If you had a magic wand, what would your ideal information systems and services provide? How would you go about using the information systems and services? When? Where? How? PROBES: Try to find out if it is the library systems, inconvenience of going to the library, etc. Ask: What changes would you make to the current library environment to make it better meets your needs?
  • In FGI asked, “What would be your ideal information system and services?” High School senior in Dallas wrote an editorial in the Dallas Morning News about her school library. Part of what I was saying in the article was that people still go to Starbucks and people still go to Barnes & Noble, and if we want to make school libraries more relevant, then maybe we should make them more like those places. And most of the concern that I got was, “Oh my goodness, how can we let students bring food into the library? That would be ridiculous. I would have to clean all the time.” I heard that she [librarian] was really upset by it. So I went into her office and talked to her about it for a long time. And she invited me to go with her to a selection process for books. Even though they let a few kids pick out books that they like, I felt like they should have a request list so that kids aren’t going out and buying books themselves. And then we can put up a list that says, “Look what’s in the library this week.” I really wish we could have a coffee shop atmosphere, but I realize that seems impossible to them right now. And I’d like to see a display case outside the library that tells what new books we have, or a request list where students can write what books they’d like to see in the library. Also, we have a lot of blocks on our computers, so we can’t get to MySpace or our Yahoo! email accounts any more. (Whelan, 2007) PROBES: Try to find out if it is the library systems, inconvenience of going to the library, etc. Ask: What changes would you make to the current library environment to make it better meets your needs?
  • The characteristics of the demographic groups are generalizations and there always are exceptions. Our research and others support the characterizations of the demographic groups (see resources at end of the presentation). Generation X – 1965-1982
  • Perceptions of Libraries and Information Resources , OCLC Dublin: OH, 2005.
  • 28 Undergraduate Students Participated in SM Focus Group Interviews “… the thing about Google is that I generally find the little somethings under the search results and relevance to anything to actually be fairly good… You know, if I use the library catalog, it will give me a list of a thousand things, but there is really no ranking that I can understand.” “ I had the Google tool bar, tool bar on my browser. I don’t even have to go to a search engine anymore. I mean it is literally one tab down…” Expert web sites “ Um, like I find something on Google and there’s enough information on it and it seems logical, I’ll just go with it.” (Non-user focus group – Denton, MD) (High School) “ Yeah. I might go to like Yahoo or something else.” (Non-user focus group – Denton, MD) (High School) Online book sellers “ Like cause I have a lot of series on different types of books and I always go to Barnes and for me to check when the new book is going to come out in the series.” (Non-user focus group – Elizabeth, NJ) (High School) More than 50% 13-24 year olds get health and wellness information from the internet, i.e.,,, message boards and blogs, Google, Yahoo. (“Youth Health and Wellness: Core Issues and views on existing resources,”
  • Human Resources Colleagues/Friends “ Oh and also like, also like she said, your friends might have already done the project. Especially if your friend’s in the class and they’re like a bit smarter than you, you can just be like ‘Oh hey?’” (Non-user focus group – Elizabeth, NJ) (High School) Family “ Family maybe.” (NTI-15) (Age: 15-18) “ I would try to see if it works but if it doesn’t work, then I would just like stay with my family and ask them the questions.” (Non-user focus group – Denton, MD) (High School) Teachers/Professors “ If it’s like math and science, I go to the teacher. No exception.” (Non-user focus group – Springfield, PA) (High School) In telephone interviews, non-users of VRS were asked hypothetically to compare the experience of chatting with friends and family, as opposed to chatting with a librarian. A number of them thought that the experience with a librarian would be at least more “formal,” if not more difficult. Total non-users: 107 Millennials= 19% say more formal More Formal: Millennial: Screenager (Age - 12-18): 5 Millennial: Age 19-28: 15 Age 29-35: 1
  • Convenience: “ Yes, I would recommend chat reference services to someone else because it is more convenient than other references. It is available 24/7 unlike the library.” (UOS-91507) (Age: 12-14) “ I would use the online references in the future because they seem convenient.” (NOS-76406) (Age: 12-14) What specific features are important to you about the experience of working with a librarian in person/ by telephone/ by electronic formats? The library/telephone/electronic formats are convenient 91% rated very important or important in choosing FtF, 81% for choosing electronic formats, 73% for choosing telephone. Sub-categories: I can use electronic formats while working from home (90% very important or important), I can use electronic formats at night or on weekends (81% very important or important). In our research several of the students asking questions via VRS were in the library but unwilling or nervous about asking or “bothering” the librarians
