Urbanization and design


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Urbanization and design

  1. 1. Urbanization and Design Mihir Bholey, PhD Assoc. Senior Faculty Interdisciplinary Design Studies
  2. 2. Outline of Discussion• Concept of Urban• Demographic aspects of urban dwellings• Concept of Urbanization: process, evolution and social design• Understanding the design of urban ecosystem• Urbanization: the socio-economic-cultural, spatial and design dimensions• Urbanization in India: the factual position• Urbanization and the challenges of design Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 2
  3. 3. ObjectiveThis presentation makes an attempt to acquaint one with the concept and process of urbanization in thesocio-economic-cultural, spatial, design and environmental context. Urbanization, though a global process,is happening at a much faster pace in the developing and densely populated nations of Asia and Africathan elsewhere. India and China, the two large emergent economies of the world are getting urbanized ata pace much faster than envisaged. Urbanization of the present scale requires massive investment ininfrastructure, products, systems, communication which more often than not is found to be economically,environmentally, socially and culturally unsustainable. The divergent demands of ‘quality of life’ and‘lifestyle’ go hand in hand with the process of urbanization. They are variously dealt with at the political,planning, economic, demographic, social and cultural levels. The objective of this presentation at thesecond level is also to analyze whether they require some intervention in terms of design. In other words,can designers deal with the issues of “quality of life’ and ‘lifestyle aspirations’ at the system design,product design and communication design levels? If so, how? Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 3
  4. 4. Teaching/Learning Method• Presentation and Discussion: the key concepts associated with urbanization viz. urban, suburban, urbanization, urbanism, rural-urban interface or rurbanism among others• Case Study: of the established and emerging urban centres and analysis of the process of urbanization in their socio-economic, cultural and environmental context• Assignment: Identifying areas of design intervention at the system design, product design and communication design level in the process of urbanization in order to make it sustainable in all respect• Outcome: The course will help the students understand the process of urbanization in a much wider perspective and analyze it in terms of its socio-economic, spatial and environmental context among others. Looking at the complexity of the process of urbanization they will learn to meet the design challenges of urbanization at the system, product and communication levels. In other words, it will provide them the rationale of their design decisions. Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 4
  5. 5. What is Urban?• Urban: Better understood by its characteristics• An area having higher density of population in comparison to its surrounding• Relatively large, dense, and permanent settlement of heterogeneous individuals• Large numbers of individual variability• A virtual absence of intimate personal relation• Human relations largely anonymous, superficial, and transitory Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 5
  6. 6. • Density involves diversification and specialization• A complex pattern of segregation, the predominance of formal social control and accentuated friction• The economic nexus tries to displace personal relations, institutions cater to mass rather than individual requirements• Individuals become effective only as they organize, not individually as much Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 6
  7. 7. Urbanism• Urbanism characterizes the phenomenon of urbanization• It means the pattern of behavior, relationships and modes of thought• Urbanism is an ascribed ‘lifestyle’ matching the distinctive socio-cultural space of the cities• Besides lifestyle, it’s also about the systems governing urban life, a distinct cultural identity• In Louis Wirth’s (1938) classic definition it’s a ‘way of life’• From the design (architectural and spatial) perspective - the pursuit of creating, designing and reshaping the built habitat , neighborhoods, towns and cities Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 7
  8. 8. Urban: Administrative Definitions• India: Towns (places with municipal corporation, municipal area committee, town committee, notified area committee or cantonment board); also, all places having 5000 or more inhabitants, a density of not less than 1000 persons per square mile or 400 per sq km, pronounced urban characteristics and at least three fourths of the adult male population employed in pursuits other than agriculture• France: Communes containing an agglomeration of more than 2000 inhabitants living in contiguous houses or with not more than 200 metres between houses, also communes of which the major portion of the population is part of a multicommunal agglomeration of this nature Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 8
