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ConFoo - NuGet beyond Hello World

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ConFoo - NuGet beyond Hello World

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Everybody is consuming or producing NuGet packages these days. It’s easy, right? We’ll look beyond what everyone is doing. How can we use the NuGet client API to fetch data from NuGet? Can we build an application plugin system based on NuGet? What hidden gems are there in the NuGet server API? Can we create a full copy of NuGet.org?

Everybody is consuming or producing NuGet packages these days. It’s easy, right? We’ll look beyond what everyone is doing. How can we use the NuGet client API to fetch data from NuGet? Can we build an application plugin system based on NuGet? What hidden gems are there in the NuGet server API? Can we create a full copy of NuGet.org?

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ConFoo - NuGet beyond Hello World

  1. 1. 1 NuGet beyond Hello World Maarten Balliauw @maartenballiauw
  2. 2. 3 Agenda Introduction Beyond package dependencies dotnet new templates Extending tools Using client SDK Server API
  3. 3. 4 Introduction
  4. 4. 5 NuGet? Project started in 2011 to make dependency management easier & better Several things Repositories Public repository at www.nuget.org Private repositories everywhere (www.myget.org) Clients & tools NuGet.exe, Visual Studio, Rider, Xamarin Studio, Paket, … dotnet CLI tools Conventions SemVer, metadata and symbols
  5. 5. 6 Maturity model No package manager in use Consuming publicly available packages Building and consuming own packages Proper SemVer, promotion flow, license and vulnerability management
  6. 6. 7 Beyond project dependencies
  7. 7. 8 NuGet More than just a package manager Extensibility (dotnet new, dotnet CLI) NuGet is… a protocol! API for transferring metadata and binaries Server API Client-side libraries Versioning system built-in
  8. 8. 9 dotnet new
  9. 9. 10 Project/item templates as a package New MVC project: dotnet new mvc --auth Individual New Web.config file: dotnet new webconfig
  10. 10. 11 Project/item templates as a package Roll your own templates! https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/core/tutorials/create-custom-template https://github.com/dotnet/templating/wiki/Available-templates-for-dotnet-new TL;DR: Add /.template.config/template.json file in package Add template files, e.g. /ItemTemplate.cs Create a NuGet package containing the above
  11. 11. 12 Project/item templates as a package
  12. 12. 13 dotnet new project template demo
  13. 13. 14 Extending dotnet CLI
  14. 14. 15 Extending dotnet CLI Why? Existing examples dotnet nuget – the NuGet command line, integrated dotnet ef – Entity Framework command line tools dotnet watch – Automatically load updates to an ASP.NET Core application Create tools your team/customers can use (please go build these for me ) dotnet protobuf – Companion tool for creating protobuf models dotnet optimize-images – Optimize images in a project dotnet outdated – Scan and show outdated package references dotnet mirror – Mirror referenced packages to a local folder
  15. 15. 16 Extending dotnet CLI How? Create a console application Name it dotnet-<something> Package it with <PackageType>DotnetCliTool</PackageType> Install as a CLI tool (or in %PATH%) (per project in .NET Core <= 2.0, global in .NET Core >= 2.1) https://github.com/dotnet/docs/blob/master/docs/core/tools/extensibility.md
  16. 16. 17 Extending dotnet CLI demo https://github.com/maartenba/dotnetcli-init
  17. 17. 18 Client SDK
  18. 18. 19 Consuming NuGet programatically Why? Find package metadata Download and extract package Custom build task, custom tool used in CI, … Distribute applications / plugins as NuGet packages Transport and versioning come free! dotnet new, NuGet Package Explorer, R# extension manager, Chocolatey, Octopus Deploy, Seq, CMS like EPIserver, SiteCore, Orchard, …
  19. 19. 20 Consuming NuGet programatically How? Old world: NuGet.Core New world: NuGet v3 client Series of packages, NuGet.PackageManagement being the main package Open-source on GitHub Dave Glick has a good series (part 1, part 2, part 3)
  20. 20. 21 Packages to install NuGet.PackageManagement Overall management of packages, sources, … NuGet.Protocol.Core.v2 V2 protocol client (OData) NuGet.Protocol.Core.v3 V3 protocol client (JSON and randomness) NuGet.ProjectManagement Project system (inside IDE and inside file system) NuGet.Packaging Read and write .nuspec and .nupkg NuGet.Versioning Implements working with versions and ranges NuGet.Commands (optional) Command-line commens (spec, pack, publish, ...) implemented as static classes mostly
  21. 21. 22 NuGet, via C# demo
  22. 22. 23 A few things to know… All operations performed via resources (e.g. PackageSearchResource, ListCommandResource, …) All operations performed against a project Folder (note: only supports installing as there is no tracking) PackagesConfig MSBuild Your own implementation Package manager orchestrates all operations Package repository holds packages (can be remote or local)
  23. 23. 24 SearchPortal demo
  24. 24. 25 Server API
  25. 25. 26 NuGet talks to a repository Can be on disk/network share Or remote over HTTP(S) 2* API’s V2 – OData based (used by pretty much all NuGet servers out there) V3 – JSON based (available on NuGet.org and MyGet.org) * This is a lie…
  26. 26. 27 V2 Protocol OData, started as “OData-to-LINQ-to-Entities” (V1 protocol) Optimizations added to reduce # of random DB queries (VS2013+ & NuGet 2.x) Search – Package manager list/search FindPackagesById – Package restore (Does it exist? Where to download?) GetUpdates – Package manager updates https://www.nuget.org/api/v2 (code in https://github.com/NuGet/NuGetGallery)
  27. 27. 28 V3 Protocol JSON based More of a “resource provider” (see client SDK) of various endpoints per purpose Catalog (NuGet.org only) – append-only event log Registrations – latest incarnation of a package Flat container - .NET Core package restore (and VS autocompletion) Report abuse URL template Statistics … https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json (code in https://github.com/NuGet/NuGet.Services.Metadata)
  28. 28. 29 V3 Protocol is… interesting Service index points to resources @id, @type (versioned), comment Client should load-balance on @type occurrences NuGet.org does this to perform search etc.: RetryingHttpClientWrapper (also has a request queue) Many views on the same data Specific to a scenario in the client Some compute based, some storage based Search, autocomplete -> compute Registrations, flatcontainer -> storage Catalog -> NuGet.org internal use
  29. 29. 30 Server API demo
  30. 30. 31 How does it fit together? User uploads to NuGet.org Data added to database Data added to catalog (append-only data stream) Various jobs run over catalog using a cursor Registrations (last state of a package/version), reference catalog entry Flatcontainer (fast restores) Search index (search, autocomplete, NuGet Gallery search)
  31. 31. 32 How does it fit together? User uploads to NuGet.org Data added to database Data added to catalog (append-only data stream) Various jobs run over catalog using a cursor Registrations (last state of a package/version), reference catalog entry Flatcontainer (fast restores) Search index (search, autocomplete, NuGet Gallery search)
  32. 32. 33 NuGet.org catalog demo
  33. 33. 34 Catalog data Updates (add/update) Deletes Chronological Can continue where left off Can restore NuGet.org to a given point in time Why use it? Mirror locally Send notifications when certain packages changed Build own index, build own datastore based on data E.g. https://packagesearch.azurewebsites.net/ …
  34. 34. 35 Other extensibility points
  35. 35. 36 Other extensibility points NuGet Credential Provider https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/nuget/api/nuget-exe-credential-providers NuGet package download https://github.com/NuGet/Home/wiki/NuGet-Package-Download-Plugin
  36. 36. 37 Conclusion
  37. 37. 38 Conclusion Beyond package dependencies dotnet new templates Extending tools Using client SDK Server API
  38. 38. 39 Thank you! http://blog.maartenballiauw.be @maartenballiauw