  • Preference for Independent Information Seeking: “ Try research on my own first. And if I get really stuck and I can’t find anything, ask for help if I have to.” (Non-user focus group – Springfield, PA) (High School) “ I wouldn’t really trust my librarian. I trust Google.” (Non-user focus group – Denton, MD) (High School) “ Especially if it’s something like you’re doing a paper in class and you already know the subject pretty well and all you’re looking for are sources to validate what you, you’re putting like your argument on paper. You validate your argument. I really don’t double check it. I’m like well ‘this is what I’m trying to say. This is the source I’m going to use.’ But if it’s like a research paper, I’ll double check my sources a couple of times just to make sure it’s the right information.” (Non-user focus group – Denton, MD) (High School) No Librarian Necessary “ A librarian’s trying to do like 15 of those conversations at once they’re going to mix up replies, mix up the …what and it it, I just don’t think it’d be a very applicable…” (Non-user focus group – Denton, MD) (High School) Privacy “ I’m not going to go get tutored on the Internet by somebody who I personally don’t know who might be some psycho serial killer out there when I could get personal help from my home and people in my community.” (Non-user focus group – Denton, MD) (High School) “ I don’t usually like to talk to like people I don’t know on the Internet.” (Non-user focus group – Elizabeth, NJ) (High School) Fear of appearing stupid, or being negatively evaluated by the librarian. “ With a librarian, I much rather would see the facial expression with the librarian. I don’t know them that much. Like to see if they think I have asked a stupid question or something.” (NTI-57) (Age: 12-14) “ I like going to people I know.” (Non-user focus group – Denton, MD) (High School)
  • Did not know services available: Hours: “So basically when you need homework with help, you don’t really think about asking your librarian because sometimes it’s late, it’s too late, it’s 12 o’clock at night; the library’s not open.” (Non-user focus group – Denton, MD) (High School) Which of the following have been reasons why have you not used chat reference services (VRS) Not knowing that the service was available (60% strongly agree or agree, 57% do not even know what chat reference is); 28 Undergraduate Students participated in SM focus group interviews “…you need to know which database with abstracting, indexing… Google, I don't have to know, I go to one spot.” “…first thing I do, is, I go to Google… I don't go into the [library] system unless I have to because there's like 15 logins, you have to get into the research databases. Then it takes you out of that to [the local consortium]…” Librarian stereotypes “Because, I mean, once they do their famous point, it’s just like… you don’t want to go near them again” (Non-user focus group – Elizabeth, NJ) (High School)
  • “ I had to look up the books myself and the only way librarians were available was to point me in the directions of the vast amounts of confusing racks of books.” (NOS-84775) (Age: 15-18) “ There is usually a collective groan when the teacher says you have to use at least one book source; you can smell the human despair.” (NTI-137) (Age: 15-18)
  • Needs of both FtF reference users and virtual reference users include: extended hours of service access to electronic information Regardless of the preference for FtF reference or VR library users prefer to interface with friendly librarians and to develop relationships with them
  • Boomers (Gillon, 2004; OCLC Perceptions, 2005; IMLS Sense Making, 2005) Value authoritative information Involved in information-seeking Value library as place Use technology as tool Personalized service Millennials (OCLC College Student Perceptions, 2005) Information is information Media formats don’t matter Visual learners Process immediately Different research skills
  • Easy search functionality Integrated library search for all sources Social networking software Recommender service Reviews Click-through to online sources Point of need reference services Instant messaging reference services Customizable library portals
  • this site wants authentication to do a search in the search box. However, if you click on zoology, you can retrieve the information on the next slide.
  • You have to have a password authentication so clicked on Nature Serve Explorer.
  • Searched the name of the fish, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, in Google images.
  • The circle demonstrates that the search term (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was linked from the NatureScience Explorer site.
  • Inconsistencies in Google Book Search – reference to the Saint Augustine, not the geographic location of Saint Augustine. Could use library metadata in our systems to perfect such linking. Page 148 ... the understanding of those miserable wretches be fixed continually on the sins of which they were guilty and moreover, as Saint Augustine points out, ... Page 278 Saint Augustine says that about unbaptised children going to hell — Temple answered — because he was a cruel old sinner too. — — I bow to you — Dixon said ...