  9. 9. • Japan: City (shi) having 50000 or more inhabitants with 60 per cent or more of the houses located in the main built-up areas and 60 per cent or more of the population (including their dependants) engaged in manufacturing, trade or other urban type of business. Alternatively, a shi having urban facilities and conditions as defined by the prefectural order is considered as urban• South Africa: Places with some form of local authority• United States: Agglomerations of 2500 or more inhabitants, generally having population densities of 1000 persons per square mile or more. Two types of urban areas: urbanized areas of 50000 or more inhabitants and urban clusters of at least 2500 and less than 50000 inhabitants Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 9
  10. 10. Urbanization: the Process• Broad View: the migration of population from the rural to the urban areas – underscores process• Demographic view of urbanization:• A dynamic process contributed by interaction of two factors-1. The rural-urban differential in Natural Increase*2. Population movement from rural to urban areas through internal migration *Natural Increase: the difference between fertility and mortality, both generally lower in urban as against the rural area Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 10
  11. 11. • Thus, urbanization is a process of human settlement• Arising out of polarization of economic development in urban areas• Characterized by the rise in the proportion of the total population of an urban-rural system that is urban• Also a socio-economic process leading to spatial growth for accommodating large population influx• Urbanization promoted by: scale of production in manufacturing, technological developments in building and transport sectors and land becoming major urban capital Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 11
  12. 12. The Urban Ecosystem• Social Elements: Heterogeneous, Urbane, Identifiable Social Groups, Distinct lifestyle, Extreme Poverty and Affluence• Economic Elements: Predominantly industrial, Production- Consumption- Distribution orientation, Higher employment opportunity, Higher wages• Political Elements: Centre of power, Right consciousness, Class Conflict, Colonization, Organized Social Groups, Unions, Guilds• Cultural & Design Elements: Distinct culture, Cultural Evolution, Material and Immaterial Culture, Products, Systems, Aesthetics, Function, Lifestyle• Spatial Elements: Building, Architecture, Town planning, Monuments• Demographic Elements: Population, Sex Ratio, Natural Increase Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 12
  13. 13. Social ElementsDemographic Economic Elements Elements The Urban Ecosystem Spatial Political Elements Elements Cultural & Design Elements Conceptual Model: Dr. Mihir Bholey Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 13
  14. 14. Social Economic Political Elements Elements Elements• Heterogeneous • Predominantly • Centre of power• Urbane industrial • Right consciousness• Identifiable Social Groups • Production- • Class Conflict• Distinct lifestyle Consumption- • Colonization Distribution orientation• Extreme Poverty & • Organized Social Groups Affluence • Higher employment Unions, Guilds opportunity• Urbanism • Higher wages Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 14
  15. 15. Demographic Cultural & Spatial Elements Elements Design Elements• Population • Building • Material and• Sex Ratio • Architecture Immaterial Culture• Natural Increase • Town Planning • Products• Rural Influx • Monuments • Systems• Floating and Migrating • Landscaping • Aesthetics Population • Function • Quality of Life • Lifestyle Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 15
  16. 16. Urbanization: the Global and Indian Scenario• Urbanization –a global reality, world population turning urban• Rapid urbanization - a developing nation syndrome• As against gradual urbanization of developed nations, developing nations urbanized much faster• 1970s - urbanization in the Republic of Korea: 40% 1990s -78% (World Bank Research Observer Report 2002)• What US took 90 years to achieve, Korea achieved in 20 years and Brazil 30 years Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 16
  17. 17. • Year 2007- 3.3 billion (330 crore) people or over 48% of humankind lived in urban settlements (World Urbanization Prospects, UN, 2007 Revision)• Year 2050 - 6.4 billion (640 crore) people would live in urban areas (World Urbanization Prospects, UN, 2007 Revision)• Globally, the level of urbanization is expected to rise from 50% in 2008 to 70% in 2050 (World Urbanization Prospects, UN, 2007 Revision)• By 2025 close to 2.5 billion Asians will turn city dwellers - nearly 54% of world urban population Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 17
  18. 18. World Population Rural-Urban Ratio-2007 Total World Population 2007 – 6.6 billion or 660 crore appx. 48% 52% URBAN Data Source: World Urbanization Prospects, UN, 2007 Revision Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 18
  19. 19. Global Rise in Urbanization80%70%60% 70%50% 50%40%30%20%10%0% 2008 2050 Data Source: World Urbanization Prospects, UN, 2007 Revision Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 19
