12 Leveraging Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation

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12 Leveraging Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation

  1. 1. Utilizing Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation<br />Leif Singer, Olesia Brill, Sebastian Meyer, Kurt Schneider<br />Software Engineering Group<br />Leibniz Universität Hannover<br />{leif.singer, olesia.brill, sebastian.meyer, kurt.schneider}@inf.uni-hannover.de<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Definition of an IT ecosystem<br />Ourapproach<br />Short Example<br />Open Questions<br />Ongoingresearch<br />Conclusions<br />Utilizing Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation<br />2<br />L. Singer, O. Brill, S. Meyer, K. Schneider<br />
  3. 3. Whatis an IT ecosystem?<br />An IT ecosystem<br />is an ultra-large-scalesoftwaresystem<br />consists of a large number of actors<br />The technologyof an IT ecosystemistightlyintegratedintoeverydayslife<br />may not beperceivedas an IT system<br />usersmay not knowoforare not interested in thecapabilitiesofthesystem<br />Utilizing Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation<br />3<br />L. Singer, O. Brill, S. Meyer, K. Schneider<br />
  4. 4. Actors in IT ecosystems<br />An IT ecosystemconsistsofvariousactors<br />An actorcanbe an technicalsubsystem<br />E.g. trafficlights<br />An actorcan also be an autonomousagent<br />Like a human end useror<br />a transportrobot<br />Eachactorusestheinfrastructurethatisofferedbythe IT ecosystemtoachievetheirgoals<br />Utilizing Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation<br />4<br />L. Singer, O. Brill, S. Meyer, K. Schneider<br />
  5. 5. Problems in RequirementElicitation<br />Requirements (for IT ecosystems) havetobedefinedandvalidatedby all stakeholders<br />End usersmay not beawareofthesurroundingsystem<br />Orare not interested in it<br />Thosearetheinterestingstakeholdersforus<br />The lack ofinterestorawarenessresults in toolittlemotivationfortakingpart in classicalelicitation<br />Making thefindingofnewrequirementsandvalidationofexistingrequirementsdifficult<br />Methodsforrequirementselicitationshouldbeasunobstrusiveaspossible in order tobeuseful in thissetting<br />Utilizing Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation<br />5<br />L. Singer, O. Brill, S. Meyer, K. Schneider<br />
  6. 6. Rule-based IT ecosystems<br />Interaction ofsubsystems must becontrolled in order tokeepthe IT ecosystemupandrunning<br />The interactionoftheactorscanleadtouncontrolledemergenteffects<br />A rule-basedinfrastructurecanhelptominimizetheimpactofunwantedeffects<br />Rules havetobeseparatedintohardruleswhich must beadheredtoandruleswhichmaybebroken<br />Actors must usethe IT ecosystem‘sinfrastructuretocommunicatewitheachother<br />Thiscanbeusedtoensureruleadherence<br />Utilizing Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation<br />6<br />L. Singer, O. Brill, S. Meyer, K. Schneider<br />
  7. 7. Iterative processofrefiningrequirements<br />Utilizing Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation<br />7<br />L. Singer, O. Brill, S. Meyer, K. Schneider<br />Initial Rule Set introduced<br />Requirementsexpressed as Rules<br />Users developnewRequirements<br />Addition/Modification of Rules<br />User BehaviordeviatesfromRules<br />RequirementsEngineerreviewsDeviations<br />System logs deviations<br />Preprocessing of Deviations<br />
  8. 8. ObservingRuleDeviations<br />Autonomousactorscandecideto break rules<br />Thosedeviationscanbemonitoredbytheinfrastructure<br />Eachdeviationof a ruleisloggedwith an associatedcontext<br />If a ruleisadheredto, thisis also loggedtoget a relative measurementofruledeviations<br />The loggedruledeviationscanbeusedtoextractneworrefinedrequirements<br />Utilizing Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation<br />8<br />L. Singer, O. Brill, S. Meyer, K. Schneider<br />
  9. 9. ExtractionofRequirements<br />Breaking of rules may imply errors in the underlying requirements<br />Autonomousagentsthat break a rulearenormally not interested in creatingnewrequirements<br />Thereforeweneed an unobtrusiveapproach<br />Based on theloggeddeviations, patternscanautomaticallybederived<br />E.g. usinginformationretrievaltechniques<br />The actualextractionofrequirementsfromthesefilteredruledeviationshastobedonemanually<br />Utilizing Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation<br />9<br />L. Singer, O. Brill, S. Meyer, K. Schneider<br />
  10. 10. Example<br />Utilizing Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation<br />10<br />L. Singer, O. Brill, S. Meyer, K. Schneider<br />Rule: AllocateparkinglotneartheentrancetotheSmartFair<br />
  11. 11. Example<br />Utilizing Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation<br />11<br />L. Singer, O. Brill, S. Meyer, K. Schneider<br />Rule: AllocateparkinglotneartheentrancetotheSmartFair<br />
  12. 12. Example<br />Utilizing Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation<br />12<br />L. Singer, O. Brill, S. Meyer, K. Schneider<br />Rule: AllocateparkinglotneartheentrancetotheSmartFair<br />Observation: Drivers chooseparking lots whichare in theshadows<br />New Rule: On sunnydays, allocateparkinglot in theshadows.<br />
  13. 13. Open Questions<br />Whataretherequirementsfor a rule-basedinfrastructure?<br />Distinctionbetweenhardrules / soft goalssufficient?<br />Whatis a rightcontext? Howcanwederiveitfor a deviation?<br />Is thecontextdefinedbytheecosystemorbytheactorsitself?<br />Possible Solution: <br />Use an ontologythatrelatesobjectsanddata.<br />A ruledeviationcan log whichobjectsparticipated in thedeviationandcreatethecorrectcontext<br />Utilizing Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation<br />13<br />L. Singer, O. Brill, S. Meyer, K. Schneider<br />
  14. 14. Ongoingresearch<br />The presented approach is still in its early stages and could not be evaluated yet. <br />In a joint project with two other universities from Lower Saxony we are currently creating the foundations for a prototype that will be used to evaluate the presented approach.<br />The current focus is building a suitable rule-system supporting the approach.<br />Subsequently, data mining and pattern recognition techniques will be selected and evaluated to derive the potential changes in requirementsfromruledeviations.<br />Utilizing Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation<br />14<br />L. Singer, O. Brill, S. Meyer, K. Schneider<br />
  15. 15. Conclusions<br />In IT ecosystems, the main interest of end users is deriving actual utility from the system<br />Due to emergent effects of many actors interacting with each other, requirements for an IT ecosystem are changing<br />Requirements elicitation is challenging in this setting<br />Utilize behavior of end users, specifically: rule deviations<br /> Analyze for candidates for potential new or changed requirements<br />Utilizing Rule Deviations in IT Ecosystems for Implicit Requirements Elicitation<br />15<br />L. Singer, O. Brill, S. Meyer, K. Schneider<br />

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