  • Screenshot of cover from Google Preview
  • Sorry, won’t highlight
  • Open University Library Catalogue
  • Open University Library Catalogue
  • Released April 2007 30+ million article citations, deduped across the 4 databases, to be added to the index. All citations will receive an OCLC # as its identifier. Citations are NOT being added to WorldCat proper.
  • We do NOT have an example of linking to full text outside of the OCLC platform. Will do so through OpenURL resolver as configured in the FirstSearch admin. We are looking to offer the OpenURL links to remote users. Future enhancement to make full text collections more accessible. Corporate Marketing IS putting together a Tip Sheet that will be distributed to RSPs (Doug will confirm date for release).
  • Dramatically simplified registration: only requires username, password & email address Ability to create customized profiles, including: Name Address Occupation Photo Website Links to other social sites e.g. MySpace or Flickr accounts Links to personal lists List interests – linked to other people with similar interests
  • Summary page of lists, both your personal lists and other people’s lists that you want to keep
  • Sample list of your favorite books. Some features: Format the view (compact, covers only, etc.) Sort the list (by date, author, title, pub date, etc.) Add notes or comments
  • Branding Replaces “Find in a Library” with local branding in the header Ranking algorithm adds weight for institution holdings and holdings of one or more groups profiled in WorldCat Inherits all functionality (facets, sort, multilingual interfaces etc.) Also notice that there is an entry for an article citation in the result set. Part of the platform service that is inherited in WorldCat Local.
  • Item availability – real time Sending a query to the Summit union catalog and returning results to the end user, showing UW results at the top of the item availability section, followed alphabetically by all other Summit libraries that own the item. Request item In this case, all requests for returnables that are held by UW or another Summit library are sent to Summit for processing.
  • Item availability – real time Sending a query to the Summit union catalog and returning results to the end user, showing UW results at the top of the item availability section, followed alphabetically by all other Summit libraries that own the item. Request item In this case, all requests for returnables that are held by UW or another Summit library are sent to Summit for processing.
  • The user is taken to the request item page in Summit Bibliographic citation passed through to Summit, so user only has to authenticate to complete the transaction. Where they are prompted, as they are accustomed to, for their affiliation. Then their username, netID, and pickup location. A hold will be placed against the UW circ system, if they hold the item and it is available. Otherwise, if the item is held by a Summit library and at least one copy is available, Summit will process a direct consortial borrowing request.
  • Item availability – real time Sending a query to the Summit union catalog and returning results to the end user, showing UW results at the top of the item availability section, followed alphabetically by all other Summit libraries that own the item. Request item In this case, all requests for returnables that are held by UW or another Summit library are sent to Summit for processing.
  • “ Excellent library service begins with understanding the community and positioning the library to be wehre users are when library services and information resources are needed. This implies a willingness to meet the community on hteir terms and to close service gaps that might exits. Undergraduate research presents additional opportunities to accomplish this in academic communities.” Stamatoplos, Anthony. 2009. The role of academic libraries in mentored undergraduate research: A Model of engagement in the academic community.” College & Research Libraries, 70: 3, p. 235-249 Quotation on p. 246.
