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Carbonic Anhydrase IX: regulation and role in cancer


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Lecture by Prof. Silvia Pastorekova in the course: "Tumour Hypoxia: From Biology to Therapy III". For the complete e-Course see

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Carbonic Anhydrase IX: regulation and role in cancer

  1. 1. METOXIA training course Maastricht 2012 Carbonic anhydrase IX: regulation and role in cancer S. PastorekovaDepartment of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Virology Slovak Academy of Sciences Bratislava, Slovakia
  2. 2. Carbonic anhydrases M75 Pastorekova et al, Virology, 1992CO2 + H2O HCO3- + H+ Zavada et al, Int J Cancer, 1993 Pastorek et al,, Oncogene, 1994 Opavsky et al, Genomics, 1996
  3. 3. Carbonic anhydrase IX PG Domain PG Domain TM TM I I C C Hilvo et al, J Biol Chem, 2008 Alterio et al: PNAS 2009
  4. 4. CA IX expression CAIX Expression CAIX Expression Broad range of solid tumors in Normal tissues in Solid tumors Oosterwijk et al, 1986- Parkkila et al, 1997- Harris et al, 2000- >400 papers
  5. 5. CA IX expression Transcription activated by hypoxia (+ VHL inactivation, high cell density, modulating factors e.g. acidosis) Alternative splicing (hypoxia-related) Shedding of ectodomain (hypoxia-related, ADAM17-driven) Kaluz et al, JBC, 1999 Wykoff et al,, Cancer Res, 2000 Kopacek et al, BBA, 2005 Zatovicova et al, Br J Cancer, 2005 Barathova et al, Br J Cancer, 2008
  6. 6. IHC biomarker of hypoxia Marker for in vivo imagingIndicator ofprognosis CA IX expression pattern Target for immunotherapy G250 Circulating marker for non-invasive monitoring
  7. 7. Hypoxia in tumor tissue• Acid-base imbalance  Reduced cell-cell• Activation of pH adhesion regulating machinery• Reversed pH gradient  Increased cell migration/invasion >
  8. 8. Adhesion – motility - invasion Purpose: tumor expansion, escape of cells from hostile microenvironmentPouyssegur, Nature, 2006
  9. 9. Shift in metabolismPurpose:Maintain biomass andenergy production HIF-1 Vander Heiden, Science, 2009
  10. 10. pH regulationPurpose:Maitain neutral pHi &surviveacidify pHe& facilitate invasion
  11. 11. CA IX role in tumor cells • I EW SREVpH regulation  Acidosis not only due tois interesting toprotons in tum It lactate and note that that were treated with compound 1 ( compound 2, the acidic pH e was revers normal pH values, which was undoub  Glycolysis-deficient inhibition of the tumour-associated cells form acidic drases28,45,46. Compound 1 (n=1), with a CA9, was shown via non-invasive fluo tumors in vivo to bind to cells only when the CA9 prote and when cells were hypoxic, in an i cancer 46. Fluorescently labelled sulph  Shift (rather than therefore provide a powerful tool for vis responses in in metabolism could switch) solid tumours and patients for CA9-directed therapies46. An i nteresti ng study repor ted t  LS CO2 – important overexpres 174Tr tumour cells that CA12, it was possible to genetically sile component of carbonic anhydrase isoforms47. Genetic β β acidosis alone caused a 40% reduction in xen volume and led to the overexpression of these cells were kept at an artificially low  Not just proton tration, and this observation has not been Genetic silencing of both CA9 and CA extrusion, but also reduction in tumour growth, which su bicarbonate import and CA12 are major tumour prosurviv enzymes47. Membrane-impermeable sulphonam (compounds 4 and 5), which are based oFigure 1 | Proteins involved in pH regulation within a tumour cell. The figureshows various proteins that are involved in regulating pH within tumours, including: mide scaffold to which either fluoresceinmonocarboxylate transporters (MCT Discovery, 2011 lactic acid and other Neri & Supuran, Nature Rev Drugs), which transport or albumin-binding moieties were attacmonocarboxylates formed by the glycolytic degradation of glucose; Na+/H+ exchangers tumour growth in mice with xenograf
  12. 12. CA IX role in tumor cells pH regulation CA IX activity = inhibited by bicarbonate but not lactate Bicarbonate metabolon
  13. 13. CA IX & extracellular acidificationA B N H N H lactate CA IX mock CA IX MDCK C Normoxia Hypoxia CA IX mockSvastova e al, FEBS Letters, 2004
  14. 14. CA IX & intracellular neutralization Swietach, Vaughan-Jones, Harris, Cancer Mestast Rev, 2007
  15. 15. CA IX role in tumor cells
  16. 16. CA IX role in tumor cells• Reduced E cadherin-mediated CA IX cell-cell adhesion E cadherin Svastova et al, Exp Cell Res, 2003
  17. 17. CA IX & cell dissociationneo CA IX Svastova et al, Exp Cell Res, 2003
  18. 18. CA IX domains Cell de-adhesion pH regulation cell de-adhesion ? Removal leads to loss of membrane localization
  19. 19. „Inside-out signaling“ from IC Hulikova et al, FEBS Letters, 2009
  20. 20. ! ! ! ! ! CA IX phosphorylation at Thr443 regulates ! ! ! ! the acidification of pHe ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!! !!! Diite et al., Cancer Res, 2011!! !
