•China is one of the world's oldest continuous
•Chinese civilization originated with city-states in
the Yellow River valley.
•From 1,766 to 207 Bc there were other dynasties
in China, but it wasn’t considered an empire then.
•221 BC. is commonly accepted to be the year in
which China became unified under a large kingdom
•Successive dynasties in Chinese history
developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the
Emperor of China to control the large territory.
•The first evidence of Homo erectus in China, is
dated 1.27 million years ago.
Su origen se da en el
El imperio nace en el
año 221 a.c.
Varias Dinastías hacen
parte de su historia.
1.27 millones/años atrás
aparece el homoerectus
Shang Dynasty (1,766 -
Began with the reign of
Tang and ended with the
fall of Zhou, lasting for
approximate 600 years,
from 16 century BC to
11 century BC. Shang
Western Zhou Dynasty
(1,122 - 771 B.C.)
Zhou was founded at 11
century BC with its capital
at Haojing. West Chou
dynasty was the heyday of
the Slave Society.
Agricultural made great
progress, tools improved.
3 Eastern Zhou Dynasty
(770 - 256 B.C.)
Power lying in the hands
of powerful nobles.
Internal conflict and
intensified. Wars between
the states were regular.
Dynasty (475 - 221
From 475 BC to 221
When the Qinshihuang
unified the country, is
known as the Warrior
Period. It is obvious so
named for wars
between the states
intensified. This period
is traditionally regarded
as the beginning of the
feudalism in china.
Qin Dynasty (221 - 207
The king conquered the
other six states and
unified the country. He
named himself the First
Emperor, beginning the
tradition of having
emperors for rulers.
The Great Unification: The Ch'in Dynasty
Western reaches of the Wei River. Great evil dynasty.
Rrepressive, autocratic, and cruel; but brilliant political theorists
and reformers. Aggressive policy of territorial expansion.
Founded by Ch'in shih-huang-ti, collapsed only four years after
his death in 210BC. Strong central government (Legalists
principles), a strong military, a tightly controlled economy, and the
strict regimentation of the citizens of the state. Confucianism as
the state philosophy.
Hard on commerce. Severely restricted trade and mercantilism,
taxed heavily. The Great Wall of China to protect China from
thearmies of the north.
The Ch'in kingdom grew powerful and wealthy in a very short
time. The name for China is derived from the Ch'in.
Gran crecimiento y
La Gran Muralla China
The Former Han Dynasty (206 BC-25 AD)
Longest dynasty (Han Wu Ti)
Laws less harsh. Punishments less severe. They standarized
weights, measures, and writing.
Empire divided into into small feudal domains.
Ambitious economic projects: 1-The joining of the two central
commercial centers of China (the Yellow River to the capital at
Chang-an) 2-Network of "ever-level granaries" to store excess
grain preventing starvation in times of flood.
Heavy taxation (avoided for Wealthy) to maintain control over the
territories, fell on the merchants and peasants. 22 BC-revolts all
From 23 to 25 AD, China seethed in chaos and constant warfare.
Estandarización de escritura
Unión de los 2 centros
comerciales de China.
Bodegas de alimentos.
Impuestos para las clases
bajas genera caos.
The Later Han Dynasty (25-220)
Longest dynasty in China history.
Strong centralized government was restored. Powerful reforms
were instituted. Recovery of a population devastated by war.
Effective and aggressive military expansion around 50 AD. The
military expansion of the Chinese empire all the way to the
Caspian Sea. The control of large parts of inner Asia established
the greatest trade route in the ancient world: the Silk Road. (most
important route for trading goods and culture to the world)
Power in hands of wealthy landowners (avoiding taxes). Revolts
220 AD - the Han dynasty (empire) falls due to weak government.
The next 300 years: The period of "The Three Kingdoms" and
"The Six Dynasties" Separate, strong kingdoms.
La Ruta de la Seda.
Poder concentrado en la
Caída de la dinastía Han e
The Three Kingdoms (220-589)
Long period of independent states. Uniform Chinese culture
almost died out completely. 3 different religions.
By 384, the Northern Wei kingdom began reuniting the kingdoms
into a single empire. They moved their capital to the ancient site
of Loyang and adopted Chinese language and culture. They failed
to unify the kingdom, but managed to preserve the culture.
By 534, the Northern Wei faded. Period of short-lived kingdoms.
