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Critiques on Research
To sir Zahid Bilal
By Madiha Naz
M.Phil (2) 18081716-006
Contents
• What is a critical review?
• Critical Review of Research Articles
• Purposes
• Guidelines for Writing a Research Critique
• Guidelines for critiquing the research report
• Examples of research critiques
What is meant by critical
• To be critical does not mean to criticize in an
exclusively negative manner. To be critical of a
text means to question the information and
opinions in the text, in an attempt to evaluate
or judge its worth overall.
What is a critical review?
• A critical review (sometimes called a critique,
critical commentary, critical appraisal and
critical analysis) is a detailed commentary on
and critical evaluation of a text. Critical review
may carry out a as a stand-alone exercise, or as
part of your research and preparation for
writing a literature review.
Critical Review of a Research Article
• Research critique is a planned, careful critical
evaluation of a piece of research work against
the pre specified criteria to judge the strengths
and weaknesses of the research study. Critique
should be balanced, where alternative
suggestions must be provided to further
enforce the strengths and eliminate the
weaknesses of the study to improve overall
quality of the research project.
Purposes
• To provide inputs regarding the strength and
weakness of a study to the researchers.
• To provide suggestions to the students
regarding the methodological flaws in the
research project and also to evaluate the
understanding of research by the students.
• To judge the scientific merits of the study.
• To take a decision whether to publish the
study in journal or not.
Guidelines for Writing a Research
Critique
• Read and understand the research report
carefully.
• Carryout the critical appraisal of all the aspects
of the research report before writing the
critique of a research report.
• Avoid general vague statements; be objective
and sensitive while framing the negative
comments, and be practical by considering all
the limitations of the research.
Conti…
• Keep a balanced approach in the research
critique by presenting both strong and weak
points of report, because certainly no report
without any negative aspects.
• Positive and negative points must be supported
with examples to make a clear stand about the
strengths and weaknesses of the research
report.
Guidelines for critiquing the research
report
• Some of the positive points of the study can be
gathered from the questions formulated; more
the number of questions answered with ‘yes’,
the better the study is considered. A rating
scale may be used for critiquing a research
report.
Critique on Title of Study/Research
• You may be a better judge of this after reading
the article, but the title should succinctly
reflect the content of the work, stimulating
reader’s interest.
• Keywords
CRITIQUE OF THE STUDY
BACKGROUND
• Research problem
• Is the problem statement clearly and concisely
articulated?
• Is the problem significant for media profession
and has the researcher provided good argument
for the significance?
• Is the research problem within the professional
domain?
• Is the problem not complex to study and
appropriately delimited in its scope?
Cont..
• Does the problem statement clearly depict the
variables, population, and place of the study?
• Is the research problem feasible to study in
reference to time, resources, researcher’s
ability and availability of respondents?
• Is the research problem directed to develop or
test the media theories?
• Objectives
• Are the objectives in accordance with research
problem?
• Are the objectives stated in clear and concise form?
• Are the objectives stated using accepted action verbs in
logical manner?
• Operational definitions
• Are all the study variables operationally defined?
• Are operational definitions stated in logical and
measurable form?
• Hypotheses
• Are the hypotheses stated? If not, does the researcher
provide sufficient information for not stating the hypotheses
• Are hypotheses logically related with the research problem
and objectives? If stated, are the hypotheses clear?
Specific? Testable?
• Whether hypotheses are stated in measurable terms by
stating the level of significance to accept or reject the
hypothesis? Are hypotheses stated in a way that they
express a predicted relationship between two or more
variables?
• Are hypotheses based on conceptual framework used in
research study?
• Conceptual framework
• Is conceptual framework appropriate and in
accordance with research problem?
• Is conceptual framework based on a nursing
theory or a theory from other related
disciplines?
• Are all the concepts in conceptual framework
clearly, adequately, and logically defined and
articulated in a way that they help either in the
testing or generation of a theory?
• Literature review
• Is the literature completely in accordance with
research problem and covers majority of available
studies on the topic under study?
• Is the literature reviewed from the current and
primary sources?
• Is the literature review well-organized under
subheadings in a chronological order according to
the year of the study?
• Is the literature review presented in an analytical
way to draw the meaningful inferences?
CRITIQUE OF THE
METHODOLOGICALASPECTS
• Research design
• Is the design specified correctly? What was the
design used?
• Is the design appropriate to answer the
research question?
• Did the researcher attempt to control for
threats to internal and external validity?
• Sample and sampling technique
• Is the sample size adequate?
• Is the sample likely to be similar to members
of population overall?
• Are the criteria for including and/or excluding
people or items from sample clear and
appropriate?
• Is an appropriate sampling technique used to
draw a sample from population?
• Data collection method and tools
• Are the instruments or other means for data
collection described sufficiently?
• Are the reliability and validity of instruments
addressed? Are those adequate?
• Are data collection method described clearly?
• Are the data collection methods appropriate?
