Core 2 Factors Affecting Performance
How does training affect performance?  <ul><li>The body works off many systems, The body recognises the system it needs fo...
Energy Systems <ul><li>Movement requires energy- a car requires petrol and that petrol needs to be ignited. </li></ul><ul>...
ENERGY SYSTEMS <ul><li>All foods have different amounts of energy. Carbohydrates and protein supply around 16 -17 (kj) per...
ENERGY SYSTEMS <ul><li>The body’s fuels (chemical energy) is converted to (ATP) before being used and is stored in small a...
Energy Systems <ul><li>ATP can be likened to a spark plug. ATP is the catalyst for the release of energy and it also fuels...
Energy Systems <ul><li>ATP production = 1 large molecule and three phosphate molecules </li></ul><ul><li>When the last P i...
Energy Systems <ul><li>After the third P is broken then there is only two P molecules left. In this state no energy can be...
Energy Systems <ul><li>The body has three systems that rebuild that broken ATP molecule.  </li></ul><ul><li>It switches be...
Energy Systems <ul><li>Alactacid acid system (ATP/PC) : FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>There is only a very small amount of  A...
Alactacid System ATP BREAKS = ADP Creatine comes  along 2 secs energy P P P Creatine breaks apart leaving lots of P’s The ...
Alactacid System <ul><li>SOURCE: </li></ul><ul><li>We keep about the same weight as a large egg in ATP in our body at any ...
Alactacid System <ul><li>EFFICIENCY: </li></ul><ul><li>Again this  system does not require oxygen  but is a very short ter...
Creatine loading <ul><li>Creatine is a rapidly available, energy-producing substance used by the body during high intensit...
lactic acid system  <ul><li>Following the ???? System that last 10-12 seconds of maximal exercise, CP supplies are gone, a...
Lactic Acid system <ul><li>The break down of glucose or glycogen results in the production of more ATP molecules. One of t...
Lactic Acid System <ul><li>This is the lactic acid system working within a muscle. </li></ul>Glycogen Lactic Acid ADP+P AT...
Lactic Acid System <ul><li>Source of fuel : </li></ul><ul><li>The only fuel that can be used by the lactic acid system is ...
Lactic Acid System <ul><li>Efficency of ATP production: </li></ul><ul><li>The lactic acid has the potential to provide ATP...
Lactic Acid System <ul><li>Cause of fatigue: </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue is occurs when a build up of lactic acid is in the ...
Lactic Acid System <ul><li>Lactate Threshold =  the amount of lactic acid the muscles can take before fatigue sets in. </l...
Lactic Acid System <ul><li>Rate of Recovery: </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid after use is transferred to the blood stream or...
Aerobic System <ul><li>Aerobic system:  Exercise lasting longer than a few minutes (about 4) will require oxygen for muscu...
Aerobic system <ul><li>To produce the ATP in this system; glucose, and fats are broken down (in the presence of oxygen) al...
Aerobic System <ul><li>In the aerobic system the  sources  can be  carbohydrates, fats or proteins .  </li></ul><ul><li>It...
<ul><li>Duration: </li></ul><ul><li>The total amount of glycogen in the body is about 350grams on average. This will allow...
Aerobic system <ul><li>Cause of fatigue: </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles require glycogen and when they run out – fatigue sets i...
Aerobic system <ul><li>By products: </li></ul><ul><li>By products of this system are not harmful, instead they actually he...
Aerobic System <ul><li>Rate of recovery: </li></ul><ul><li>If the system is used for a short time it will replenish quickl...
Aerobic system <ul><li>Aerobic system summary diagram: </li></ul>Glycogen, fats and  Protein in the presence Of oxygen is ...
Principles of Training <ul><li>When an athlete trains they know that to produce results in the game the exercises they tra...
Principles of Training  <ul><li>Progressive overload   </li></ul><ul><li>We term gains in fitness as  (adaptations).   </l...
Progressive overload
Progressive overload <ul><li>When the body is put through a certain type of training the body produces  physiological chan...
Progressive overload <ul><li>Examples of Progressive overload training: </li></ul>Underload Overload Performance Training ...
Progressive overload <ul><li>This principle is the most  important principle in strength, aerobic and flexibility training...
Principles of Training <ul><li>Specificity:  This principle relates to the idea that a training method will relate to the ...
Specificity: <ul><li>In regards to  muscular specificity  training -  it is important that the correct muscle fibre is tar...
Specificity: <ul><li>Components of fitness example  – A tennis player = power, coordination, reaction time, and agility ne...
Specificity: <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul>Aerobic training Strength Training Flexibility Training In a marathon Must use th...
Principles of Training <ul><li>Reversibility:  The same way the body adapts to overload and specificity, it will change wh...
Reversibility <ul><li>The larger the gains made the larger the loss. (more to lose) </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes can maintai...
Principles of Training <ul><li>Variety: </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition without variety will eventually lead to boredom. </li...
Principles of Training <ul><li>Variety principle in practice! </li></ul>Aerobic Training  = can be changed up to include, ...
Principles of Training <ul><li>Training thresholds: </li></ul><ul><li>Thresholds mean  = takes the person to a point that ...