In 589,Sui Wen-ti founded a new dynasty over a restored empire.
The Sui Dynasty (589-618)
Centralized government. Reformed taxation structure. Ambitious
building and economic projects. south conquest. Grand Canal.
After his father’s death, Sui Yang-ti ran the empire but wars with
Korea and natural disasters, bankrupted the government .
Los Tres Reinos
Cultura China casi
3 Religiones distintas.
Se unifica el idioma y
cultura de nuevo. Años
después se restaura el
Guerras y desastres
The T'ang Dynasty
Period of progress and stability, mostly. Land trade (the Silk
Road), Maritime trade (Sea and The Grand canal). New
technologies and contemporary items.
Population grew (80 million) & declined to 17 million in the An Shi
Rebellion, which destroyed the prosperity of the empire.
Art and culture continued to flourish. Chinese poetry entered its
most productive phase (Li Po &Tu Fu, 2 of the greatest poets in
After a great military-territory expansion, a slow contraction under
war with borders brought, civil War, bands of thieves and frequebt
rebellions helped the fall of T’ang dynasty and China’s disunion.
En general, un periodo de
estabilidad y prosperidad.
Desarrollo cultural y
Gran expansión territorial
La Rebelión An Shi y la
contracción del imperio
llevan a la caída de la
5 Dynasties period
The Later Empire
The Song Dynasty (960-1279)
The Agricultural and Commercial Revolution: greater wealth for
the general population and for the government.
The widespread use of money. In the form of copper coins and
later silver, the use of money greatly accelerated trade within
China and led to the development of credit. Cities slowly
converted from administrative to commercial centers.
Acceleration of foreign trade. All the major trade routes and ports
were controlled by Chinese merchants.
Confusionism and Neo-confusionism.
Fell of the Chinese Empire. The Mongols overtook China and a
foreign dynasty started. The Yuan. (Mogolian Empire)
Revolución comercial y de
El dinero, aparición y uso.
Mongolia conquista China
The Chinese knew how to produce silk at least by
The Chinese traded silk with the Roman Empire
and then with Byzantium. In return they received
such items as wool, glass, and asbestos.
Through the silk trade the world's two great
empires in the first century A.D. Rome and Han
China - were linked.
Ruta de la Seda
Producción inicial 1300
Comercio con Romanos y
Romanos unidos a China
por el comercio de la seda
Ruta de la Seda
SILK ROAD / SILK ROUTE
More than 2,000 years of history. It began in Chang'an
(present Xi'an, Shaanxi Province) in the east and stretched to
Rome, Italy in the west.
The route crosses Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai provinces,
Ningxia Hui and Xinjiang Uygur autonomous regions and
then passes over the Pamirs, to extend to Central and West
Asia and finally reaches the east bank of the Mediterranean
Sea and Eastern Europe.
Length: 2,485 miles, over half of the width of China.
The Silk Road was the main artery for business and trade
between China and the West.
It has played an important role in the exchanges of cultural
and trade-goods, sucha as: Papermaking, printing, compass
and gunpowder.(introduced to Western countries via the Silk
LA RUTA DE LA SEDA
Más de 2000 años de
Cruza por Asia y llega a
La más importante vía de
Todos los inventos chinos
se dispersaron a través de
Originario de China.
Considerado como una de
las 7 necesidades en China.
Áreas productoras rodeadas
Tea drinking originated in China and spread
throughout the world.
The beverage is considered one of the seven
necessities of Chinese life, along with
firewood, rice, oil, salt, sauce and vinegar.
Jiangnan and Jiangbei are tea-producing
areas who are surrounded by the Changjiang
PORCELAIN / CHINA
A type of clay pottery, Invented in China by
using clay with special minerals.
First types made about 11,000 years ago, during
the Palaleolithic era.
By the 1100's, traders took Chinese porcelain to
Europe, it was rare and expensive only wealthy
people could afford it.
By the 1700's, porcelain manufactured in many
parts of Europe was starting to compete with
Inventada en China usando
arcilla con minerales.
Primeros tipos fueron
hechos alrededor de 11,000
Años 1100, llevada a
Europa, bastante costosa.
Hasta los 1700 porcelana
Europea empieza a
competir con la china.
First invented in China about 105 A.C.
