The fundamental properties of matter
Matter is everything that forms the universe and occupies space. Any
sample of matter has two fundamental properties:
a) Mass is the quantity of matter. It is measured in kilograms (kg)
and grams (g).
a) Volumen it is the space occpied by a certain amount of matter.
The volume of a liquid is measured in litres(l) and the volume of a
solid is measured in cubic metres (m3).
Scientists have found some things
that don´t count.
Matter cannot be a type of energy,
like wind, sound, light or heat.
Specific properties of matter
Matter also has some specific properties
which permit us to differentiate between
different types of matter. Two examples
are colour and density.
Water has greater
density than oil.
This is why oil
States of matter
Matter can present itself in three states:
Solid Solids have a fixed shape and they do not
adapt to the shape of the container holding them.
Liquid Liquids adapt to the container holding them.
Gas Gasses fill up all the space available to them.
They escape from an open container. Unlike liquids it is
possible to compress them: reduce their volume.
Matter is very varied. In nature there are many different types of
matter, called materials. Each one has properties which differentiate it
from each other.
We use natural materials collected from nature, and artificial materials
which do not exist in nature and are fabricated by us from other
Using materials from nature we can exhaust resources; we change and
pollute the environment. To avoid this it is useful to apply the rule of
the three Rs: reducing consumption, reusing and recycling materials.
Physical changes do not change the mass of an object or the type of
matter an object is made of.
Physical changes are:
Deformations the shape of an object changes.
Changes of state the state of matter can change when it is
heated or cooled.
Expansions/ contractions increases/ decreases in volume.
CHANGES OF STATE
Chemical changes or chemical reactions happen when two or
more substances are combined. They react to each other and
they produce new substances called products.
WOOD + FIRE are reacts of a
This combustion produces:
A pure substance is any substance that are formed for only one
type of matter.
Examples of pure substances are:
Mixtures and solutions
A mixture is a material system made up of two or more
different substances which are mixed but are not
Some examples are the air, salt water and olive oil.
They are mixtures in which we cannot distinguish the different
components. One example is salt water: it is impossible to
distinguish the salt in the water.
Mixtures and solutions can be separated using physical
means for instance, filtration, evaporation, distillation or
SUGAR + WATER
Is a solution
It is a mixture made up
of quartz, mica and
If you want t know more visit