Principles of Training <ul><li>Thresholds are calculated using HR . </li></ul><ul><li>If Aerobic threshold = 70% of MHR at...
Principles of Training <ul><li>So if we are jogging along in the steady state at about 120 HR but then a competitor comes ...
 
 
Principles of Training <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul>Aerobic Training = working closer to Anaerobic threshold than that of t...
Principles of Training <ul><li>Warm-up/cool down : </li></ul><ul><li>Each training program requires 3 segments =  Warm up,...
Warm Up <ul><li>Purpose of a warm up: </li></ul><ul><li>- reduce risk of injury  = increasing joint mobility and muscle st...
Warm up <ul><li>Sequence: </li></ul><ul><li>- General aerobic activity  = jogging for temp </li></ul><ul><li>- Specific fl...
Warm up <ul><li>For the average person a warm up length only needs to be  10mins </li></ul><ul><li>For an athlete such as ...
Cool down <ul><li>Cool down:   </li></ul><ul><li>This is the opposite of the warm up and aims to reduce muscle soreness an...
Question <ul><li>How can the principles of training improve performance? </li></ul>Progressive overload Training threshold...
Types of training  <ul><li>The type of training needed for any sport, activity or skill depends on the specific parts that...
Types of training <ul><li>Aerobic:  This type of training uses the Aerobic system as the main source of energy. It include...
Types of training <ul><li>Continuous Training : </li></ul>Effort without rest = Continuous Has to be more  than 20 mins  T...
Types of training <ul><li>Continuous training  – Two Types </li></ul>Long, slow distance training  = Work at 60-80% of the...
Types of training <ul><li>Fartlek Training :  </li></ul>Fartlek  = Speed play Fartlek  = Increases in speed and  terrain T...
Types of Training <ul><li>Interval Training </li></ul>Interval Training  = Interchanging work  and recovery It develops bo...
Types of training <ul><li>Interval training  – Is useful for sprint training and middle distance training </li></ul>
Types of training <ul><li>Circuit Training: </li></ul>Where participants move from one Station to the next Minimal effect ...
Types of Training
Types of Training <ul><li>Aerobics: </li></ul>Usually performed with music and  Works on Heart and lung function, flexibil...
Types of Training <ul><li>Strength: </li></ul><ul><li>-Strength is the ability of a muscle to exert a force against a resi...
Types of Training <ul><li>Strength:  The above programs are great for body building, improving muscle tone and rehab of in...
Types of Training <ul><li>Strength: </li></ul><ul><li>There are four types of strength: </li></ul>Absolute  = maximum forc...
Types of Training <ul><li>Strength Terminology- </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitions  = number without rest </li></ul><ul><li>Rep...
Types of Training <ul><li>Development of absolute strength: </li></ul><ul><li>-2,3 or 4 sessions per week </li></ul><ul><l...
Types of Training <ul><li>Development of Power: </li></ul><ul><li>Power means that force has to be applied quickly </li></...
Types of Training <ul><li>Development of Strength endurance: </li></ul><ul><li>In this development we look for moderate ac...
Types of Training <ul><li>Flexibility (static, ballistic, PNF).  </li></ul><ul><li>-Muscles require an increase in length ...
Types of training <ul><li>Flexibility is effected by: </li></ul><ul><li>Age  – muscles shorten and tighten with age </li><...
Types of training <ul><li>Flexibility Types </li></ul>Static =  slowly stretched to a end point which is held for ???? How...
Types of Training
Core 2 Factors Affecting Performance <ul><li>How does the body respond to aerobic training?  </li></ul>
Factors Affecting Performance <ul><li>How does the acquisition of skill affect performance?  </li></ul>
<ul><li>the learning process  </li></ul>
<ul><li>characteristics of the learner,  </li></ul>
<ul><li>the learning environment  </li></ul>
<ul><li>stages of skill acquisition  </li></ul>
<ul><li>rates of skill acquisition  </li></ul>
<ul><li>skilled performers versus unskilled performers  </li></ul>
<ul><li>objective measurement of skill  </li></ul>
<ul><li>judging the quality of performance  </li></ul>
 
 
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Core 2 Factors affecting performance Energy ssytems

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Energy Systems
Principles of training
Types of training

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Core 2 Factors affecting performance Energy ssytems

  1. 1. Core 2 Factors Affecting Performance
  2. 2. How does training affect performance? <ul><li>The body works off many systems, The body recognises the system it needs for different movements. Each different system has the potential to positively affect the bodies performance. For each system there is a specific training method that accelerates production of energy for the body. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Energy Systems <ul><li>Movement requires energy- a car requires petrol and that petrol needs to be ignited. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy serves another purpose – It fuels our vital organs such as the brain. (takes around 75/80% of our carbohydrate intake.) </li></ul><ul><li>The body has a system for all the different work loads our body deals with and the amount of time that work continues for. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike a car we don’t store energy in a large tank. – Our energy is stored in chemical bonds (coming from food) that join atoms and are only released when needed. (imagine carrying a 60 litre tank) </li></ul><ul><li>If you calculated the energy needed to run a marathon, you would need to carry your own weight in a back pack. </li></ul><ul><li>However as humans we only need to eat the size of a breakfast bowl to fuel the body for a marathon (what would I eat?) </li></ul><ul><li>So how does food become energy. That is a very complex process which we will touch on soon. But when food is stored as energy in the body we term it chemical energy . </li></ul><ul><li>How do we measure petrol? Well food is measured very similar – Kilojoules (kj) </li></ul>
