الوسائط المتعددة Multimedia تاج

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الوسائط المتعددة Multimedia تاج

  1. 1. MultusMediumMediaMultimediaMultiMedia
  2. 2. MultimediaMultimedia is everything you can see or hear.
  3. 3. Describe any application or technologythat can be used to represent :-Text, image, sound, animation, videoUsing a combination of moving pictures,sound, music and words especially incomputer or entertainment.
  4. 4. Interactive
  5. 5. Hillmaa , 1998liner MediaOne- Way Communication
  6. 6. ----
  7. 7. InteractiveMultimediaNon-liner Media
  8. 8. Noha Emara---Two - WayCommunication"(
  9. 9. Non-Linear
  10. 10. Text·Image·Animation
  11. 11. ·Sound·Video·DirectorAuthorware··
  12. 12. PreproductionProductionPostproduction
  13. 13. Analysis PhaseAnalysis NeedsObjectiveTechnical RequirementsFinal phase
  14. 14. .1AudienceLearning needsQualifications
  15. 15. Duties:Learning prerequisitesGenderCultureSocial Background
  16. 16. HardwareTV , CD ,Internet , etcSoftware
  17. 17. Story Board
  18. 18. Design PhaseHyperlinksPrototype
  19. 19. Production Phasecomplete the system andprint out the results)
  20. 20. Evaluation Phase--Demo-Hardware/Softwar
  21. 21. -Last VersionFormative EvaluationSummative Evaluation :
  22. 22. HTML
  23. 23. spelling-writing – reading – composition –Grammer
  24. 24. 
  25. 25. Assignment -1Story Board–
  26. 26. Multimedia Elements
  27. 27. Multimedia ElementsDigital Image Main Points: Introduction. The importance of Image. Image types. Image processing & image matching . Image representation and calculating filesize.
  28. 28. Introduction Using of image and graphics overcenturies ago, and people usedimages instead of texts. ( One image is better than 1000words.). Bartilean system in 1920 was the firstsystem that used image processingmethod to transfer the newspaper fromLondon to New York over Atlantic ocean,which decreased the sending time fromone week to 3 hours.
  29. 29.  Image processing is used in Medicine( X-rays , Ultra sound , endoscopy,RMI), in Mining (Patrol , cold , …), inspace (NASA) in Military Purposes,and in many areas(Education,Telecommunications, Simulation).
  30. 30. Importance of image: Since 1964 , the image processing is agrowing area and now ( in 5th Generation)computers are using image and audio tocommunicate with the user. Image processing is used in space system(Ringer – 7) which sent images from the Moon in1964. Also used in military purposes as mentionedearlier. Image processing is an important for anycomputer area and is a rich research
  31. 31. Digital Image representation: Digital Image is composed of number ofpixels(picture element) and it can berepresented using 2D array ( Matrix ).( Nx N array ) For monochrome images ( B / W) ( Mono TV is 512 x 512 ) image can be expressed as afunction(relation )like this :1 0 10 0 11 1 1
  32. 32. f(x,y) = 0 ( black point).f(x,y) = 1 ( white point).( Ibn El-Haithem discovered that eyecan’t see in darkness ).
  33. 33. Image Types:There are three types of image:Binary Image.Gray Image.Color Image.Binary Image : it represented as one pixel inone bit ( e.g 100 pixel stored in 100 bits)Gray Scale image :.whitetoblackfromshadesmonochromaticofrangeaisGrayscaleTherefore, a grayscale image contains only shades of gray and nocolor.white)andblack(orgrayscaleassavedbecanimagesdigitalWhileimages, even color images contain grayscale information. This is.coloritsofregardlessvalue,luminanceahaspixeleachbecause
  34. 34. Luminance can also be described asbrightness or intensity, which can bemeasured on a scale from black (zerointensity) to white (full intensity). Mostsupport a minimumfile formatsimageof 8-bit grayscale, which provides 2^8or 256 levels of luminance per pixel.Some formats support 16-bit grayscale,which provides 2^16 or 65,536 levels ofluminance.