Editor's Notes

  • https://pixabay.com
  • https://pixabay.com/en/tires-used-tires-pfu-garbage-1846674/
  • Level 0 – No package manager in use
    Level 1 – Consuming publicly available packages
    Level 2 – Building and consuming own packages

  • https://pixabay.com/en/tires-used-tires-pfu-garbage-1846674/
  • Open package in NPE
    Show people around the files
    Add as template to Rider
    Create new project
  • Show the tool in action!
    Open Rider, create new class library
    Edit project file, add <ItemGroup><DotNetCliToolReference Include="DotNetInit" Version="*" /></ItemGroup>
    Run dotnet restore & dotnet init (in correct folder)
    Profit
    How to create such tool?
    Not going to go through code completely as it’s on GitHub, but in simple terms:
    Open https://github.com/maartenba/dotnetcli-init
    See it’s just Program.cs that takes args
    Can be run standalone
    Edit project file, show:
    To be part of dotnet-cli -> name it dotnet-<something>
    Package type (case sensitive)
  • Create new Console Application in Rider
    Explain we will build 2 scenarios: a search which displays package metadata, and an install/extract
    Add NuGet package: NuGet.PackageManagement (should bring down all dependencies we need) AND NuGet.Protocol.Core.v2
    Let’s start with search first.
    Program.cs -> SearchPackageAndDumpDetails("json");
    Code – make sure to explain:
    ILogger
    Everything is based around resource providers (like protocol support, search, …)
    private static async Task SearchPackageAndDumpDetails(string searchTerm) { var logger = new NullLogger(); var providers = new List<Lazy<INuGetResourceProvider>>(); providers.AddRange(Repository.Provider.GetCoreV2()); providers.AddRange(Repository.Provider.GetCoreV3()); var packageSource = new PackageSource("https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json"); var repository = new SourceRepository(packageSource, providers); var searchResource = await repository.GetResourceAsync<PackageSearchResource>(); var searchResults = await searchResource.SearchAsync(searchTerm, new SearchFilter(includePrerelease: true), 0, 10, logger, CancellationToken.None); foreach (var searchResult in searchResults) { Console.WriteLine(searchResult.Identity.Id + " " + searchResult.Identity.Version); } Console.ReadLine(); }