  21. 21. !!!CA IX is a PKA substrate! Diite et al., Cancer Res, 2011!
  22. 22. !!!! PKA is activated by hypoxia!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Diite et al., Cancer Res, 2011!
  23. 23. PKA activation in hypoxia
  25. 25. CA IX role in tumor cells• pH regulation - survival in hypoxia/acidosis pH~6.8 pH~7.4
  26. 26. CA IX role in tumor cells • pH regulation and cell migration MDCK-CA IX, 4h HGFStock & Schwab,Pflugers Arch, 2009
  27. 27. CA IX improves migration MDCK-neo MDCK-CA IXstart24 h Svastova et al., J Biol Chem, 2012
  28. 28. A549 Hy 48h, wound healing with HGF in hypoxia CA IX actin merge15 min 1h
  29. 29. CA IX role in tumor cells • Increased scattering (EMT) and cell migration Svastova et al, J Biol Chem 2012
  30. 30. CA IX co-localizes with bicarbonate transportersCA IX NBC merge Svatova et al., J Biol Chem, 2012 CA IX AE2 merge
  31. 31. CA IX interacts with bicarbonate transporters Svastova et al., J Biol Chem, 2012
  32. 32. CA IX phosphorylation affects CA IX is presentcell migration in invading tumor cells
  33. 33. CA IX role in tumor cells• CA IX role in cell migration /invasion /EMT Svastova et al, J Biol Chem, 2012• Role in focal adhesion Radvak et al, submitted
  34. 34. Expression pattern & function >>> CA IX as a target for therapy 1. Antibodies (immunotherapy, drug delivery) G250 Girentuximab 2. Inhibitors (blocking enzyme function from outside)3. Small molecules (blocking enzyme function from inside)
  35. 35. aidepolcycne eerf eht ,aidepikiW morF edimalozatecA cinobrac a si ,xomaiD eman edart eht rednu dlos ,edimalozatecA ,seruzies citpelipe ,amocualg taert ot desu si taht rotibihni esardyhna ,ssenkcis edutitla ,)irberec romutoduesp( noisnetrepyh lainarcartni ngineb gurd cireneg a sa elbaliava si edimalozatecA .aisatce larud dna ,airunitsyc .citeruid a sa desu osla si dna stnetnoC noitca fo msinahceM 1 sesU 2 amocualG 1.2 cigolorueN 2.2 emordnys nafraM 3.2 aenpa peelS 4.2 eman )CAPUI( citametsyS ssenkcis niatnuom etucA 5.2edimateca)ly-2-lozaidaiht-4,3,1-lyomaflus-5(-N eruliaF traeH evitsegnoC 6.2 atad lacinilC amedE decudnI-gurD 7.2 )SU(C )UA(3B .tac ycnangerP stceffe-ediS 3 )SU( ylno-℞ )KU( M OP sutats lageL snoitacidniartnoC 4 yrtsimehC 5 VI ,larO setuoR secnerefeR 6 atad citenikocamrahP enoN msilobateM sruoh 9 ot 3 efil-flaH noitca fo msinahceM laneR noitercxE desu eb yam ti yllacidem ;rotibihni esardyhna cinobrac a si edimalozatecA srefiitnedI .sisolakla yrotaripser ro cilobatem ereves ot etaredom fo snoitidnoc taert ot 5-66-95 r e bm u n S A C eht ni noitproser )-3OCH( etanobracib htiw gnirefretni yb siht seod tI 10CE10S edoc CTA .)eniru eht gnizinilakla suht dna( doolb eht gniyfidica-er ybereht ,syendik 6891 DIC mehCbuP gniwollof eht fo trap tsrfi eht sezylatac )AC( esardyhna cinobraC 91100DRPA knaBgurD era )O H( retaw dna )2OC( edixoid nobrac hcihw ni ,noitcaer elbisrever 2 9091 redipSmehC :asrev-eciv dna )3OC2H( dica cinobrac ot detrevnoc I0V569XF3O I INU - 81200D GGEK 3 OCH + +H >--< 3OC2H >--AC--< O2H + 2OC 02LBMEHC L B M Eh C enibmoc yllamron snoi negordyh deterces yllacol ,selubut yendik eht nI atad lacimehC Inhibitors d .)3OC2H( dica cinobrac mrof ot )-3OCH( etanobracib eretl fi htiw alumroF ,esardyhna cinobra c yb nopu detca yllamron si nrut ni dica cinobraC 2 3 S O 4 N 6H 4 C lom /g 542.222 ssam .loM yb selubut eht sevael yldipar 2OC sA .2OC fo noitamrof ot gnidaelmehCbuP & seluceloMe SELIMS detfihs snur yllamron noitcaer evoba eht ,senarbmem llec ssorca gnisuffid