  35. 35. Color Image:thatdigital imageis a(digital) color imageA.pixelinformation for eachcolorincludesFor visually acceptable results, it is necessarysamples(and almost sufficient) to provide three(color channels) for each pixel, which areinterpreted as coordinates in some color space.(Red , Green , Blue) color space isRGBThecommonly used in computer displays.A color image has three values per pixel andthey measure the intensity and chrominance oflight.Thus they used 24 bit to represent each
  36. 36. Image Matching(Recognition)Steps: Digital image processing is the use ofcomputer algorithms to perform imageprocessing on digital images. As a subcategoryor field of digital signal processing, digitalimage processing has many advantages overanalog image processing. It allows a muchwider range of algorithms to be applied to theinput data and can avoid problems such as thebuild-up of noise and signal distortion duringprocessing. There are 6 steps to perform image matchingprocessing(comparing of two images):1. Image Scanning of capturing ( by using
  37. 37. 3- Segmentation : means separating ofimportant information (e.g extractingof body from background).4- Feature Extraction: (extracting offeatures (attributes ).5- Feature Classification(grouping offeatures).6- Image understanding(Matching)
  38. 38. Image Representation: Depth: the depth of an image is thenumber of bits used to representeach pixel.e.g in B/W (bitmap image ) : the depthis calculated as :One bit for each pixel.4 bit: represents 16 colors(2 ^ 4 ):used in low resolution screens.
  39. 39. 8 bit: can have 256 colors.8 bit gray : can have 256 gray levels.16 bit : can have 65,536 colors (hi colorin windows).16 bit divided into ( 5 bits for Red , 6bits for Green , 5 bit for Blue).24 bit: can have 16,777,216 colors eachbyte is used to represent the intensity ofa primary color(RGB). And each colorcan have 256 different levels.
  40. 40. Resolution : How much details animage can have , there are severalresolutions relating to image.1- Image Resolution : is the number ofpixels in an image ( e.g 320 x 240 =76000 pixels).2- Display ( Monitor ) Resolution: referto number of dots per inch ( dpi) on amonitor (windows usually has 96 dpiresolution)
  41. 41. Example : A 288 x 216 imagedisplayed on a monitor with 96 dpiwill be :[ 3 inch x 2.25 inch]( image size)3- Output Resolution: refer to numberof dot per inch on a hard copy(output device).Many printers have 300 dpi or 600 dpiresolution.( the above image printed on a 300 dpi
  42. 42. Vector Graphics: instead of using pixels , objectscan be represented by their attributes such as ,size , color , location.This type of graphics known as vector graphic.Vector graphic file contains graphics primitives forexample rectangle , circle , lines.There are many languages for describing vectorgraphics ( e.g VRML , SVG).
  43. 43. Calculation file size :File size = depth x image size[Depth (k)=2 ^ k = n , n is number of levels][Image Size = Area x R ^ 2]Calculation of image size steps:1- calculate k [ 2^ k = n , n is numberof levels)2- calculate the total number of pixelsTNP = area x R^2 ( R, Resolution )3- calculate the file sizeFS = [TNP x K ] KB
  44. 44. Example:A 32 level gray image with 10 dpiresolution and 7 x 8 inch , calculatethe file size (required space in Harddisk).Steps:1- cal k = 2 ^ k = n2 ^ k = 32 , k = 5 bits.(k is depth).2- cal TNP = area x R ^ 2= 7 x 8 x 100 = 5600 pixels.3- cal file size
  45. 45. H.W Calculate the File size for thefollowing images:1- A 256 color image with a resolutionof 5 dpi and an area of 100 inch.2- a binary image with 36000 pixels.[Hint: there is a relation between theimage resolution and the filesize][high resolution requires big sizeon the disk]

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