  • Expectations not isolated Lead the way
  • LSC Glasgow 061609

    1. 2. “ The Library is a good source if you have several months.” Making the Library More Accessible Presented by Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist OCLC Research
    2. 3. Libraries Today <ul><li>Vying for information seekers’ attention </li></ul><ul><li>Must re-engineer to accommodate users’ workflows and habits </li></ul>
    3. 4. Why Not Libraries? <ul><li>Get into the flow </li></ul><ul><li>Disclose into other environments </li></ul>Then : The user built workflow around the library Now : The library must build its services around user workflow
    4. 5. Why Not Libraries? <ul><li>Competition for attention </li></ul>Then : Resources scarce, attention abundant Now : Attention scarce, resources abundant
    5. 6. Data Collection <ul><li>Focus group interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-structured dialogue </li></ul>
    6. 7. Did Not Use the Library <ul><li>“ The library is a good source if you have several months.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hard to find things in library catalog.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Tried [physical] library but had to revert to online library resources.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Yeah, I don't step in the library anymore… better to read a 25-page article from JSTOR than 250-page book.” </li></ul>
    7. 8. Did Not Use the Library <ul><li>“ Google is my first place to find something quickly.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ [Google] is user friendly… library catalog is not.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I stay away from the library and the library’s online catalog.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sometimes content can be sacrificed for format.” </li></ul>
    8. 9. Did Not Use the Library <ul><li>“ Lessen the intimidation factor” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Better signage and other pathfinders” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Also I just go ask my dad, and he'll tell me how to put in a fence, you know? So why sort through all this material when he'll just tell me” </li></ul>
    9. 10. Ideal Information Systems & Services <ul><li>“ Make the library like a coffee house.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bookstore environment” </li></ul><ul><li>“ More staff, roaming personnel” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Book delivery from library through campus mail” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Drive-up pickup or drop off delivery service since parking is a problem.” </li></ul>
    10. 11. Ideal Information Systems & Services <ul><li>“ Make library catalogs more like search engines...” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Make a universal library card that would work in all libraries.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Space in the library to interact and collaborate - group study areas and areas to spread stuff out.” </li></ul>
    11. 12. Libraries <ul><li>Provide systems and services to meet the information needs of differing groups </li></ul>
    12. 13. Their Information Perspectives <ul><li>Information is information </li></ul><ul><li>Media formats don’t matter </li></ul><ul><li>Visual learners </li></ul><ul><li>Process immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Different research skills </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-task </li></ul>
    13. 14. How They Meet Information Needs <ul><li>The Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal libraries </li></ul>
    14. 15. How They Meet Information Needs <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers/Professors </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. What Attracts Them to Resources <ul><li>Convenience, convenience, convenience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Available 24/7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working from home </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At night or on weekends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. What Attracts Them to Resources <ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefer to do own search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No librarian necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul>
    17. 18. Why They Do Not Use Libraries <ul><ul><li>Do not know… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Service availability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Librarian can help </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24/7 availability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfied with other information sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimidated by library and librarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too difficult to use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Takes too long </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotypes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Why They DO Use Libraries <ul><li>Databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EBSCO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lexis-Nexis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JSTOR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online journals and abstracts </li></ul><ul><li>BUT … </li></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>Do not know these resources are provided by the library </li></ul>
    20. 21. What We Learned <ul><li>The image of libraries is… </li></ul><ul><li>BOOKS </li></ul><ul><li>People do not think of the library as an important source of electronic information! </li></ul>
    21. 22. What We Learned <ul><li>Books aren’t convenient to retrieve from the library </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries are QUIET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For studying </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. What We Learned <ul><li>Libraries are trusted sources of information </li></ul><ul><li>Search engines are trusted about the same </li></ul><ul><li>Lack patience to wade through content silos and indexing and abstracting databases </li></ul><ul><li>Like convenience and speed </li></ul><ul><li>Do not view paid information as more accurate than free information </li></ul>
    23. 24. What We Learned <ul><li>They want </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended hours of service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to electronic information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction with friendly librarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships with librarians </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. What We Learned <ul><li>Communication critically important! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generational differences add to complexity! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need user education for more realistic expectations </li></ul>