  20. 20. Concentration of World Urban Population China, India and US - 35% Rest of India, China, US the 35% World 65% Data Source: World Urbanization Prospects, UN, 2007 Revision Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 20
  21. 21. • Year 2007 - China, India and the United States of America accounted for 35% of the world urban population• Year 2025-2050 – China and India will account for 32% of global urban population• Year 2050 - China will have 1 billion or 100 crore and India 0.9 billion or 90 crore urban population• China: Rate of Urbanization– 41% present, 52% by 2015, 65% by 2030 (Source: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)• India: Rate of Urbanization – 29% till 2005• Year 2025 - India will add 215 million or 21.5 crore to its cities, will be 38% of the total population in 2025 (McKinsey Global Institute, April 2010) Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 21
  22. 22. Rising Rate of Urbanization in China Rate of Urbanization-China7060 65%5040 52%30 41%20100 2010 2015 2030 Data Source: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 2009 Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 22
  23. 23. Rural-Urban Population in India - 2001 Total Population: 1027 million, Rural: 742 million, Urban: 285 million, 2001 28% 72% Urban Data Source: Ministry of Urban Development, Govt. of India Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 23
  24. 24. Rising Rate of Urbanization in India Rate of Urbanization-India40%35%30% 38%25% 29%20%15%10% 5% 0% 2005 2025 Data Source: McKinsey Global Institute, April 2010 Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 24
  25. 25. Cities and Megacities• Size of population the basis of defining cities, varies country to country• Megacity: Urban agglomerations with at least 10 million (1 crore) inhabitants• 19 megacities in the world (till 2007), likely to increase to 27 by 2025• Tokyo the biggest megacity of the world, population: 3.57 million (3.57 crore) expected to remain number one even in 2025 Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 25
  26. 26. • Out of the present 19 megacities 3 are Indian: Mumbai – 19 million (1.9 crore), Delhi – 15.9 million (1.59 crore) and Kolkata – 14.8 million (1.48 crore) (upto 2010)• By 2025 Mumbai and Delhi will rank number two and three in position with expected population of 26.4 and 22.5 million respectively• By 2025 out of 27 megacities, 16 will be Asian• USA will have only 2, New York and Los Angeles Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 26
  27. 27. Good Urban Design should harmonize withnature. The question is – can we designnature? Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 27
  28. 28. The Divergent Indian Urban LandscapeRural-urban coexistence – a discernible characteristic of urbanization in India Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 28
  29. 29. Urbanization of poverty - an inevitable socio-economic process following the growth of cities Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 29
  30. 30. The distinction between socializing, recreation and business becoming fuzzy. Urbanization commodifies everythingalso creates new visual-material culture Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 30
  31. 31. Designed UrbanizationDesigned urbanization is utopian and predefines social needs and aspirations Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 31
  32. 32. Organic UrbanizationGradual rise in economic necessities and lack of planning enforcement lead to organic urbanization Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 32
  33. 33. Floating/Migrating Urban PopulationFloating urban population often comprises of rural influx, though adds to urban economy, but also puts pressure onurban infrastructure Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 33
  34. 34. The Challenge of Urban RegenerationUnchecked urbanization causing both social and ecological decay, call for immediate intervention for urbanregeneration Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 34
  35. 35. Threatening Environmental DegradationResource, planning and technology deficit making urbanization environmentally unsustainable. Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 35
  36. 36. Urban TransportationMeans of transportation also indicates the gap between urban poor and affluent . But such means of transportationcoexist with the high-tech regardless. Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 36
  37. 37. Rapid TransportationCities articulate their infrastructural needs with the demographic, social and economic changes, replace the old systemsand reinvent the new. Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 37
  38. 38. The megacity infrastructure is often a mix of need and urban aspiration. Also essential for the sustenance and growth of neweconomic model. Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 38
