PROTEIN UNFOLDS AND                                 REFOLDS FOR NEW FUNCTION                                            AN...
INTRODUCTIONThe gene translation is the step of the information carried by the RNAm to protein; Thelast step is traducctio...
PROTEIN UNFOLDS AND                   REFOLDS FOR NEW                      FUNCTIONSo that should work correctly folded pr...
DNA directed RNA synthesisRNA directs protein synthesis      Protein folding                                  •Catalyze ch...
Shows that RfaH is even more effective as atranslation factor -- about 100 times morepowerful than it is as a transcriptio...
Normally the                       ribosome binds to a                       specific sequence. If                        ...
OBSERVATIONAn extremely important step in gene translation is thefolding of the protein, since the level agree havingstruc...
BRAIN VARIANTS OF PROTEIN ASSOCIATED    WITH HUNTINGTON’S AND OTHER   NEURODEGENERATIVES DISEASES             IDENTIFIED  ...
.    A PROMOTER:    Is a DNA segmente        usually occurring upstream    from a gene that can ultimately control how tha...
Was demonstrated that thesepreviously unknown transcripts are produced specifically in human brain cells and are atleast a...
NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASESAre diseases without     Preferred systemic          Are     evidence of                        ...
OBSERVATIONNeurodegenerative diseases such as Huntingtons disease, Parkinsonsand Alzheimers, are diseases affecting much o...
MEDICAL UTILITY                  PROTEIN UNFOLDS AND                REFOLDS FOR NEW FUNCTIONThe results about the folding ...
MEDICAL UTILITY  PROTEIN UNFOLDS ANDREFOLDS FOR NEW FUNCTION      In some cases is inefficient translation and in such    ...
MEDICAL UTILITYBRAIN VARIANTS OF PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH HUNTINGTON’S AND       OTHER NEURODEGENERATIVES DISEASES IDENTIFI...
MEDICAL UTILITYBRAIN VARIANTS OF PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH HUNTINGTON’S AND      OTHER NEURODEGENERATIVES DISEASES IDENTIFIE...
REFERENCES•   Voet, D. fundamentos de bioquimica.2° Edición. Editorial panamericana.    Argentina.2007. 161 p.•   CLARK, D...
PROTEIN UNFOLDS AND REFOLDS FOR NEW FUNCTION and BRAIN VARIANTS OF PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH HUNTINGTON'S AND OTHER NEURODEG...
PROTEIN UNFOLDS AND REFOLDS FOR NEW FUNCTION and BRAIN VARIANTS OF PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH HUNTINGTON'S AND OTHER NEURODEG...
PROTEIN UNFOLDS AND REFOLDS FOR NEW FUNCTION and BRAIN VARIANTS OF PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH HUNTINGTON'S AND OTHER NEURODEG...
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PROTEIN UNFOLDS AND REFOLDS FOR NEW FUNCTION and BRAIN VARIANTS OF PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH HUNTINGTON'S AND OTHER NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES IDENTIFIED

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PROTEIN UNFOLDS AND REFOLDS FOR NEW FUNCTION and BRAIN VARIANTS OF PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH HUNTINGTON'S AND OTHER NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES IDENTIFIED

