Chinese empire


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The Chinese Empire, five dinasties. El imperio Chino, 5 dinastias. Silk Road, La ruta de Seda.

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Chinese empire

  1. 1. Oscar Mora Margarita Manrique
  2. 2. •China is one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations. •Chinese civilization originated with city-states in the Yellow River valley. •From 1,766 to 207 Bc there were other dynasties in China, but it wasn’t considered an empire then. •221 BC. is commonly accepted to be the year in which China became unified under a large kingdom or empire. •Successive dynasties in Chinese history developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the Emperor of China to control the large territory. •The first evidence of Homo erectus in China, is dated 1.27 million years ago. Civilización Antigua Su origen se da en el Río Amarillo. El imperio nace en el año 221 a.c. Varias Dinastías hacen parte de su historia. 1.27 millones/años atrás aparece el homoerectus
  3. 3. Shang Dynasty (1,766 - 1,122 B.C.) Began with the reign of Tang and ended with the fall of Zhou, lasting for approximate 600 years, from 16 century BC to 11 century BC. Shang flourished economically Western Zhou Dynasty (1,122 - 771 B.C.) Zhou was founded at 11 century BC with its capital at Haojing. West Chou dynasty was the heyday of the Slave Society. Agricultural made great progress, tools improved. 1 2 3 Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770 - 256 B.C.) Power lying in the hands of powerful nobles. Internal conflict and power struggle intensified. Wars between the states were regular. Warrior States Dynasty (475 - 221 B.C.) From 475 BC to 221 When the Qinshihuang unified the country, is known as the Warrior Period. It is obvious so named for wars between the states continued, even intensified. This period is traditionally regarded as the beginning of the feudalism in china. Qin Dynasty (221 - 207 B.C) The king conquered the other six states and unified the country. He named himself the First Emperor, beginning the tradition of having emperors for rulers. 4 5
  4. 4. The Great Unification: The Ch'in Dynasty (256-206 BC) Western reaches of the Wei River. Great evil dynasty. Rrepressive, autocratic, and cruel; but brilliant political theorists and reformers. Aggressive policy of territorial expansion. Founded by Ch'in shih-huang-ti, collapsed only four years after his death in 210BC. Strong central government (Legalists principles), a strong military, a tightly controlled economy, and the strict regimentation of the citizens of the state. Confucianism as the state philosophy. Hard on commerce. Severely restricted trade and mercantilism, taxed heavily. The Great Wall of China to protect China from thearmies of the north. The Ch'in kingdom grew powerful and wealthy in a very short time. The name for China is derived from the Ch'in. Unificación Dinastía Ch’in Expansión territorial Gran crecimiento y prosperidad Gobierno centralizado Economía controlada La Gran Muralla China Chi’in: China.
  5. 5. The Former Han Dynasty (206 BC-25 AD) Longest dynasty (Han Wu Ti) Laws less harsh. Punishments less severe. They standarized weights, measures, and writing. Empire divided into into small feudal domains. Ambitious economic projects: 1-The joining of the two central commercial centers of China (the Yellow River to the capital at Chang-an) 2-Network of "ever-level granaries" to store excess grain preventing starvation in times of flood. Heavy taxation (avoided for Wealthy) to maintain control over the territories, fell on the merchants and peasants. 22 BC-revolts all over. From 23 to 25 AD, China seethed in chaos and constant warfare. Dinastía Han Temprana Estandarización de escritura y medidas. División Feudal Unión de los 2 centros comerciales de China. Bodegas de alimentos. Impuestos para las clases bajas genera caos.
  6. 6. The Later Han Dynasty (25-220) Longest dynasty in China history. Strong centralized government was restored. Powerful reforms were instituted. Recovery of a population devastated by war. Effective and aggressive military expansion around 50 AD. The military expansion of the Chinese empire all the way to the Caspian Sea. The control of large parts of inner Asia established the greatest trade route in the ancient world: the Silk Road. (most important route for trading goods and culture to the world) Power in hands of wealthy landowners (avoiding taxes). Revolts continued. 220 AD - the Han dynasty (empire) falls due to weak government. The next 300 years: The period of "The Three Kingdoms" and "The Six Dynasties" Separate, strong kingdoms. Dinastía Han Tardía Reestablecimiento de Gobierno centralizado. Agresiva expansión territorial (India) La Ruta de la Seda. Poder concentrado en la Realeza. Caída de la dinastía Han e Imperio Chino.
