Dr. Mohamed Abdelghani
M.B.B.Ch., M.Sc., M.D. Psych.
Zagazig Faculty Of Medicine
A relatively permanent change in
behavior brought about by
The most important types of
1) Classical conditioning
2) Operant conditioning
3) Cognitive Learning
Social (observational) learning
A previously neutral stimulus elicits a
response through its association with a
stimulus that naturally brings about the
Once an association had been made
between the two stimuli, the “conditioned
stim.” alone could lead to a response.
Other related definitions
Extinction: Unlearning what we have learned. It occurs when a
previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and
Spontaneous recovery: Reappearance of a previously
extinguished response after a period of time during which the
conditioned stimulus has been absent.
Stimulus generalization: Response to a stimulus that is similar
to the original conditioned stimulus. The great similarity between
the two stimuli increases the likelihood of generalization.
Stimulus discrimination: Process by which an organism learns
to differentiate among stimuli, restricting its response to one in
Clinical Applications of classical
1) Emotional response:
o Emotional responses may be learned through
o 11-month old infant named Albert
2) Behavior therapy:
A. Systematic desensitization: “developed by
B. Addiction to alcohol: “apomorphine”.
It describes learning in which
a voluntary response is
weakened, depending on its
positive or negative
Comparison between Classical and operant conditioning
a) A specific event, e.g. a light flash. a) Not a specific event.
b) Briefly presented.
b) Longer-lasting situation.
a) Variable, may be learned in a
a) Specific (usually a reflex or sequence (or chain of behaviors)
innate reaction to a situation, e.g. so that the end result is attainment
limb flexion or salivation)
of a desired goal.
b) Involuntary (determined by the b) Voluntary (not so closely
determined by the nature of
Does not depend on the response
(i.e., if it always presented
regardless of what the organism
Reinforcement does, e.g. the meat is given to the
dog whether the dog salivated or
Reinforcement is contingent upon
what the learner does. (If the
leaner does the 'right' thing, it is
reinforced, otherwise it is not).
Other related definitions
Positive reinforcer: a stimulus added to the
environment that leads to an increase in a
Negative reinforcer: a stimulus that removes
something unpleasant from the environment,
leading to an increase in the probability that a
preceding response will occur again in the future.
Punishment: an unpleasant or painful stimulus
that decreases the probability that a preceding
behavior will occur again.
I- Programmed learning
• An instruction technique in which material to be
learned is presented in successive, well- planned
• Subjects are expected to respond to a certain
problem and then check answer they have given is
correct or not.
• The answer provides feedback or
Acceptable responses will be reinforced and
unacceptable response will be extinguished.
2) Token economy
It is the teaching of a complex behavior by reinforcing
successive approximation of the desired activity.
A complex desired behavior is broken down into a
series of simpler responses.
This technique is effective in:
Training of autistic children to speak
Rehabilitation of physically handicapped
2) Token economy
For chronic mental hospital patients.
To apply the rules of reinforcement to individual
behavior on ward basis.
What patients want is the reinforcement, what
the staff want them to do is the response and
the token is the intermediary.
o To isolate the child, who made misbehavior, for
a brief period.
o "Go to your room" without receiving any
positive reinforcement (no dinner, no TV, no
Cognitive learning implies
understanding the connection
Cause and effect
Action and the consequences of the action.
1. Latent learning “Cognitive map”
2. Social learning
1) Latent learning
It is a type of cognitive learning, in which, a
new behavior is acquired but not readily
demonstrated until reinforcement is provided
for displaying it.
A mental representation of spatial locations
People develop cognitive maps of their
surroundings, based primarily on particular
• Social learning theory relies on role
modeling identification, and human
• A person can learn by imitating the
behavior of another person, but personal
factors are involved.
• Albert Bandura is a major proponent of the social
• Behavior results from the interplay between
cognitive and environmental factors.
• Persons learn by observing others, intentionally or
• Modeling is an important component of group
therapy in which members of the group learn from
o Method of learning
o Teacher„s role