  4. 4. ENERGY SYSTEMS <ul><li>All foods have different amounts of energy. Carbohydrates and protein supply around 16 -17 (kj) per gram where as fat supplies 38 (kj) per gram. </li></ul><ul><li>So if we consume all the energy in the food that we eat through physical activity then we maintain a stable weight. </li></ul><ul><li>If the energy is not used then it is stored for a later time that it may be needed. (Therefore the more food that we eat the more physical activity or incidental activity is needed for a stable weight to be maintained.) </li></ul><ul><li>Any Chemical energy that is unused is stored as fat. </li></ul><ul><li>For the energy potential of food ( chemical energy ) it must be converted to mechanical energy or kinetic movement energy) </li></ul><ul><li>Most people believe that this mechanical energy is then used to make us move. When in fact it is captured and used to recycle an energy compound that has lost its power to contract muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>This is termed resynthesis – It recycles a primary high energy compound called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and its backup energy compound called a creatine phosphate (CP) </li></ul><ul><li>Resynthesis allows (ATP) to be constantly reused and fuelled by the mechanical energy (food) </li></ul><ul><li>This way the body does not require constant fresh fuel supplies (instead choosing to recycle ATP over and over again! </li></ul>
  5. 5. ENERGY SYSTEMS <ul><li>The body’s fuels (chemical energy) is converted to (ATP) before being used and is stored in small amounts in the cells. </li></ul>Sun Food = Carbs Proteins Fats Digestion = Glucose, Amino Acids Fatty Acids, Glycerol Glycerides Chemical energy Mechanical energy
  6. 6. Energy Systems <ul><li>ATP can be likened to a spark plug. ATP is the catalyst for the release of energy and it also fuels digestion, blood circulation, and tissue building </li></ul><ul><li>ATP enables the energy in food to be utilised and released for body function. </li></ul>Blood Glucose Mitochondria Spark Plug Tissue building and repair Blood Circulation Muscle Contractions Glandular functions Digestion
  7. 7. Energy Systems <ul><li>ATP production = 1 large molecule and three phosphate molecules </li></ul><ul><li>When the last P is detached the energy stored in bonds becomes available to be transferred to the cells. </li></ul><ul><li>In the muscle cells the energy from ATP allows the muscle fibres contract which intern makes movement possible. </li></ul>ADENOSINE P P P
  8. 8. Energy Systems <ul><li>After the third P is broken then there is only two P molecules left. In this state no energy can be supplied to the muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>ATP as explained earlier does not get wasted it gets recycled. The body would not have the room to keep a days ATP energy storage so that’s why it rebuilds itself. </li></ul><ul><li>To hopefully concrete this in your mind a example – The energy is stored in the bonds just like a word document is now stored on a USB. I can store a 500 word document on a tiny thumb drive but to carry that in paper would be heavy and bulky. (amazing hey?) </li></ul>ADENOSINE P P
  9. 9. Energy Systems <ul><li>The body has three systems that rebuild that broken ATP molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>It switches between the systems based on the physical requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>If we do not need ATP for energy then the body does not complete the third P. </li></ul><ul><li>The three systems are: lets find out! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Energy Systems <ul><li>Alactacid acid system (ATP/PC) : FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>There is only a very small amount of ATP stored within the body at any one time. Enough only for around 1 -2 seconds of energy or a long jump, vertical jump. (the third P has split providing energy) </li></ul><ul><li>If further movement is required then a molecule called (creatine) or Creatine Phosphate (cp) is necessary. This breakdown causes a release of energy that moves free singular (P) BACK towards ADP MAKING IT ATP (CONFUSING?) NOT REALLY! </li></ul><ul><li>If I add 1 P TO 2 P’S (ADP) what do I have ? = (ATP) </li></ul><ul><li>This system keeps doing that breakdown and resynthesis over and over again to provide energy for 10 -12 seconds After that 10-12 seconds all the creatine is gone and it takes 2 mins to rebuild! </li></ul><ul><li>And the amazing part it DOES NOT REQUIRE OXYGEN TO DO SO! </li></ul>
  11. 11. Alactacid System ATP BREAKS = ADP Creatine comes along 2 secs energy P P P Creatine breaks apart leaving lots of P’s The P’s rejoin the ATP and the Cycle continues This lasts 10 – 12 seconds And takes 2 mins to recover
  12. 12. Alactacid System <ul><li>SOURCE: </li></ul><ul><li>We keep about the same weight as a large egg in ATP in our body at any one time. That’s the amount that gives us our ??? </li></ul><ul><li>After that we rely on 120 grams of (CP) which is stored in the cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore what fuels the ATP/CP system? </li></ul><ul><li>= Creatine Phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Now why does Mr Ryrie take extra creatine??????? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Alactacid System <ul><li>EFFICIENCY: </li></ul><ul><li>Again this system does not require oxygen but is a very short term system. </li></ul><ul><li>It recovers relatively quickly making it very important in activities such as weightlifting, discus throwing and a start in a 100 metre race. </li></ul><ul><li>DURATION: 2 secs with creatine – 10-12 and 2 minutes to replace </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSE OF FATIGUE: </li></ul><ul><li>CP eventually runs out and that is why you can not run at a full sprint for more than about 100 metres or 10 -12 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>So the more creatine you can get the longer the system will last???? </li></ul><ul><li>BY PRODUCTS: Heat why?????? </li></ul><ul><li>RECOVERY: 2 Minutes to fully recover, but after 30-50 secs 50% of the creatine will have been restored. This should now explain to you why high jumpers and long jumpers can continually back up their efforts. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Creatine loading <ul><li>Creatine is a rapidly available, energy-producing substance used by the body during high intensity activity. It is used to bind phosphate to form creatine phosphate, which is essential to regenerate ADP to ATP and provide energy for muscular contraction. </li></ul><ul><li>As creatine is a natural substance and found in meat and fish, it is classified as a food supplement, not a pharmaceutical. As such, it has gained vogue among athletes keen to improve performances in strength, </li></ul><ul><li>power and sprint events. It is a legal food supplement and was first used in the 1992 Olympics. </li></ul><ul><li>Most studies have found creatine to be effective in boosting performance when taken in conjunction with high carbohydrate diets. Creatine supplementation of 20 grams per day over five to seven days each week has been reported to improve sprint performances from 1 to 5 per cent and up to 15 per cent on repeated sprint type activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Other studies report no performance-enhancing effect. Most research on creatine is inconclusive, </li></ul><ul><li>particularly where supplementation continues over a period of time. It appears to contribute to weight increases, elevated heart rate and dehydration, which causes cramping in hot, humid conditions. It has also been reported to contribute to stress fractures attributable to escalation in the strength of muscular contractions. </li></ul>
  15. 15. lactic acid system <ul><li>Following the ???? System that last 10-12 seconds of maximal exercise, CP supplies are gone, and the athlete still needs to keep moving. </li></ul><ul><li>At this stage the Lactic Acid system takes over as the source of energy. Example is a 400metre race </li></ul><ul><li>At this stage it is difficult for the body to gain oxygen. The working muscles require a lot of oxygen at this stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of Creatine (cp) which has run out the body searches for another fuel source. </li></ul><ul><li>This fuel source is found in the make up of the blood in the sugars that are circulating in the blood. This is termed the Blood Glycogen Level. </li></ul><ul><li>It may also need to draw on the sugars that are stored in the muscles and liver. This is termed Glycogen. The pancreas regulates this process. </li></ul><ul><li>The term given to the use of glucose for energy is termed = Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the foods we eat Glycogen is much more abundant than that of Creatine and therefore lasts longer than the alactacid system. </li></ul><ul><li>Because it takes a few minutes for oxygen to be delivered around the body, oxygen is not available. This is termed = Anaerobic Glycolsis </li></ul><ul><li>Because the muscles can’t receive enough oxygen throughout the lactic acid system, a waste product termed = Lactic Acid is produced. It will continue to rise linearly with an increase in intense exercise. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Lactic Acid system <ul><li>The break down of glucose or glycogen results in the production of more ATP molecules. One of the by products of the break down of glucose in the muscle when there is insufficient oxygen delivery is lactic acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid fills the blood stream and connective tissue surrounding a muscle. It makes the muscle feel full. (when rock climbing or stiff legs after a 100 metre sprint) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lactic Acid System <ul><li>This is the lactic acid system working within a muscle. </li></ul>Glycogen Lactic Acid ADP+P ATP Energy/heat
  18. 18. Lactic Acid System <ul><li>Source of fuel : </li></ul><ul><li>The only fuel that can be used by the lactic acid system is Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>This comes in 2 forms = Glucose in the blood or </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen in the liver and muscles </li></ul>
  19. 19. Lactic Acid System <ul><li>Efficency of ATP production: </li></ul><ul><li>The lactic acid has the potential to provide ATP very quickly but it has a large cost = lactic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Duration: </li></ul><ul><li>The duration of the system depends on the intensity of the activity being performed. </li></ul><ul><li>For example – Going at 100% will cause fatigue in 1 min but working at 70-80% a person may last 4-5mins before exhaustion. </li></ul><ul><li>The lactic acid system is the main system for all activity from 10-12 seconds up to 3 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples – 200m, 400m, 800m sprint or the 200m freestyle or a 3 minute dance routine. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Lactic Acid System <ul><li>Cause of fatigue: </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue is occurs when a build up of lactic acid is in the muscle cells. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not the actual lactic acid that causes the fatigue but instead the rate of removal from the muscles is the key. </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of the removal varies from person to person. </li></ul><ul><li>When lactic acid reaches a too high level then it prohibits the muscle fibres from contracting. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid if trained for can be a fuel source but it requires a lot of training. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid can be trained for = The more you train the better the body gets at removing lactic acid. Eg a good 800m runner and a first timer. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Lactic Acid System <ul><li>Lactate Threshold = the amount of lactic acid the muscles can take before fatigue sets in. </li></ul><ul><li>Average people = 4mmol/l and athlete = 20mmo/l </li></ul>Lactic acid build up Lactic acid removal They must equal out for no fatigue
  22. 22. Lactic Acid System <ul><li>Rate of Recovery: </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid after use is transferred to the blood stream or to the liver where it is resynthesised back to glycogen and recycled after 30 minutes. </li></ul>Muscle finished with lactic acid Transferred 2 blood Liver recycles the lactic acid Back 2 glycogen for Exercise later