  7. 7. The Three Kingdoms (220-589) Long period of independent states. Uniform Chinese culture almost died out completely. 3 different religions. By 384, the Northern Wei kingdom began reuniting the kingdoms into a single empire. They moved their capital to the ancient site of Loyang and adopted Chinese language and culture. They failed to unify the kingdom, but managed to preserve the culture. By 534, the Northern Wei faded. Period of short-lived kingdoms. In 589,Sui Wen-ti founded a new dynasty over a restored empire. The Sui Dynasty (589-618) Centralized government. Reformed taxation structure. Ambitious building and economic projects. south conquest. Grand Canal. After his father’s death, Sui Yang-ti ran the empire but wars with Korea and natural disasters, bankrupted the government . Los Tres Reinos Cultura China casi desaparece. 3 Religiones distintas. Se unifica el idioma y cultura de nuevo. Años después se restaura el imperio. Dinastía Sui Gobierno centralizado Ambiciosos Proyectos económicos Guerras y desastres naturales
  8. 8. The T'ang Dynasty (618-970) Period of progress and stability, mostly. Land trade (the Silk Road), Maritime trade (Sea and The Grand canal). New technologies and contemporary items. Population grew (80 million) & declined to 17 million in the An Shi Rebellion, which destroyed the prosperity of the empire. Art and culture continued to flourish. Chinese poetry entered its most productive phase (Li Po &Tu Fu, 2 of the greatest poets in China). After a great military-territory expansion, a slow contraction under war with borders brought, civil War, bands of thieves and frequebt rebellions helped the fall of T’ang dynasty and China’s disunion. Dinastía T’ang En general, un periodo de estabilidad y prosperidad. Desarrollo cultural y comercial. Gran expansión territorial militar. La Rebelión An Shi y la contracción del imperio llevan a la caída de la dinastía. 5 Dynasties period
  9. 9. The Later Empire The Song Dynasty (960-1279) The Agricultural and Commercial Revolution: greater wealth for the general population and for the government. The widespread use of money. In the form of copper coins and later silver, the use of money greatly accelerated trade within China and led to the development of credit. Cities slowly converted from administrative to commercial centers. Acceleration of foreign trade. All the major trade routes and ports were controlled by Chinese merchants. Confusionism and Neo-confusionism. Fell of the Chinese Empire. The Mongols overtook China and a foreign dynasty started. The Yuan. (Mogolian Empire) Dinastía Song Revolución comercial y de agricultura El dinero, aparición y uso. Crédito. Comercio exterior Confusionismo y Neoconfusionismo Mongolia conquista China
  11. 11. SILK The Chinese knew how to produce silk at least by 1300 B.C The Chinese traded silk with the Roman Empire and then with Byzantium. In return they received such items as wool, glass, and asbestos. Through the silk trade the world's two great empires in the first century A.D. Rome and Han China - were linked. Ruta de la Seda SEDA Producción inicial 1300 B.C. Comercio con Romanos y Bizantinos. Trueque. Romanos unidos a China por el comercio de la seda Ruta de la Seda
  12. 12. SILK ROAD / SILK ROUTE More than 2,000 years of history. It began in Chang'an (present Xi'an, Shaanxi Province) in the east and stretched to Rome, Italy in the west. The route crosses Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai provinces, Ningxia Hui and Xinjiang Uygur autonomous regions and then passes over the Pamirs, to extend to Central and West Asia and finally reaches the east bank of the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Europe. Length: 2,485 miles, over half of the width of China. The Silk Road was the main artery for business and trade between China and the West. It has played an important role in the exchanges of cultural and trade-goods, sucha as: Papermaking, printing, compass and gunpowder.(introduced to Western countries via the Silk Road) LA RUTA DE LA SEDA Más de 2000 años de historia. Cruza por Asia y llega a Europa. La más importante vía de negocios. Todos los inventos chinos se dispersaron a través de esta ruta.
  14. 14. TÉ Originario de China. Considerado como una de las 7 necesidades en China. Áreas productoras rodeadas de ríos. TEA Tea drinking originated in China and spread throughout the world. The beverage is considered one of the seven necessities of Chinese life, along with firewood, rice, oil, salt, sauce and vinegar. Jiangnan and Jiangbei are tea-producing areas who are surrounded by the Changjiang (Yangtze) River.
  15. 15. PORCELAIN / CHINA A type of clay pottery, Invented in China by using clay with special minerals. First types made about 11,000 years ago, during the Palaleolithic era. By the 1100's, traders took Chinese porcelain to Europe, it was rare and expensive only wealthy people could afford it. By the 1700's, porcelain manufactured in many parts of Europe was starting to compete with Chinese porcelain. PORCELANA Inventada en China usando arcilla con minerales. Primeros tipos fueron hechos alrededor de 11,000 años atrás. Años 1100, llevada a Europa, bastante costosa. Hasta los 1700 porcelana Europea empieza a competir con la china.