Could the researcher mentioned the specific
benefits and problems faced by the research with
particular methods of data collection?
• Ethical considerations
• Are the participants safe from any physical harms,
risks, psychological and social distress and
discomfort?
• Is confidentiality of information and anonymity
and privacy of subjects was maintained?
• Was an appropriate written or verbal consent
taken from all the study participants?
• Was a written permission obtained from
competent authority to conduct the research
study?
Cont.…
• If vulnerable populations were involved, was
special consideration given to informed
consent and study procedure?
• Was the benefits of the study outweighed the
risk for individual subjects and a risk/ benefit
assessment considered?
• Were subjects recruited, selected and assigned
to groups in an equitable way?
CRITIQUE OF RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS,
AND MISCELLANEOUS ASPECTS OF
THE STUDY• Analysis of data
• Is the process used to analyze data clear?
• Whether the processes for data analysis appropriate to
answer the research question?
• Do the results provide, are they clear and understandable?
• Of tables are provided, are they clear and understandable?
• For qualitative studies, some additional items for critique
include: Does the researcher provide sufficient examples of
the data?
• Does the researcher describe processes that were used to
avoid biasing or influencing the data obtained and the
analysis procedures used?
• Interpretation and discussion of data
• Does the discussion ‘fit’ with the data? Is it logical
based on the data and results presented?
• Does the researcher discuss the findings in regard to
previous research?
• Does the researcher discuss the findings in regard to the
theoretical framework?
• Does the researcher identify limitations of the study?
How do these affect the quality of the study?
• Does the researcher discuss implications for practice?
Are these appropriate?
• Conclusion and recommendations
• Has the study concluded concisely and precisely depicting
most significant findings?
• Are the conclusions drawn in accordance with study
objectives, hypotheses/ assumptions, and conceptual
framework?
• Are practical recommendations made towards improvement
in the nursing practices?
• Are the recommendations consistent with the research
findings and results?
• Are the recommendations made with suggested changes and
improvements in the methodologies of the further
researcher studies on similar topics?
• References
• Are the in-text references cited as per
recommended guidelines?
• Are the references relevant and completely
follow the recommended style?
Analyzing and synthesizing information
• Once all the relevant studies have been retrieved, read
abstracted, and critiqued, the information has to be
analyzed and synthesized.
• A thematic analysis essentially involves detecting
patterns and regularities, as well as inconsistencies.
• Several different types of themes can be identified.
• Clearly, it is not possible even in lengthy free-standing
reviews to analyze all the themes identified.
• Reviewers have to make decisions about which patterns
to pursue.

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Presentation critique

  • 1. Critiques on Research To sir Zahid Bilal By Madiha Naz M.Phil (2) 18081716-006
  • 2. Contents • What is a critical review? • Critical Review of Research Articles • Purposes • Guidelines for Writing a Research Critique • Guidelines for critiquing the research report • Examples of research critiques
  • 3. What is meant by critical • To be critical does not mean to criticize in an exclusively negative manner. To be critical of a text means to question the information and opinions in the text, in an attempt to evaluate or judge its worth overall.
  • 4. What is a critical review? • A critical review (sometimes called a critique, critical commentary, critical appraisal and critical analysis) is a detailed commentary on and critical evaluation of a text. Critical review may carry out a as a stand-alone exercise, or as part of your research and preparation for writing a literature review.
  • 5. Critical Review of a Research Article • Research critique is a planned, careful critical evaluation of a piece of research work against the pre specified criteria to judge the strengths and weaknesses of the research study. Critique should be balanced, where alternative suggestions must be provided to further enforce the strengths and eliminate the weaknesses of the study to improve overall quality of the research project.
  • 6. Purposes • To provide inputs regarding the strength and weakness of a study to the researchers. • To provide suggestions to the students regarding the methodological flaws in the research project and also to evaluate the understanding of research by the students. • To judge the scientific merits of the study. • To take a decision whether to publish the study in journal or not.
  • 7. Guidelines for Writing a Research Critique • Read and understand the research report carefully. • Carryout the critical appraisal of all the aspects of the research report before writing the critique of a research report. • Avoid general vague statements; be objective and sensitive while framing the negative comments, and be practical by considering all the limitations of the research.
  • 8. Conti… • Keep a balanced approach in the research critique by presenting both strong and weak points of report, because certainly no report without any negative aspects. • Positive and negative points must be supported with examples to make a clear stand about the strengths and weaknesses of the research report.
  • 9. Guidelines for critiquing the research report • Some of the positive points of the study can be gathered from the questions formulated; more the number of questions answered with ‘yes’, the better the study is considered. A rating scale may be used for critiquing a research report.
  • 10. Critique on Title of Study/Research • You may be a better judge of this after reading the article, but the title should succinctly reflect the content of the work, stimulating reader’s interest. • Keywords
  • 11. CRITIQUE OF THE STUDY BACKGROUND • Research problem • Is the problem statement clearly and concisely articulated? • Is the problem significant for media profession and has the researcher provided good argument for the significance? • Is the research problem within the professional domain? • Is the problem not complex to study and appropriately delimited in its scope?