  23. 23. Aerobic System <ul><li>Aerobic system: Exercise lasting longer than a few minutes (about 4) will require oxygen for muscular contraction. </li></ul><ul><li>-When the rich oxygen filled blood reaches the muscle cells this is termed the aerobic system. In this system oxygen is the catalyst for ATP production. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Aerobic system <ul><li>To produce the ATP in this system; glucose, and fats are broken down (in the presence of oxygen) along with protein sometimes. This is termed = Aerobic metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>No lactic acid is produced in this phase due to the presence of oxygen. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Aerobic System <ul><li>In the aerobic system the sources can be carbohydrates, fats or proteins . </li></ul><ul><li>It predominately uses carbs for breakdown first and then chooses fats after about an hour of continual exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency: </li></ul><ul><li>The aerobic system is extremely great at providing more energy (ATP) than any of the other 2 systems. It is a long term system. </li></ul><ul><li>Now look at the handout! </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Duration: </li></ul><ul><li>The total amount of glycogen in the body is about 350grams on average. This will allow the body to rest for 12 hours or work really hard for 1hr. </li></ul><ul><li>In sports where rests are available = netball, soccer – Glycogen stores will last about 6 hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>However marathon runners – 2 hours. (no rest) </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic system is used in walking, sitting and endurance events. </li></ul><ul><li>Some athletes can train their body to spare glycogen and use fat early in the event sparing it for a possible sprint finish! (amazing) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Aerobic system <ul><li>Cause of fatigue: </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles require glycogen and when they run out – fatigue sets in, even with fats left over. So the muscles will fatigue not the heart or lungs or brain. </li></ul><ul><li>The term “hitting the wall” refers to when the body has run out of Glycogen and switches to fat! </li></ul><ul><li>Fat requires more oxygen to break it down. This increases the persons heart rate, temp and fatigue. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Aerobic system <ul><li>By products: </li></ul><ul><li>By products of this system are not harmful, instead they actually help the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide is produced and water. The co2 is ????? And the water re-enters the body’s cells. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Aerobic System <ul><li>Rate of recovery: </li></ul><ul><li>If the system is used for a short time it will replenish quickly because the glycogen stores have not run out. </li></ul><ul><li>If used for hours then the glycogen stores will be depleted – this could take days to recover = marathon . Ask Mr Pesle or Mr Ryrie who ran 100km over 27 hrs. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Aerobic system <ul><li>Aerobic system summary diagram: </li></ul>Glycogen, fats and Protein in the presence Of oxygen is broken down ADP 2 ATP Muscle contraction and movement CO2 WATER Long term system that will recover quickly if some glycogen is left over but Longer if depleted “ hitting the wall = glycogen Gone turns to fat = fat needs Lots of oxygen so Hr and temp increases
  31. 31. Principles of Training <ul><li>When an athlete trains they know that to produce results in the game the exercises they train at should mirror the game they play. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective training requires a number of different principles to get specific results. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are training for a marathon (????) </li></ul><ul><li>If you are training for flexibility (?????) </li></ul><ul><li>If you are training for strength (?????) </li></ul><ul><li>If you are to disregard these principles it will not matter how much effort you put in, results will suffer. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Principles of Training <ul><li>Progressive overload </li></ul><ul><li>We term gains in fitness as (adaptations). </li></ul><ul><li>The progressive overload principal works on the premise that adaptations will only increase when the training load is greater than normal (e.g, lifting 20kg instead of your normal 10kg) </li></ul><ul><li>These overloads must occur progressively as fitness in that area increases. (running 10 minutes longer for every week you train) or (trying to beat your time over a certain distance. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Progressive overload
  34. 34. Progressive overload <ul><li>When the body is put through a certain type of training the body produces physiological changes that allow the body to perform at a better intensity. </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve these physiological changes the body must have endured stress at a lower level. (If I asked to you to do push ups on your knees and then gradually moved you up to having no knees) </li></ul><ul><li>If you are to stay at the one level, the body will adapt and no further progress will be made. (keep doing push ups on your knees forever) </li></ul><ul><li>So to concrete the point – a load to small will fail to ignite adaptations and a load to big will cause fatigue to quickly not allowing any further progression. A load to large may also pose the risk of injury. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Progressive overload <ul><li>Examples of Progressive overload training: </li></ul>Underload Overload Performance Training Aerobic training Strength Training Flexibility Training Increased cardiac output = increased blood flow Increase in cross sectional area of the muscle =Muscle hypertrophy = increase in strength Muscle can stretch further than it’s normal length = Flexibility in stretching
  36. 36. Progressive overload <ul><li>This principle is the most important principle in strength, aerobic and flexibility training. </li></ul><ul><li>If there is no overload then the athlete will plateau. (no further gain = stay the same) </li></ul><ul><li>Not all adaptations occur at the same rate: </li></ul><ul><li>Endurance – slow and small adaptations </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility – fast adaptations </li></ul><ul><li>Strength – big adaptations from small loads </li></ul>
