14. Computer Systems Output Devices

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14. Computer Systems Output Devices

  1. 1. Output
  2. 2. What Is Output? <ul><li>Data that has been processed into useful form called information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Impact on Society
  4. 4. What Are Output Devices? <ul><li>Any computer component capable of conveying information to a user </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Display devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other display devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data projectors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fax machine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multifunction devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminals </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Display Devices <ul><li>An output device that visually conveys text, graphics, and video information </li></ul><ul><li>CRT Monitors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen housed in a plastic or metal case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cathode ray tube (CRT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picture elements (Pixels) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewable size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>17” monitor  15.7” viewable size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colour vs. monochrome monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colour monitor and colour depth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monochrome monitor and gray scaling </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Display Devices <ul><li>Flat-panel displays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LCD displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used by handheld computers, digital watches, calculators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active (TFT) and passive-matrix displays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of transistors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost, sharpness and clarity of images </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also used with desktop computers with space and weight constraints </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Display Devices <ul><li>Flat-panel displays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large displays of up to 42” of viewable area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gas glows that produce pixels that form an image </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher display quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More expensive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Display Devices <ul><li>Factors that affect monitor quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Related to the number of pixels it can display </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher resolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased sharpness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller images </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of columns of pixels X number of rows of pixels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dot pitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical distance between each pixel on a monitor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure of image clarity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The smaller the distance between each pixel, the sharper the image </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Display Devices <ul><li>Factors that affect monitor quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refresh rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speed that the monitor redraws images on the screen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in Hertz (Hz) to measure flicker </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the refresh rate, the lower the flicker </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlacing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old method of refreshing images </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Display Devices <ul><li>Video Cards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics card, video adapter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts digital output into an analog video signal that is sent through a cable to a monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of colours  number of bits used to store information about each pixel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8-bit card (2 8 colours = 256 colours) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24-bit card (2 24 colours = 16.7 million colours) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory to generate the resolution and number of colours you want to display </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Video Card Display
  12. 14. Video Standards
  13. 15. Display Devices <ul><li>Monitor Ergonomics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate comfort, efficiency and safety into the design of items in the workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital controls help fine-tune the display </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tilt-and-swivel base to minimise neck strain and reduce glare </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MPR II standard regarding electromagnetic radiation (EMR) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ENERGY STAR program to create energy-efficient monitors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Display Devices <ul><li>High-Definition Television </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses digital television signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used as a monitor while browsing the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor come TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HDTV </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Printers <ul><li>An output device that produces text and graphics on a physical medium such as paper or transparency film </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard copy (printout) vs. softcopy (monitor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portrait vs. landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printing requirements vary </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Printers <ul><li>Impact Printers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printing mechanism strikes paper, ribbon and character together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near letter quality (NLQ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for multipart forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strikes through multiple layers of paper </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Printers <ul><li>Impact Printers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dot matrix printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small dots form characters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous form paper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More pins on print head means higher quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speed measured in characters per second (cps) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Printers <ul><li>Impact Printers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Line printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prints an entire line at a time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Band printer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shuttle-matrix printer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Printers <ul><li>Non-impact Printers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No mechanism strikes the paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much quieter than impact printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ink-jet printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spray tiny drops of ink onto the paper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both black-and-white and colour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution measured in dots per inch (dpi) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speed measured in pages per minute (ppm) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nozzles spray ink </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Printers <ul><li>Non-impact Printers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laser printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High-speed, high-quality non-impact printer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very high quality resolution - 300dpi to 1,200 dpi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stores entire page before printing it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Page description language (PDL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PCL (Printer Control Language) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Postscript </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operates much like a copy machine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replace cartridge </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Printers <ul><li>Non-impact Printers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pushes electrically heated pins against heat-sensitive paper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal transfer printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Print head heats and melts the ink of the ink ribbon to print the dot-composed character on normal paper </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Printers <ul><li>Non-impact Printers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small, lightweight printer that allows a mobile user to print from a laptop or handheld computer while traveling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ink-jet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel port or infrared port </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Printers <ul><li>Non-impact Printers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plotters and Large-Format Printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for high-quality drawings such as blueprints, maps, circuit diagrams, and signs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plotters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pen plotters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrostatic plotters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large-format printer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photo-realistic quality color prints </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Printers <ul><li>Non-impact Printers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special-purpose printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Snapshot printer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photo lab quality pictures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Label printer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Audio Output <ul><li>Audio output devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce music, speech, or other sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low-quality sound </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For high quality sound </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stereo speakers and woofer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sound card </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headsets </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. Other Output Devices <ul><li>Data projectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows an audience to view output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LCD projectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital light processing (DLP) projector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facsimile (Fax) Machine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to transmit and receive an image of a document over a phone line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand-alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fax modem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to transmit documents to a fax machine or to another fax modem </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 30. Other Output Devices <ul><li>Multifunction Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can print, scan, copy, and fax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower cost than separate units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, OfficeJet by Hewlett-Packard is a colour printer, scanner and photocopier all in one device </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Terminals <ul><li>Performs both input and output </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video card </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dumb terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent (programmable) terminal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern PC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Point-of-sale (POS) terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic teller machine (ATM) </li></ul>
  29. 32. Output Devices For Physically Challenged Users <ul><li>Issues with output devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot see graphics because of visual impairments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot hear audio because of hearing impairment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Accessibility Properties dialog box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Braille printer </li></ul></ul>
  30. 33. Output Devices For Physically Challenged Users
  31. 34. Output Device Users Guide
  32. 35. Web Surfing for the Blind
  33. 36. Computer Types and Architectural Characteristics <ul><li>Personal computer (PC) </li></ul><ul><li>Workstation </li></ul><ul><li>General-purpose computer </li></ul><ul><li>Supercomputer </li></ul><ul><li>Microcomputer </li></ul><ul><li>Process control computer </li></ul>
  34. 37. Personal Computer <ul><li>Desktop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meant to be placed on a desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laptop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable computer which is slightly larger and heavier than a notebook computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notebook </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lightweight thin portable computer. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. Mini Tower and Monitor
  36. 39. Notebooks (Mobile computing)
  37. 40. Workstation <ul><li>More powerful than the personal computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main applications are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research and development fields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex scientific and engineering calculations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Product manufacturing fields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in CAD, CAM, etc application. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software development field </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Aided Software Engineering tool </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication network field </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Client machines or server machines in distributed processing system. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 41. A Workstation
  39. 42. Supercomputer <ul><li>Capable of performing complex and large calculations at extremely high speed </li></ul><ul><li>Main use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather forecast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation of nuclear power generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbit calculation of artificial satellites </li></ul></ul>
  40. 43. Supercomputer Fujitsu VPP700E: 256 Fujitsu CMOS processing elements
  41. 44. Microcomputer <ul><li>A small computer with a microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>Used in household appliances </li></ul><ul><li>Control data is recorded in ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Output devices are called actuators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motors or switches </li></ul></ul>
  42. 45. Process Control Computer <ul><li>Computers that control machines in heavy industries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machines entirely automated through process control computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used in general building security system, highway traffic control, etc. </li></ul>
  43. 46. General Purpose Computer (Mainframe) <ul><li>A very large and powerful computer capable of supporting thousands of users simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframes are just below supercomputers in processing power </li></ul>
  44. 47. Laptops
  45. 48. Palmtops

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