Its usespread to Chinese Turkestan (Central Asia), the Arab world
(751 A.D.), Syria, Egypt, Morocco, Spain (c. 1150 A.D.), southern
France, and the rest of Europe. It spread to the rest of world
through the Silk Road.
In 751 A.D some Chinese soldiers and paper makers were
captured and brought to Samarkand and The Arabs learned the
paper making. The Egyptians learned the paper making from the
Arabs during the early 10th century.
Around 1100 A.D. paper arrived in Northern Africa and by 1150
A.D. it arrived to Spain as a result of the crusades and
established the first paper industry in Europe.
The Chinese began using paper, made from rice straw, for toilet
purposes in the sixth century, AD.
Inventado en China 105 A.C
Su uso se expandió
alrededor del mundo.
Se comerció a través de la
Rutas de Seda.
Papel higiénico, siglo VI.
The Chinese began to use wood block printing in the
7th century where the text is carved into the wood
blocks which are then inked. A blank sheet of paper is
placed over the inked block so that the image can be
transferred to the paper.
The Chinese invented block printing, to reproduce the
Confucian classics that had often been carved on
One possible source of the spread of block printing
from China is playing cards, which the Chinese also
invented and introduced to Europe. Another source is
paper money, first printed in China in the tenth century
A.D. and later introduced to Europe.
Impresión en Bloque.
Madera, y tinta.
Reproducir los clásicos de
Juego de Cartas, papel
Gunpowder was invented in China c. 1000 A.D. and probably
spread to Europe during the Mongol expansion of 1200-1300
The Chinese used it primarily for firecrackers, bombs or
grenades were used by Chinese troops from before the 11th
The Chinese did use gunpowder in fireworks for religious
purposes, they also used gunpowder in cannons, rockets,
and guns. Rocket arrows were used in 1126 to defend the
city of Kaifeng which was the capital of the Sung empire.
China did not pursue the development of weaponry as did the
West; ironically, it was through the use of cannons and guns
that the Europeans were able to dominate China in the mid-
Inventada en China en 1000
Usada para petardos,
bombas y granadas.
Uso de pólvora para
Historians believe that the Chinese invented the magnetic
compass and used it for navigation c. 1100 A.D. Arab
traders sailing to China probably learned of the Chinese
method of sailing by compass and returned to the West
with the invention.
The ability to magnetize iron by placing it near a
loadstone was known to ancient civilizations. But, it was
the Chinese who applied this principle of magnetism to
create the compass.
China developed the largest navy and was the greatest
sea power in the world. As just one example of the size of
this navy, Kublai Khan attempted an invasion of Japan in
1281 with a fleet of 4400 ships.
Inventado por chinos en
Usaron el conocimiento de
Desarrollo de la fuerza
naval mas grande del
Was a Chinese compilation commissioned by the
Chinese Ming Dynasty emperor Yongle in 1403. It was
then the world's largest known general encyclopedia, and
one of the earliest.
Incorporating eight thousand texts from ancient times up
to the early Ming Dynasty. They covered an array of
subjects, including agriculture, art, astronomy, drama,
geology, history, literature, medicine, natural sciences,
religion, and technology, as well as descriptions of
unusual natural events.
Was designed to include all that had ever been written on
the Confucian canon, history, philosophy, and the arts
and sciences. It was a massive collation of excerpts and
works from the mass of Chinese literature and
Una de las primeras
Incorporó diversos temas,
arte, medicina, religión, etc
Is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the
It passes through the cities of Beijing and Tianjin
and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu
The oldest parts of the canal date back to the 5th
The total length of the Grand Canal is roughly
1,770 km (1,100 miles).
Fuchai, the Duke of Wu ordered a canal be
constructed for trading purposes and within three
years the Han Gou had connected the Yangtze
River to the Huai River by means of existing
waterways, lakes and marshes.
EL GRAN CANAL
El más extenso del mundo.
Atraviesa varias ciudades.
Construido con fines de
The Chinese were the first people to ever make
and fly kites. Some designed as animals. The
national kite flying day is every year in April. Some
Chinese kites are so big that it takes four to five
people to make it move and work.
A row of beads on a metal rod that is used for
calculations. This was invented by the Chinese
sometime in the second century B.C. Few Chinese
are so skilled that they can figure out a difficult
math problem on an abacus faster that a person
using a calculator! The abacus was an early form of
Primeros en volar cometas.
Instrumento usado para
Forma más temprana de la