Tumor markers

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Tumor markers

  1. 1. UnderstandingTumor MarkersBy Mahmoud AlaaMedical Representative Of AlMohandsin
  2. 2. TumorGrowth of any cell in the body is controlled by a certain gene. Ifthis gene lost his function for a reason or another, this mightlead to formation of uncontrollable tumor.
  3. 3. Types Of Tumors1- Benign2-Malignant
  4. 4. Benign Tumor:It is a type of tumors in which the rate ofgrowth is slow and it does not causedamage for the primary organ or anyspread for the surrounding tissues .
  5. 5. Malignant TumorIt is a rapid and aggressive growth of the cells of oneof the body organs leading to overgrowth anddamage of the surrounding tissue. Then thesemalignant cells can migrate to other organs likelung, liver or even brain, what is called secondarys.
  6. 6. This Is The Difference
  7. 7. SymptomsEarly stages may not show any symptoms. Butsometimespatient can notice changes in :1-colour,number or size of Veins.2-ulcers which does not respond to treatment3-unusual secretions4-unexplainable bleeding
  8. 8. 5-Dysphagia6-swelling under the skin or in the breast7-resistant diarrhea or constipation8-untreatable cough accompanied with sputum and/orhematopoesis
  9. 9. EtiologyThere are no known causes but there are somepredisposing factors: 1-Food with less fibers or full of lipids Also alcohol. 2-Smoking:can lead to cancer lung, mouth,oesophagus,pancreas or even urinarybladder. 3-Viruses : B, C, HPV, EBV 4-Parasitic Infection 5-Industrial Pollution 6-Exposure To Radiations 7-Pollution, Insecticides………..etc 8-psychological troubles, immunodeficiency, obesity, genetic predisposition
  10. 10. EtiologyThere are no known causes but there are somepredisposing factors: 1-Food with less fibers or full of lipids Also alcohol. 2-Smoking:can lead to cancer lung, mouth,oesophagus,pancreas or even urinarybladder. 3-Viruses : B, C, HPV, EBV 4-Parasitic Infection 5-Industrial Pollution 6-Exposure To Radiations 7-Pollution, Insecticides………..etc 8-psychological troubles, immunodeficiency, obesity, genetic predisposition
  11. 11. Incidence In MaleBladder and urinary tract : 31%Lymphatic system : 11%Digestive system (GIT) :7%
  12. 12. Incidence In FemaleBreast : 45%Lymphatic system : 9%Urinary system :5%
  13. 13. Uses of Tumor Markers:1-Early diagnosis through routine regular checkup.2- definitive diagnosis of some tumors like: LCA-CK-EMA-Desmin-S1003-to choose suitable treatment .e. g ER-PR-HER-24-followup of treatment protocol and its efficacy5-source of the tumor.6-Immuological characterization for the lymphatic tumors: CD30-CD15- Pan T(CD3,CD43,CD45,Ro) – Pan B( CD20,CD79 a)
  14. 14. Organ Specific Tumor Markers :PROSTATE :PSA ,Free PSA ,PAP "Prostatic Acid Phosphates"BREAST :CA15-3, CEA, MCA, TPALIVER :AFPOVARY :CA125GIT :CEA, CA19,9PANCREAS :CA19,9VASCULAR SYSTEM : LDH, B2 macroglobulin, ptn.electroph.LUNG :NSE, SCC-A, Cyril 21-1
  15. 15. Factors affecting tumor markersassay:Smocking : CEAPregnancy and viral hepatitis: AFAProstatic inflammation &endoscopy:PSAIf not fasting : CA 19.9WHO recommends tumor markers to be done once every 3 years forpeople aged(20-30) and once every year for age between(30-50)and once every 6 months for above that.
  16. 16. Thank You Mahmoud Alaa

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