  • 12. Cont.. • Does the problem statement clearly depict the variables, population, and place of the study? • Is the research problem feasible to study in reference to time, resources, researcher’s ability and availability of respondents? • Is the research problem directed to develop or test the media theories?
  • 13. • Objectives • Are the objectives in accordance with research problem? • Are the objectives stated in clear and concise form? • Are the objectives stated using accepted action verbs in logical manner? • Operational definitions • Are all the study variables operationally defined? • Are operational definitions stated in logical and measurable form?
  • 14. • Hypotheses • Are the hypotheses stated? If not, does the researcher provide sufficient information for not stating the hypotheses • Are hypotheses logically related with the research problem and objectives? If stated, are the hypotheses clear? Specific? Testable? • Whether hypotheses are stated in measurable terms by stating the level of significance to accept or reject the hypothesis? Are hypotheses stated in a way that they express a predicted relationship between two or more variables? • Are hypotheses based on conceptual framework used in research study?
  • 15. • Conceptual framework • Is conceptual framework appropriate and in accordance with research problem? • Is conceptual framework based on a nursing theory or a theory from other related disciplines? • Are all the concepts in conceptual framework clearly, adequately, and logically defined and articulated in a way that they help either in the testing or generation of a theory?
  • 16. • Literature review • Is the literature completely in accordance with research problem and covers majority of available studies on the topic under study? • Is the literature reviewed from the current and primary sources? • Is the literature review well-organized under subheadings in a chronological order according to the year of the study? • Is the literature review presented in an analytical way to draw the meaningful inferences?
  • 17. CRITIQUE OF THE METHODOLOGICALASPECTS • Research design • Is the design specified correctly? What was the design used? • Is the design appropriate to answer the research question? • Did the researcher attempt to control for threats to internal and external validity?
  • 18. • Sample and sampling technique • Is the sample size adequate? • Is the sample likely to be similar to members of population overall? • Are the criteria for including and/or excluding people or items from sample clear and appropriate? • Is an appropriate sampling technique used to draw a sample from population?
  • 19. • Data collection method and tools • Are the instruments or other means for data collection described sufficiently? • Are the reliability and validity of instruments addressed? Are those adequate? • Are data collection method described clearly? • Are the data collection methods appropriate? Could the researcher mentioned the specific benefits and problems faced by the research with particular methods of data collection?
  • 20. • Ethical considerations • Are the participants safe from any physical harms, risks, psychological and social distress and discomfort? • Is confidentiality of information and anonymity and privacy of subjects was maintained? • Was an appropriate written or verbal consent taken from all the study participants? • Was a written permission obtained from competent authority to conduct the research study?
  • 21. Cont.… • If vulnerable populations were involved, was special consideration given to informed consent and study procedure? • Was the benefits of the study outweighed the risk for individual subjects and a risk/ benefit assessment considered? • Were subjects recruited, selected and assigned to groups in an equitable way?
  • 22. CRITIQUE OF RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS, AND MISCELLANEOUS ASPECTS OF THE STUDY• Analysis of data • Is the process used to analyze data clear? • Whether the processes for data analysis appropriate to answer the research question? • Do the results provide, are they clear and understandable? • Of tables are provided, are they clear and understandable? • For qualitative studies, some additional items for critique include: Does the researcher provide sufficient examples of the data? • Does the researcher describe processes that were used to avoid biasing or influencing the data obtained and the analysis procedures used?
  • 23. • Interpretation and discussion of data • Does the discussion ‘fit’ with the data? Is it logical based on the data and results presented? • Does the researcher discuss the findings in regard to previous research? • Does the researcher discuss the findings in regard to the theoretical framework? • Does the researcher identify limitations of the study? How do these affect the quality of the study? • Does the researcher discuss implications for practice? Are these appropriate?
  • 24. • Conclusion and recommendations • Has the study concluded concisely and precisely depicting most significant findings? • Are the conclusions drawn in accordance with study objectives, hypotheses/ assumptions, and conceptual framework? • Are practical recommendations made towards improvement in the nursing practices? • Are the recommendations consistent with the research findings and results? • Are the recommendations made with suggested changes and improvements in the methodologies of the further researcher studies on similar topics?
  • 25. • References • Are the in-text references cited as per recommended guidelines? • Are the references relevant and completely follow the recommended style?
  • 26. Analyzing and synthesizing information • Once all the relevant studies have been retrieved, read abstracted, and critiqued, the information has to be analyzed and synthesized. • A thematic analysis essentially involves detecting patterns and regularities, as well as inconsistencies. • Several different types of themes can be identified. • Clearly, it is not possible even in lengthy free-standing reviews to analyze all the themes identified. • Reviewers have to make decisions about which patterns to pursue.