  37. 37. Principles of Training <ul><li>Specificity: This principle relates to the idea that a training method will relate to the specific type of training completed. </li></ul><ul><li>It relies on the type of training being extremely similar to that would be conducted in training. </li></ul><ul><li>This principle implies that if training replicates the movements in the game then the larger adaptations will be made. </li></ul><ul><li>The principle of specificity is very important when thinking about energy systems, muscle groups and the components of fitness. </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic Specificity: refers to targeting the specific energy systems of that sport and developing the best performance in that energy system through training. </li></ul><ul><li>The way we would analyse the best energy system is – to look at two elements = the intensity and the time to complete the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>( Short term activities will require = the anaerobic systems to be trained ) </li></ul><ul><li>( Long term systems will require = The aerobic system to be trained ) </li></ul>Short term = anaerobic No oxygen Long term = Aerobic Oxygen Sprints Marathons
  38. 38. Specificity: <ul><li>In regards to muscular specificity training - it is important that the correct muscle fibre is targeted. </li></ul><ul><li>We have fast twitch muscle fibres (White = like chicken) - sprints and Slow twitch muscle fibres = (Red like steak) – marathons </li></ul><ul><li>If we can train the correct muscle fibres we have a better chance of utilising them in performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally the components of fitness required in the game must also be targeted in the training. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Specificity: <ul><li>Components of fitness example – A tennis player = power, coordination, reaction time, and agility need to be focused on due to their key roles in the players game. </li></ul>Fast twitch = white For short term activity at High intensity Slow twitch = Red For long term activity Low intensity Training must target a type of Muscle fibre specifically
  40. 40. Specificity: <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul>Aerobic training Strength Training Flexibility Training In a marathon Must use the aerobic system A sprinter needs power, not bulk so The sets and reps are important A javelin thrower must increase Their shoulder flexibility Each muscle In that area needs to be stretched Beyond it’s normal range of motion
  41. 41. Principles of Training <ul><li>Reversibility: The same way the body adapts to overload and specificity, it will change when there is lack of exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>This is termed the detraining effect . </li></ul><ul><li>Gains in all three areas – Aerobic, strength and flexibility are equal when it comes to detraining effects. </li></ul>Aerobic = gains lost slowly Strength = gains lost quicker Flexibility = gains are lost very quickly
  42. 42. Reversibility <ul><li>The larger the gains made the larger the loss. (more to lose) </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes can maintain aerobic fitness through training at 70% MHR </li></ul><ul><li>If injury occurs an athlete can substitute their normal training regime they can use other training – swimming </li></ul>
  43. 43. Principles of Training <ul><li>Variety: </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition without variety will eventually lead to boredom. </li></ul><ul><li>As a coach, it is your job to motivate the athlete so they are constantly engaged. To do this the normal activities need to be rearranged or changed but with the same outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental well being and motivation is the key for someone to keep training at a high level. </li></ul><ul><li>(Examples exist in Aus cricket team heading to Boot Camp, or the NSW NRL team going to the beach and doing beach sprints to train) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Principles of Training <ul><li>Variety principle in practice! </li></ul>Aerobic Training = can be changed up to include, swimming, running, Cycling, or circuit training Strength Training = Can be changed up by, isometric, isotonic and Iso kinetic methods which all use different methods to increase muscle size. Flexibility Training = can be changed up by, static, dynamic and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular facilitation.
  45. 45. Principles of Training <ul><li>Training thresholds: </li></ul><ul><li>Thresholds mean = takes the person to a point that they have not been before- a new level. </li></ul><ul><li>To cause adaptations in the body, we must work at a level of intensity that will cause a change. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of change that will occur is directly linear with that of the threshold met. </li></ul><ul><li>The lowest level at which the body works at is termed the (training threshold) or Aerobic threshold when discussing aerobic fitness. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Principles of Training <ul><li>Thresholds are calculated using HR . </li></ul><ul><li>If Aerobic threshold = 70% of MHR at what HR would I be working at if I was 20 years old. MH = 220 – your age? </li></ul><ul><li>So when a person works at a level above the aerobic threshold and below the Anaerobic threshold they are working in the (Aerobic threshold) This is termed steady state exercise – jogging </li></ul><ul><li>The level above this is termed = (anaerobic threshold or LIP (Lactic inflection point) </li></ul><ul><li>At this stage further effort by the athlete is characterised by fatigue. </li></ul><ul><li>The LIP = ENTRY AND REMOVAL OF LACTIC ACID IN THE BLOOD. </li></ul>120 or above = Aerobic Threshold 170 or below = Anaerobic Threshold
  47. 47. Principles of Training <ul><li>So if we are jogging along in the steady state at about 120 HR but then a competitor comes so I have to speed up, that increase in pace will result in an increase in HR (if it is above 170 HR) and therefore a shift in energy systems from aerobic to Lactic acid system – burning ??????? </li></ul><ul><li>So why does the shift take place (a lack of oxy???) </li></ul><ul><li>So elite athletes will train at near anaerobic threshold or above it for short bursts to improve their removal of lactic acid. </li></ul>
  48. 50. Principles of Training <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul>Aerobic Training = working closer to Anaerobic threshold than that of the Aerobic threshold Strength Training = Bigger gains as Strength is increased Flexibility Training = Muscles need to be stretched further.
