Ask!How do you define/analyze human emotional/mental states? Introspective techniquessources of information about other minds
Asking participants to delve intotheir own states of consciousnessand verbally report on cognitive,affective or social aspects of that consciousness is the techniqueused in the introspective studies.
1. Set a task.2. Ask participants to report on what their brains/hearts are processing as they carry out the task.Example:solving an arithmetic problem…youmutter to yourself as you solve
20th century William James, Titchener, JamesJoyce, Marcel Proust and Virginia Woolf Within a few years: Under attack by Watson ‘’…untrustworthy for scientific purposes…’’ Behaviorism Abandoned for about 50 years
Ericsson and Simon’s Verbal Protocols (1984,1993) psychologicalstudies needed to be designed in respect to a model of mental process formulated such a model based in the basis of information processing theory Critical feature: assumes a multiple memory model comprising both short- term and long-term memory stores and presumed mechanisms by which they are activated
Timeintervening between mental operations and report is critical and should be minimized as much as possible Verbalizationplaces additional cognitive demands on mental processing that requires care in order to achieve insightful results Verbalreports of mental processes should avoid the usual social conventions of talking to someone
There is a lot of information in introspective reports aside from the words themselves. parallel signals Verbal reports of automatic processes are not possible. Such processes include visual and motor processes and low-attention, automatized linguistic processes such as the social chat of native speakers Research should be based on a model of mental
Report and the task Information Example 1 Report is linguistically encoded, Talking aloud Talk-alouds concurrent with can be directly stated while thinking on the mental task how to spell a word 2 Report is not already Describing what a Think-alouds concurrent with linguistically encoded, corkscrew looks mental task thus requires linguistic like encoding3 Retrospective Report is consists of selected Reporting a route studies subsequent to foci, descriptions, you travelled mental task explanations and interpretations
Solo/ self-report type o One is both a participant-subject and analyst o Example: diary studies, Introspective record language learning impressionsRecording audio/video –for later analysis Solo – record Big class: in pairs, students note down what their partner say – language lab
Were there any problems in solving the anagram? Were the problems clear from the talk aloud procedures? Did the two participants use different strategies? Would you use a new strategy if you were to do it again?
Mostly recorded + notesTranscribe data from the recording and integrate the notes you have madeSegmenting each segment – a short thought unit, which will be coded and analyzed
‘Solving Anagrams’ task types:1. Task Type A : (NPEHPA = HAPPEN)2. Task Type B : (ALPHABET = BET, BEAT, TAB, PEAL, TABLE)3. Task Type C : (TEAR, SUN, TRUANT, RESTART = RESTAURANT)4. Task Type D : (RATS + (?) (word meaning begin) = RATS + (T) (word meaning begin) = START)
1. Responses are transcribed, segmented and arrayed in the order produced.2. Codes are devised.3. Codes are assigned to response segments.4. Codes sequences and combinations are examined for patterns.5. Coding combinations are compared.6. Combinations of codes and coding classes are examined to see if types of participant strategies can be identified.
Coding scheme (Ericsson and Simon, 1987) Constraint Type (C-type) – Alternative Type (A-type) –Responses are those in which the Responses are those in which theparticipant uses her knowledge of participant pronounces a possible letter sequences in sequence in an attempt to find aEnglish as a guide for constructing sound match in lexical memory. longer sentences. A-type responses often appear as C-types responses often appear ‘sounding out’ of possible syllablesas ‘spelling out’ of possible letter or words. sequences and letter positions.
1. Free-form responses2. Given orally by the participant3. Elicit cognitive process4. Carry out a specific task5. Take place within particular dimensions and limited duration6. Produced during or shortly following out of the task
1. Solving logic problems2. Solving a maze3. Crossword puzzle working4. Making word associations5. Completing cloze-type passages6. Ordering scrambled sentences/paragraph
1. Review the objections to introspective studies.2. Check if the researcher has recognized the potential problems of such studies.3. See if the researcher has tried to minimize the impact of these problems.
Suggestions:1) Give lots of practice2) Exercise care in choosing introspective tasks that do not require participants to deal with introspections of higher order, highly automized linguistic processes.
Issue : RELIABILITY1. Participants’ access to the mental processes that he/she is trying to articulate.2. Researcher’s instructions, examples or training is bias.3. Verbal reporting getting in the way of mental processing and cause it to be something other than what it would be if there was no requirement to verbalise involved.
Plato and Aristotle as early practitioners Reasoning, thought and truth William James (father of modern psychology Introspective observation is what we have to rely on first and foremost and always. The word introspection need hardly be defined – it means, of course, looking into our own minds and reporting what we there discover’ (Jamesb1890: 185) Played a major role in psychology in the first two decades of the twentieth century.
Was short-lived, held to be of doubtful validity and overtaken by behaviorism. ‘Verbal protocols are never mentioned as a technique for data collection in books on research methodology’ (Cavalcanti 1987) U-turn :- since that time, introspective research blossomed (admittedly somewhat biased) ‘verbal reports are now generally recognized as major sources of data on participants’ cognitive process in specific tasks (Ericsson and Simons 1993)
Wide variety of different types. Any verbal protocol study can be marked as being of one type or another within each category. Classification n of verbal protocol data types by Fearch and Cassper. (pg 77) Variety of different uses. Payoffs (pg76)
Introspective study:- moved from enthusiastic endorsement to abandonment to enthusiastic resurrection. (rise/fall/rise) Remind us that:- choice of research paradigms is a matter of fashion as much as of objective analysis. It is on the rising tide of acceptance and enthusiasm. Currents studies:- respond to some earlier critism Validity and reliability
Many caution have been issued and research procedures have been prescribed – minimizing slack. In sum – What for valid and reliable finding? Design studies based on mental process Incorporate proper warm-up activities Careful task instruction Appropriate monitoring of participants