  1. 1. PROTEIN UNFOLDS AND REFOLDS FOR NEW FUNCTION AND BRAIN VARIANTS OF PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH HUNTINGTONS AND OTHER NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES IDENTIFIED ByMaria Alejandra Lugo Posada Medical Student 27/08/12
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONThe gene translation is the step of the information carried by the RNAm to protein; Thelast step is traducction embodying the information contained in the DNA, by decodingorder that finally determines the sequence of specific polypeptide chains.There are some differences between protein synthesis in eukaryotic and prokaryoticcells: In eukaryotic protein synthesis, it is usually the cytoplasmatic ribosomes thattranslate nuclear genes. the ribosomes of eukaryotic cells are larger and contain morerRNA and protein molecules than those of prokaryotes. in addition, eukaryotes havemore initiation factors and a more complex initiation procedure.The proteins are active mediators in most cellular processes, carrying out the functionsdetermined by the information encoded in the DNA.adequate protein synthesis is of great importance, since large quantities of diseases areassociated with abnormal synthesis these.Here we will see some news about the proper role of the proteins for their properfolding, and consequences of polymorphisms.
  3. 3. PROTEIN UNFOLDS AND REFOLDS FOR NEW FUNCTIONSo that should work correctly folded proteins in a right way,and there are certain folds that are more favorable thanothers.In protein folding are two common types: and are the alphaand beta structure:•alpha structure in the molecule is coiled in a helix.•beta structure in the hydrogen bonds are formed betweendifferent parts of the chain more or less parallel to eachother. and going in the same direction and in the oppositedirection.
  4. 4. DNA directed RNA synthesisRNA directs protein synthesis Protein folding •Catalyze chemical reactionsProtein performs its functions: •Transmits information between specific cells •Participates in the immune system •CONTROLS GENE EXPRESSION
  5. 5. Shows that RfaH is even more effective as atranslation factor -- about 100 times morepowerful than it is as a transcription factor.Because RfaH has more power during translationbecause it recruits the ribosome molecule undercircumstances when there isnt enoughinformation in the mRNA for the ribosome to doits protein construction.
  6. 6. Normally the ribosome binds to a specific sequence. If there is no sequence, it doesnt know where to bind. Is believed that the ribosome recognizes RfaH can interact RfaH instead of this with the ribosome sequence and starts once it refolds. translation. it can bind to boththe RNA polymeraseand the ribosome at the same time and link them together
  7. 7. OBSERVATIONAn extremely important step in gene translation is thefolding of the protein, since the level agree havingstructure and shape as the fold meet or no function, asis the case RfaH protein that can fulfill two differentfunctions when folded in two ways different.we know that proteins are very large and complexmolecules, and each amino acid that composes this at aspecific site, agree to the information of DNA, whichgives the protein necessary for one structure what role(primary structure, secondary, tertiary and quaternary).
  8. 8. BRAIN VARIANTS OF PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH HUNTINGTON’S AND OTHER NEURODEGENERATIVES DISEASES IDENTIFIED Was discovered a large new region in the genetic code of the protein PGC- 1alpha. Previously unknown variations of the protein, which can be found specifically in the brain, are produced from this region
  9. 9. . A PROMOTER: Is a DNA segmente usually occurring upstream from a gene that can ultimately control how that gene is expressed as a protein. The transmission of genetic information from DNA to RNA molecules, i.e. transcription, is an important intermediate step in this process.
  10. 10. Was demonstrated that thesepreviously unknown transcripts are produced specifically in human brain cells and are atleast as common there as the reference transcripts.
  11. 11. NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASESAre diseases without Preferred systemic Are evidence of Prevalence involvement of one progressive exogenous injury increases with or several neural character.(infection, ischemia, age. systems (substantia trauma, etc.). nigra, hippocampus, etc) The cause of neurodegenerative diseases is often unknown, but is close relationship with l protein variation, such as of the PGC-1alpha protein.
  12. 12. OBSERVATIONNeurodegenerative diseases such as Huntingtons disease, Parkinsonsand Alzheimers, are diseases affecting much of the population, and arediseases that have no cure, only methods found that prevented me toprogress so fast, for it is great importance the investigation of causes ofthese diseases, in order to guide research in a better way. The discoveryof the variation in the PGC-1alpha protein, provides a way of research.
  13. 13. MEDICAL UTILITY PROTEIN UNFOLDS AND REFOLDS FOR NEW FUNCTIONThe results about the folding of theprotein have significant implications forstudies of gene expression control andprotein structure.
  14. 14. MEDICAL UTILITY PROTEIN UNFOLDS ANDREFOLDS FOR NEW FUNCTION In some cases is inefficient translation and in such cases proteins are needed to help in this process, as is the case Genes that control bacterial virulence are famous for being designed in a way that makes their translation very inefficient -- hence, they need specialized proteins to help their expression
  15. 15. MEDICAL UTILITYBRAIN VARIANTS OF PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH HUNTINGTON’S AND OTHER NEURODEGENERATIVES DISEASES IDENTIFIED The protein PGC-1 alpha is a protein with many essential functions in our body, but is also associated with diseases neurodegenerative wherefore it is of great clinical importance because in a way that guides the study for the cure of these diseases.
  16. 16. MEDICAL UTILITYBRAIN VARIANTS OF PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH HUNTINGTON’S AND OTHER NEURODEGENERATIVES DISEASES IDENTIFIED The promoter is a control element, which is recognized by the RNA polymerase to begin transcription, and found a new promoter that is active in the nervous system, and which interferes with transcription to the gene coding for protein PGC-1 alpha, so we see that in this study of neurodegenerative diseases is also of great importance to study the promoters.
  17. 17. REFERENCES• Voet, D. fundamentos de bioquimica.2° Edición. Editorial panamericana. Argentina.2007. 161 p.• CLARK, D. Molecular Biology. Editoriar Elsevier. California. 2005. Pag 281• TEIJN, J, M; GUERRIDO,A; BLANCO; D. Fundamentos de bioquímica metabólica. 2° Edición. Editorial Tebar.Madrid.2006 .Pag 321• MARTINEZ SÁNCHEZ, Lina María. Biología molecular. 7°. ed. Medellín: UPB. Fac. de Medicina, 2012. 106 p.• BLAZQUEZ, E. Fundamentos moleculares de la medicina 1. Editorial real academia nacional de medicina. 161 p.

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