    25. 26. What We Learned Multiple Demands on the Library Traditional Library Environment Baby Boomer Preferences Millennial Preferences Logical, linear learning Logical, linear learning Multi-tasking Largely text based Largely text based Visual, audio, multi-media Learn from the expert Learn from the expert Figure it out for myself Requires Patience Want it now Want it now Metasearch Full text Full text Complexity Simplicity Simplicity
    26. 27. Yes, libraries! A library experience like the experience available on the web
    27. 78. Article Citations
    28. 83. University of Washington on
    29. 84. Holdings: Local, Group, Global Univ Washington collections Summit collections WorldCat
    30. 85. Detailed Record – Item Held by UW
    31. 86. Detailed Record – Request Item
    32. 87. Request Handled Locally
    33. 88. Item Not Held by UW
    34. 89. Item Not Held by UW or Summit
    35. 90. Article Citations
    36. 91. Article Citations
    37. 92. What We Can Do <ul><li>Encourage library use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote full range of options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build positive relationships whether FtF, phone, or online </li></ul></ul>
    38. 93. What We Can Do <ul><li>Provide users what they want, when and how they want it, and the means to uncover what they want when they aren’t sure what exactly that may be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good search and discovery tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommender Services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reviews </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Networking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IM </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text Messaging </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better meta-discovery tools than currently offered by federated technology </li></ul></ul>
    39. 94. What We Can Do <ul><li>“ Make library catalogs more like search engines...” </li></ul>
    40. 95. Additional Resources <ul><li>Connaway, L. S. (2007). Mountains, valleys, and pathways: Serials users’ needs and steps to meet them. Part I: Identifying serials users needs: Preliminary analysis of focus group and semi-structured interviews at colleges and universities. Serials Librarian, 52(1/2), 223-236. </li></ul><ul><li>Connaway, L. S. (2008). Make room for the millennials. NextSpace, 10, 18-19. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Connaway, L. S., Radford, M. L., Dickey, T. J., Williams, J. A., & Confer, C. (2008). Sense-making and synchronicity: Information-seeking behaviors of millennials and baby boomers. Libri, 58(2), 123-135. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Dervin, B., Connaway, L. S., & Prabha, C. (n.d.). Sense-making the information confluence: The whys and hows of college and university user satisficing of information needs. Retrieved from http:// </li></ul><ul><li>Foster, N. F., & Gibbons, S. (2007). Studying students: The undergraduate research project at the University of Rochester. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries. </li></ul>
    41. 96. Additional Resources <ul><li>Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (2000). Millennials rising: The next great generation. New York: Random House. </li></ul><ul><li>, Ypulse, & YouthNoise. (2008). Youth health and wellness: Core issues and views on existing resources. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Lippincott, J. (2005). Net generation students and libraries. In D. G. Oblinger & J. L. Oblinger (Eds.) Educating the net generation (13.1-13.15). Boulder, CO: Educause. </li></ul><ul><li>OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. (2005). Perceptions of libraries and information resources. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. (2006). College students’ perceptions of libraries and information resources. Retrieved from http:// </li></ul>
    42. 97. Additional Resources <ul><li>Prabha, C., Connaway, L. S., Olszewski, L., & Jenkins, L. (2007). What is enough? Satisficing information needs. Journal of Documentation, 63(1), 74-89. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Radford, M. L., & Connaway, L. S. (2007). “Screenagers” and live chat reference: Living up to the promise. Scan, 26(6), 31-39. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Rowlands, I., Nicholas, D., Williams, P., Huntington, P., Fieldhouse, M., Gunter, B., et al. (2008). The Google generation: The information behaviour of the researcher of the future. ASLIB Proceedings , 60(4), 290-310. Available from </li></ul><ul><li>Rushkoff, D. (1996). Playing the future: How kids’ culture can teach us to thrive in an age of chaos. New York: HaperCollins. </li></ul>
    43. 98. Additional Resources <ul><li>Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, & OCLC Online Computer Library Center. (2008, June 28). Seeking synchronicity: Evaluating virtual reference service from user, non-user, and librarian perspectives. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Sweeney, R. (2006). Millennial behaviors & demographics. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Tapscott, D. (n.d.). The rise of the Net Generation: Growing up digital . Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas, C., & McDonald, R. (2005). Millennial net value(s): Disconnects between libraries and the information age mindset . Florida State University D- Scholarship Repository, 4. Retrieved from </li></ul>
    44. 99. End Notes <ul><li>This presentation is one of the outcomes from the project “Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User, & Librarian Perspectives ,” Marie L. Radford & Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Co-Principal Investigators. Funded by IMLS, Rutgers University and OCLC, Online Computer Library Center, Inc. P roject website: http:// /research/projects/synchronicity/ </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation is one of the outcomes from the project “Sense-Making the Information Confluence: The Whys and Hows of College and University User Satisficing of Information Needs .&quot; Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services, Ohio State University, and OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., the project is being implemented by Brenda Dervin (Professor of Communication and Joan N. Huber Fellow of Social & Behavioral Science, Ohio State University) as Principal Investigator; and Lynn Silipigni Connaway (OCLC Consulting Research Scientist III) and Chandra Prahba (OCLC Senior Research Scientist), as Co-Investigators. More information can be obtained at: / </li></ul>
    45. 100. Questions & Comments Lynn Silipigni Connaway [email_address]