  36. 36. Inhibitors: Opportunities & Challenges• Combination therapy – uptake of drugs, radiosenitization, blocking adaptation to hypoxia induced by anti- angiogenic therapy• Specificity, selectivity – membrane impermeant, bulky• Toxicity, solubility, off-target effects (HIF pathway)• Unexpected inhibition by other drugs (pazopanib, celecoxib, imanitib, nilotinib, steroid sulfatase inhibitiors)
  37. 37. • Acetazolamide (AAA) – general CA inhibitor• HeLa cervical carcinoma cells – no CA II, no CAXII, but hypoxia-induced CA IX• 3D sferoids to mimic hypoxia in tumors, CA IX incore• Long-term treatments (up to 20 days), cDNAmicroarray• Transcriptional effects – CA IX down, ADAM17 up> increased CA IX shedding – loss of target?
  38. 38. CA IX shedding CA IX ectodomainMembrane-bound ?CA IX? ?
  39. 39. AntibodiesRenal cell carcinoma immunotherapy – ADCC relatedG250 monoclonal antibody-based 3rd phase of clinical trials Shuch-BJU-08
  40. 40. Tumor uptake of VII/20 MAbHT-29-Luc cells, Luciferin i.p. MAb-Alexa Fluor 750
  41. 41. Internalization – yes or not? 1 V II/2 0 M A b C A IX 2 o r re cy pt e cl rec in g P 3 ? 6 ly e n d o s ar o e m e li g n nd 4 a io t d e g ra d a lo w p H ly s osom e 5 nd e osom e lig a n d a t io n ad nd a gr re c e e p to r d n u cle us cyto p la smVII/20 Zatovicova et al, Curr Pharm Design, 2010
  42. 42. SUMMARYCA IX – transmembrane CA isoform, high enzyme activity,active site exposed extracellularlyExpression associated with tumorsComplex regulation, hypoxia as a key factor,HRE near to transcription initiation siteFunctionally implicated in pH control and cell adhesion, migration, invasionClinical application as a marker of hypoxia, prognostic indicator , monitoringmarker and potential therapeutic targetSpecific monoclonal antibodies & selective inhibitorsas tools for the research and clinical use in cancer detection,prognostication and therapy
  43. 43. Jaromir PastorekEliska SvastovaPeter DitteMiriam ZatovicovaLucia CsaderovaMartina TakacovaJuraj KopacekPeter Radvak& other lab members FUNDINGFranck Dequiedt EU STRUCTURAL FUNDSUniversity of Liege 6FP EUROXY 7FP METOXIAClaudiu Supuran 6FP CELLCHCECKUniverity of Florence 7FP ENGCABRASeppo Parkkila COST HypoxiaNetUniverity of Tampere WILEX A.G. BAYER PHARMAMETOXIA partners APVV SLOVAK GA
  44. 44. E. Svastova and S. Pastor ekovaN. M asson and P. J. Ratcliffe A. Gör lachT. M . F Connor and P. H. M axwell O. Kr izanovaC. M ichiels S. Winning and J. Fandr ey M . Takacova, T. GoliasovaK. J. Nytko, D. P. Stiehl, R. H. Wenger and J. Kopacek S. Peeter s, P. Lambin and L. DuboisA. Loboda, H. Was, U. Flor czyk ,A. Jozkowicz and J. Dulak B. Reymen and P. LambinE. O. Petter sen K. J. Williams and S. R. M cKeownE. P. Cummins, S. F. Fitzpatr ickand C. T. Taylor A. Rapisar da, N. Fer and G. M elilloR. Hr stka, P. M üller, P. J. Coates,B. Vojtesek C. T. Supur anT. Kietzmann