    Now let’s also install a package. For this, we need a project context.
    Mention context provider for logging or use EmptyNuGetProjectContext
    Code:

    private static async Task InstallPackage(string packageId, string packageVersion, bool includeDependencies) { // Package we ant to install var packageIdentity = new PackageIdentity(packageId, NuGetVersion.Parse(packageVersion)); // Remote var providers = new List<Lazy<INuGetResourceProvider>>(); providers.AddRange(Repository.Provider.GetCoreV2()); providers.AddRange(Repository.Provider.GetCoreV3()); var packageSource = new PackageSource("https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json"); var repository = new SourceRepository(packageSource, providers); // Local var projectPath = "c:\\users\\maart\\desktop\\temp"; var packagesPath = "c:\\users\\maart\\desktop\\temp\\packages"; var project = new FolderNuGetProject(projectPath); var settings = Settings.LoadDefaultSettings(projectPath, null, new XPlatMachineWideSetting()); // Create package manager var repositoryProvider = new SourceRepositoryProvider(settings, providers); var packageManager = new NuGetPackageManager(repositoryProvider, settings, packagesPath) { PackagesFolderNuGetProject = project }; // Create dependency resolution context (no prerelease/unlisted) var dependencyBehaviour = includeDependencies ? DependencyBehavior.Lowest : DependencyBehavior.Ignore; var resolutionContext = new ResolutionContext(dependencyBehaviour, false, false, VersionConstraints.None); // Install the package already var projectContext = new LoggingNuGetProjectContext(); await packageManager.InstallPackageAsync(packageManager.PackagesFolderNuGetProject, packageIdentity, resolutionContext, projectContext, repository, new SourceRepository[] {}, CancellationToken.None); }
  • Open SearchPortal application, demo things (install plugin, see it shows up in portal)
    In code, walk through PluginManager class
    Plugins stored in plugins folder
    ListPlugins -> searches remote and combines with local which is an issue with FolderNuGetProject! (no tracking)
    SearchPortalNuGetProject -> wraps a packages config project as well to keep track of what is actually installed
    Install -> just like in previous demo
    Uninstall -> again using override as FolderNuGetProject has no tracking
    (will not always work as appdomain needs to be unloaded to remove binaries, could do shadow copy to overcome this but meh, demo purposes)
  • Open Fiddler files
    Go through V2 one
    Go through V3 one and look at various resources, mention @id, @type, comment
    Mention versions as well (e.g. registrations with/without semver2 support)
    Open a few resources and try some requests
    Autocomplete: https://api-v2v3search-0.nuget.org/autocomplete?q=json&supportedFramework=any&prerelease=true
    Autocomplete versions: https://api-v2v3search-0.nuget.org/autocomplete?id=newtonsoft.json
    Search: https://api-v2v3search-0.nuget.org/query?q=json&supportedFramework=any&prerelease=true
    Note only latest version + list of version numbers
    Note link to catalog and registrations
    Registration: https://api.nuget.org/v3/registration0/newtonsoft.json/index.json
    Note metadata
    Note paging, ranges, ...
    Registration version: https://api.nuget.org/v3/registration0/newtonsoft.json/10.0.1.json
    Flat container (templated): https://api.nuget.org/v3/flatcontainer/newtonsoft.json/index.json
    Flat container download (templated): https://api.nuget.org/v3/flatcontainer/newtonsoft.json/10.0.1/newtonsoft.json.10.0.1.nupkg
    Catalog: list of commits https://api.nuget.org/v3/catalog0/index.json
    Catalog: specific page https://api.nuget.org/v3/catalog0/page2318.json
  • Open collector demo project
    Show packges installed, most important: NuGet.Services.Metadata.Catalog
    Contains “collectors” that traverse over the catalog and to which we can subscribe
    Quite an internal implementation, but created a SimpleCommitCollector
    Handles OnProcessBatch and does some data transformation
    Fires either ProcessPackageUpdateAsync or ProcessPackageDeleteAsync
    View hierarchy (Ctrl+E, Ctrl+H)
    Mention NuGet implementations galore in NuGet.Services.Metadata, even unused ones (but also the ones that create search index, flatcontainer, ...)
    Example: EchoCollector
    Run it
    Breakpoint, show properties available
    Example: MirrorCollector
    Run it
    See it mirrors packages
    Dirty way of building download URL, should use service index to get template, but it works anyway

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