  49. 51. Principles of Training <ul><li>Warm-up/cool down : </li></ul><ul><li>Each training program requires 3 segments = Warm up, Training (conditioning phase) and the cool down. </li></ul><ul><li>Any session that does not include this will cause possible injuries or a lack of performance. </li></ul>
  50. 52. Warm Up <ul><li>Purpose of a warm up: </li></ul><ul><li>- reduce risk of injury = increasing joint mobility and muscle stretch </li></ul><ul><li>- Increase body temp = and enzyme activity for better muscle contraction </li></ul><ul><li>- Mentally prepare the athlete for training </li></ul><ul><li>- Stimulate the cardio respiratory system </li></ul>
  51. 53. Warm up <ul><li>Sequence: </li></ul><ul><li>- General aerobic activity = jogging for temp </li></ul><ul><li>- Specific flexibility exercises = increase muscle joint and reduce muscle tears </li></ul><ul><li>- Callisthenics = push ups to increase muscle flow to the working muscles </li></ul><ul><li>- Skill rehearsal = doing activities that will be part of the game. </li></ul>
  52. 54. Warm up <ul><li>For the average person a warm up length only needs to be 10mins </li></ul><ul><li>For an athlete such as a sprinter it may last upwards to an hour. </li></ul><ul><li>“Never stretch before you sweat” </li></ul><ul><li>Rest periods are allowed during a warm up to prevent fatigue. </li></ul>
  53. 55. Cool down <ul><li>Cool down: </li></ul><ul><li>This is the opposite of the warm up and aims to reduce muscle soreness and return the body to a resting state. </li></ul><ul><li>It should include: </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic work – jog that is slowing to a walk </li></ul><ul><li>Stretching of muscle groups </li></ul><ul><li>The cool down is extremely important for the regeneration of energy systems and to disperse lactic acid back to the ???? </li></ul>
  54. 56. Question <ul><li>How can the principles of training improve performance? </li></ul>Progressive overload Training thresholds Warm up/ cool down Specificity Reversibility Variety A general explanation on why training principles are so important In improving performance Back up every heading with a sporting example
  55. 57. Types of training <ul><li>The type of training needed for any sport, activity or skill depends on the specific parts that make up that sport or activity. </li></ul><ul><li>E.G Golfers have different needs than that of sprinters. </li></ul><ul><li>Although each activity has it’s own differences, we can group all of the types of training into three groups. </li></ul><ul><li>-Aerobic or endurance training - </li></ul><ul><li>-Strength training - </li></ul><ul><li>-Flexibility training - </li></ul>
  56. 58. Types of training <ul><li>Aerobic: This type of training uses the Aerobic system as the main source of energy. It includes these sub groups: </li></ul><ul><li>-Fartlek training </li></ul><ul><li>-Interval training </li></ul><ul><li>-Circuit training </li></ul><ul><li>-Aerobics </li></ul>
  57. 59. Types of training <ul><li>Continuous Training : </li></ul>Effort without rest = Continuous Has to be more than 20 mins The HR must rise above the aerobic threshold and stay in The aerobic zone Jogging, cycling, aerobics For improvements to occur In endurance You must train for 30 mins or greater
  58. 60. Types of training <ul><li>Continuous training – Two Types </li></ul>Long, slow distance training = Work at 60-80% of their maximal HR They focus on distance rather than speed. High Intensity work of moderate duration = works ate 80 -90% of maximal HR Only extreme athletes can use this and they may need small periods of Rest. This develops leg speed
  59. 61. Types of training <ul><li>Fartlek Training : </li></ul>Fartlek = Speed play Fartlek = Increases in speed and terrain This training = Continuous so The aerobic system is the main System used But as the burst of speed increase the anaerobic system Is utilised How is it done = -regular bursts of speed every 2-3 mins -running up and down sand hills -group running with changing leadership -cross country running Great for interchange events = soccer
  60. 62. Types of Training <ul><li>Interval Training </li></ul>Interval Training = Interchanging work and recovery It develops both Anaerobic and aerobic systems E.G = doing 5 sprints with 30 secs recovery Allows the athlete to work at high intensity without fatigue If the level of intensity is high the work interval is short
  61. 63. Types of training <ul><li>Interval training – Is useful for sprint training and middle distance training </li></ul>
  62. 64. Types of training <ul><li>Circuit Training: </li></ul>Where participants move from one Station to the next Minimal effect on aerobic, but great For muscular endurance, power And flexibility Results for each of these will depend On the time, activity and the reps For great results, the progressive overload principle is very important Record cards can be kept for results. -Skills of the game should be practised
  63. 65. Types of Training
  64. 66. Types of Training <ul><li>Aerobics: </li></ul>Usually performed with music and Works on Heart and lung function, flexibility and strength. Should contain a warm up, Conditioning and cool down phase The participants should spend 20-30 mins in the training threshold It’s a great form of variety