  39. 39. Urbanization in India: An Overview• The Geographical Area of India: 3,287,590 sq. km.• 7th largest in terms of area, represents 2.2% of the total land area of the planet (9,31,810,17 sq. km.)• 2nd largest in terms of population, total population: 1162.3 million or 116 crore appx. In 2010 (Source: National Commission on Population, GOI)• Density of population: 360.34 persons per sq. km. (source: http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/populations/ctypopls.htm)• 285 million (28,5 crore) urban population lives in 4378 cities• Cities classified from Class 1 – 6 in terms of population Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 39
  40. 40. No. of Class 1,2,3 Cities in India vis a vis Total No. of Cities 393 Class-1 city 1,00,000 and above Total No. of Class 2 city 50, 000 - 99, 999 Cities: 43781,151 401 Class 3 city 20, 000 - 49, 999 Data Source: Ministry of Urban Development, GOI, 2001 Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 40
  41. 41. Emerging Infrastructural Requirements of Indian Cities• 2/3 of India’s GDP and 90% of government revenue are generated by even less than 1/3 of India’s urban population living in big and megacities• In 2006 urban India required investment of Rs. 28,035/ crore on sanitation, water supply and roads (The India Infrastructure Report of 1996)• Cities having 100,000 or more population would require investment of Rs. 207,000/ crore on urban transportation alone by 2030 Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 41
  42. 42. • India’s urban spending markedly low in comparison to China and UK• India’s per capita spending including capital and operational expenditure - $50, China - $362 and UK - $1772• India requires investment of 1.2 trillion by 2030 in urban infrastructure (McKinsey Global 2010)• Equivalent to per capita average annual spending of appx. $250• 37.2% Indian population is BPL (Tendulkar Committee Report 2009)• 41.6% Indians earn below $1.25/day and 75.6% below $2/ day (World Bank 2008 Report based on 2005 data) Is spending of $250 on urban infra viable? Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 42
  43. 43. Design Interventions in Urbanization Communication Level Scope of Design Intervention in Urbanization Product System Level Level A Model for Design Intervention - Urbanization & DesignBholey, Jan. 2011 Mihir Bholey in Urbanization: Dr. Mihir 43
  44. 44. System Level Communication Product LevelApproach Level Approach Approach• Identifying • Content design • Mass product the urban for environment in heterogeneous • Customized which system populace products has to work • Integration of • Aspirational• Developing message, manner, products interface medium between • Sustainable product, user • Information products and solution signage, essential & emergency • Product for• Connecting services people with systems and communication special needs subsystems of urbanization • Community connect & social awareness Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 44
  45. 45. Summing Up• Urbanization is a social evolution – changes human beings from being part of small community to large associations• Characterized by the growth in demography, economy, density, settlement and above all- ‘Urbanism’• Spearheaded largely by the economic factors followed by social imperative of cohabitation for security and growth• A social evolution from simplicity to complexity in terms of demography, socio-cultural heterogeneity, lifestyle, economy and infrastructure• The challenges of the emerging urbanization are infrastructural, environmental (social and natural), sustainability, system and design• Design solution needed at the system, product and communication levels Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 45
  46. 46. Bibliography• Das, Bisawroop. “Urban Planning in India” Social Scientist. 9.12, Dec. 1981, ON Jan. 22, 2011 <http://www.jstor.org/stable/3517133?origin=JSTOR-pdf>• Haub, Carl and Sharma O.P. “India’s Population Reality: Reconciling Change and Tradition” Population Bulletin. 61.3, Sept. 2006• India’s urban awakening: Building inclusive cities, sustaining economic growth. McKinsey Global Institute, 2010• Kundu, Amitabh. Urbanization and Migration: An analysis of Trend, Pattern and Policies in Asia. UNDP, 2009• Ledent, Jacques. “Rural-Urban Migration, Urbanization, and Economic Development” Economic Development and Cultural Change. 30.3, Chicago University Press, April 1982, ON Jan. 4, 2011 <http://www.jstor.org/stable/3203205?origin=JSTOR- pdf>• Misra, R. P. Urbanization in India Challenges and Opportunities. Shillong: Indian Council for Social Science Research, 1998• National Commission on Population, Govt. of India. ON Jan. 31, 2011 <http://populationcommission.nic.in/npp_intro.htm>• Rapport, Nigel & Overing, Jonna. Social and Cultural Anthropology. London, New York: Routledge, 2010• Spence, Annez, & Buckley (Ed.) Urbanization and Growth. Washington DC, Commission on Growth and Development, 2009• World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision Population Database. ON Jan. 10. 2011 <http://esa.un.org/undp>• Wirth, Louis. “Urbanism a Way of Life” The American Journal of Sociology. University of Chicago Press, 44.1, July 1938 ON Feb. 10, 2011< http://www.jstor.org/stable/2768119?origin=JSTOR-pdf>• Yuanyuan, Hu. “Urbanization expected to fuel economy” China Daily. Feb. 10, 2011 ON Feb. 10, 2011 <http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2010-07/30/content_11070469.htm> Mihir Bholey - Urbanization & Design 46