  16. 16. First invented in China about 105 A.C. Its usespread to Chinese Turkestan (Central Asia), the Arab world (751 A.D.), Syria, Egypt, Morocco, Spain (c. 1150 A.D.), southern France, and the rest of Europe. It spread to the rest of world through the Silk Road. In 751 A.D some Chinese soldiers and paper makers were captured and brought to Samarkand and The Arabs learned the paper making. The Egyptians learned the paper making from the Arabs during the early 10th century. Around 1100 A.D. paper arrived in Northern Africa and by 1150 A.D. it arrived to Spain as a result of the crusades and established the first paper industry in Europe. The Chinese began using paper, made from rice straw, for toilet purposes in the sixth century, AD. PAPEL Inventado en China 105 A.C Su uso se expandió alrededor del mundo. Se comerció a través de la Rutas de Seda. Papel higiénico, siglo VI. PAPER
  17. 17. The Chinese began to use wood block printing in the 7th century where the text is carved into the wood blocks which are then inked. A blank sheet of paper is placed over the inked block so that the image can be transferred to the paper. The Chinese invented block printing, to reproduce the Confucian classics that had often been carved on stone. One possible source of the spread of block printing from China is playing cards, which the Chinese also invented and introduced to Europe. Another source is paper money, first printed in China in the tenth century A.D. and later introduced to Europe. IMPRESIÓN Impresión en Bloque. Madera, y tinta. Reproducir los clásicos de Confucio. Juego de Cartas, papel moneda. PRINTING
  18. 18. Gunpowder was invented in China c. 1000 A.D. and probably spread to Europe during the Mongol expansion of 1200-1300 A.D. The Chinese used it primarily for firecrackers, bombs or grenades were used by Chinese troops from before the 11th century. The Chinese did use gunpowder in fireworks for religious purposes, they also used gunpowder in cannons, rockets, and guns. Rocket arrows were used in 1126 to defend the city of Kaifeng which was the capital of the Sung empire. China did not pursue the development of weaponry as did the West; ironically, it was through the use of cannons and guns that the Europeans were able to dominate China in the mid- to late-1800s. PÓLVORA Inventada en China en 1000 d.C. Usada para petardos, bombas y granadas. Uso de pólvora para propósitos religiosos. GUNPOWDER
  19. 19. Historians believe that the Chinese invented the magnetic compass and used it for navigation c. 1100 A.D. Arab traders sailing to China probably learned of the Chinese method of sailing by compass and returned to the West with the invention. The ability to magnetize iron by placing it near a loadstone was known to ancient civilizations. But, it was the Chinese who applied this principle of magnetism to create the compass. China developed the largest navy and was the greatest sea power in the world. As just one example of the size of this navy, Kublai Khan attempted an invasion of Japan in 1281 with a fleet of 4400 ships. BRÚJULA Inventado por chinos en 1100 d.C. Usaron el conocimiento de la magnetización Desarrollo de la fuerza naval mas grande del mundo. COMPASS
  20. 20. Was a Chinese compilation commissioned by the Chinese Ming Dynasty emperor Yongle in 1403. It was then the world's largest known general encyclopedia, and one of the earliest. Incorporating eight thousand texts from ancient times up to the early Ming Dynasty. They covered an array of subjects, including agriculture, art, astronomy, drama, geology, history, literature, medicine, natural sciences, religion, and technology, as well as descriptions of unusual natural events. Was designed to include all that had ever been written on the Confucian canon, history, philosophy, and the arts and sciences. It was a massive collation of excerpts and works from the mass of Chinese literature and knowledge. ENCICLOPEDIA YONGLE Una de las primeras enciclopedias conocidas. Incorporó diversos temas, arte, medicina, religión, etc YONGLE ENCYCLOPEDIA
  21. 21. Is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. It passes through the cities of Beijing and Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang. The oldest parts of the canal date back to the 5th century BC. The total length of the Grand Canal is roughly 1,770 km (1,100 miles). Fuchai, the Duke of Wu ordered a canal be constructed for trading purposes and within three years the Han Gou had connected the Yangtze River to the Huai River by means of existing waterways, lakes and marshes. EL GRAN CANAL El más extenso del mundo. Atraviesa varias ciudades. Construido con fines de comercio. Extensión: 1,770km GRAND CANAL
  22. 22. The Chinese were the first people to ever make and fly kites. Some designed as animals. The national kite flying day is every year in April. Some Chinese kites are so big that it takes four to five people to make it move and work. A row of beads on a metal rod that is used for calculations. This was invented by the Chinese sometime in the second century B.C. Few Chinese are so skilled that they can figure out a difficult math problem on an abacus faster that a person using a calculator! The abacus was an early form of a calculator. COMETAS Primeros en volar cometas. Día/Mes: Abril. ABACO Instrumento usado para hacer cálculos. Forma más temprana de la calculadora. KITES ABACUS