  65. 67. Types of Training <ul><li>Strength: </li></ul><ul><li>-Strength is the ability of a muscle to exert a force against a resistance </li></ul><ul><li>-Strength programs can be divided into three categories: </li></ul>Isotonic = Free weights to lengthen muscle fibres Isometric = Apply a resistance but muscle length does Not change Isokinetic = Cables to make sure the resistance stays The same all the way through the movement
  66. 68. Types of Training <ul><li>Strength: The above programs are great for body building, improving muscle tone and rehab of injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Strength gains will only be made when the training program is specific. </li></ul><ul><li>Employs overload principle </li></ul><ul><li>Uses progressive resistance (as you get stronger add more weight) </li></ul>
  67. 69. Types of Training <ul><li>Strength: </li></ul><ul><li>There are four types of strength: </li></ul>Absolute = maximum force by a muscle Relative = max weight relevant to one’s weight (70 -80kg) That lift the same = 70kg stronger relatively Muscular Endurance = ability to withstand fatigue (max number of Pushups) Power = Ability to apply force at a rapid rate - Jumping high
  68. 70. Types of Training <ul><li>Strength Terminology- </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitions = number without rest </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitions maximum = max weight you can lift a number of times (8 x rm = max weight lifted 8 times) </li></ul><ul><li>Set = number of reps done in a row </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance = load or weight </li></ul><ul><li>Rest = the amount of time between lifts or sets </li></ul>
  69. 71. Types of Training <ul><li>Development of absolute strength: </li></ul><ul><li>-2,3 or 4 sessions per week </li></ul><ul><li>-2-3 sets per muscle group </li></ul><ul><li>4 -10 reps per set </li></ul><ul><li>Enough resistance to fatigue the muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Slow to moderate movements </li></ul><ul><li>Results depends on </li></ul><ul><li>( frequency = how often, volume = sets and reps </li></ul><ul><li>and mode =isokinetic, isometric etc) </li></ul>
  70. 72. Types of Training <ul><li>Development of Power: </li></ul><ul><li>Power means that force has to be applied quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity principle is really important to target important muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Plyo metrics or any activity that requires contraction of the muscle with force quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>When you combine Plyometrics and weight training it is termed = complex training </li></ul>
  71. 73. Types of Training <ul><li>Development of Strength endurance: </li></ul><ul><li>In this development we look for moderate activity. More reps and sets. </li></ul><ul><li>This is great for sports or activities that require lots of repetitive movements. </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity is really important in this phase </li></ul>
  72. 74. Types of Training <ul><li>Flexibility (static, ballistic, PNF). </li></ul><ul><li>-Muscles require an increase in length </li></ul><ul><li>-Flexibility program will ensure this and: </li></ul><ul><li>-prevention of injury </li></ul><ul><li>-improved coordination between muscle groups </li></ul><ul><li>-muscular relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>-decreasing soreness and tightness following exercise </li></ul><ul><li>-an increase range of movement around joints </li></ul>
  73. 75. Types of training <ul><li>Flexibility is effected by: </li></ul><ul><li>Age – muscles shorten and tighten with age </li></ul><ul><li>Sex – females better than males </li></ul><ul><li>Temp – increase atmospheric and body temp improves flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise – the more you do the more flexible you are </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity – just because you are flexible in the shoulders does not mean that you will be in other areas. </li></ul>
  74. 76. Types of training <ul><li>Flexibility Types </li></ul>Static = slowly stretched to a end point which is held for ???? How long Used in warm up and cool down and after exercise Ballistic = Swinging or bouncing repeatedly. This activates the stretch reflex. Can be very dangerous only use with experienced Athletes. (has to be smooth) PNF = Lengthening via resistance by another person. The partner holds the position. Great for rehab of an injury. It safe if done under correct techniques
  75. 77. Types of Training
  76. 78. Core 2 Factors Affecting Performance <ul><li>How does the body respond to aerobic training? </li></ul>
  77. 79. Factors Affecting Performance <ul><li>How does the acquisition of skill affect performance? </li></ul>
  78. 80. <ul><li>the learning process </li></ul>
  79. 81. <ul><li>characteristics of the learner, </li></ul>
  80. 82. <ul><li>the learning environment </li></ul>
  81. 83. <ul><li>stages of skill acquisition </li></ul>
  82. 84. <ul><li>rates of skill acquisition </li></ul>
  83. 85. <ul><li>skilled performers versus unskilled performers </li></ul>
  84. 86. <ul><li>objective measurement of skill </li></ul>
  85. 87. <ul><li>judging the quality of performance </li></ul>

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