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An introduction to Indian society in the historical and contemporary perspective. Purely for academic and non-commercial purpose.

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Intro to indian society mihir bholey [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. The Idea of India: A Journey through History, Society and Culture By Mihir Bholey, PhD
  2. 2. Mihir Bholey, PhD Assoc. Senior Faculty Interdisciplinary Design Studies National Institute of DesignPaldi, Ahmedabad 380 007 INDIA email:
  3. 3. India: What is it About?• An ancient civilization: as old as 3300 BC – 1300 BC• An ancient cultural melting pot having diverse composite culture• A multi-cultural, multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious society• Contributor to the world civilization: mathematics, medicine, concept of democracy, university, philosophy, non-violence• Rich tradition of aesthetics, literature and art forms aesthetics
  4. 4. India: The Shades of Perceptions• A civilization a nation which has raised curiosity invited envy civilization, curiosity, envy, even contemptuous interpretations, but never ignored• Notable views are Anglo-Saxon, Orientalist , Marxist and those who challenged the imperialist school of history- Bhandarkar, Raychaudhary, Majumdar• The Greeks –Herodutus, Plutarch Ptolemy attempted the history Herodutus Plutarch, of India in their writings• Megasthenese’s Indica gave more extensive account of India• The Th next important phase of I di hi t i g h b gi with Al ti t t h f Indian historiography begins ith Al- Beruni who accompanied Mahmud Ghazni
  5. 5. • Christian missionaries and scholars made in-depth study but their history of India became victim of Europe’s Religio-Political problems• Thus to accept a existence of a civilization prior to the period of genesis was a kind of sacrilege• The Indian mythologies on the contrary referred to four Yugas (Satyug, Dwapard, Treta and Kalyug) and several hundred million years- shook the foundation of Christian faith• However, what is important is to understand the evolution of Indian Civilization through the phrases of History than the period of History
  6. 6. India as Seen by Some European Scholars and Philosophers• French philosopher Voltaire (1694-1778) viewed India as homeland of religion in its oldest and purest form, also the cradle of world civilizations. Believed Astronomy, Astrology, Metaphysics came to the western world from the bank of Ganges• Great German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) wrote – their religion has a purity…. (and) one can find traces of pure concepts of divinity which cannot be found elsewhere• British scholar John Holwell wrote mythology of the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans were borrowed from the doctrines of the Brahmins’• Swiss philosopher Henri Frédéric Amiel (1821-1881) wrote : there is a great affinity in me with the Hindu genius – that mind, vast, imaginative, loving, dreamy and speculative, but destitute of ambition, personality and will• British historian Basham writes: the most striking feature of ancient Indian civilization is its humanity. In no other early civilization were slaves so few in number, no ancient lawgiver advised fair play in battle as Manu did and there’re few tales of massacre of non-combatant in ancient Indian history
  7. 7. Marx’s View of Indian Society• Marx’s views of Indian history, culture and civilization was rather superficial and contemptuous. Was also influenced by the Hegelian views of India• Marx was a great votary of India being enslaved by the British, dismissed India as a backward uncivilized nation with no history• Marx wrote: “J t as Italy has, from time to time, been compressed by th conqueror’s M t “Just It l h f ti t ti b d b the ’ sword into different national masses, so do we find Hindostan, when not under the pressure of the Mohammedan, or the Mogul or the Briton, dissolved into as many independent and conflicting States as it numbered towns, or even villages. That religion is at once a religion of sensualist exuberance, and a religion of self-torturing asceticism; a religion of the Lingam and of the j gg ; g f g f juggernaut; the religion of the Monk, ; g f , and of the Bayader“ (Marx, Karl. The British Rule in India New York Daily Tribune, 25 June, 1853)
  8. 8. • In the contemporary India Marx influenced a number of historians (Kosambi, R il Th (K bi Romila Thapar, Bi Bipan Ch d Chandra, I f H bib et al) who Irfan Habib l) h analyzed Indian history in the constricted Marxist perspective• Believed everything good in Indian civilization is the contribution of conquerors. Hence, consider the Kushana period as the golden age of Indian history rather than the Satvahana or Gupta period• Indian Marxist historians even look at the period spanning Gupta period until the Muslim conquest in the 12th century as the period of feudalism or ‘dark age’• The educated Indian intelligentsia of 19th century felt horrified at the distortion of the ancient Indian history – challenged the
  9. 9. India: As Nehru Saw itDid I know India? I who presumed to scrap much of herpast heritage? There was a great deal that had to bescrapped, that must be scrapped; but surely India could nothave been what she undoubtedly was, and could not havecontinued a cultured existence for thousands of years, if shehad not possessed something very vital and enduring,something that was worthwhile. What was this something?(Nehru in The Discovery of India)
  10. 10. Freedom at Midnight• Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity. At the dawn of history India started on her unending quest, and trackless centuries are filled with her striving and the grandeur of her success and her failures Through good and ill fortune alike she failures. has never lost sight of that quest or forgotten the ideals which gave her strength. We end today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again. (The historical speech delivered by Jawahar Lal Nehru on the eve of India’s independence at the Constituent Assembly of India in New Delhi on August 14 1947)
  11. 11. Naipaul’s Views on Indian Civilization“What is happening in India is a new, historical awakening. It seems to methat Indians are becoming alive to their history. Romila Thapar’s book onIndian history is a Marxist attitude in substance says: there is a higher truthbehind the invasions, feudalism and all that. The correct view is the way theinvaders looked at their (own) actions. They were conquering, they weresubjugating. And they were in a country where people never understood this.Only now are the people beginning to understand that there has been a greatvandalizing of India. Because of the nature of conquest and the nature ofHindu society such understanding had eluded Indians before. …. But everyother Indian knows precisely what is happening: deep down he knows that alarger response is emerging even if at times this response appears in his eyesto be threatening.” (Naipaul in India a Wounded Civilization)
  12. 12. Some More Views About India• We owe a lot to the Indians who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific Indians, count discovery could have been made. (Albert Einstein)• India is, the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the , , p p , y, grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only. (Mark Twain)• My confidence in our shared future is grounded in my respect for Indias treasured past - a civilization that has been shaping the world for thousands of years. Indians unlocked the intricacies of the human body and the vastness of our universe. And it is no exaggeration to say that our information age is rooted in Indian innovations - including the number zero India not only opened zero. our minds, she expanded our moral imagination. With religious texts that still summon the faithful to lives of dignity and discipline. With poets who imagined a future "where the mind is without fear and the head is held high. And with a man whose message of love and justice endures - the Father high." of your Nation, Mahatma Gandhi. (US President Barack Obama in his address to the joint session of Indian Parliament on 8 Nov. 2010)
  13. 13. Revolutions Changing Contemporary India• Historian Ramchandra Guha talks of five simultaneous revolutions going on in contemporary India which are reshaping the nation:I. The Urban RevolutionII. The Industrial RevolutionIII. The National RevolutionIV. The Democratic Revolution andV. The social Revolution• These revolutions were staggered in Europe and North America while they happened simultaneously in India• US became independent in 18th century, urbanized and industrialized in the next century and fully democratic in 20th h century
  14. 14. • World’s largest thriving democracy• World’s second most populous country having 1, 210 billion people• Worlds 2nd fastest growing economy (CII-KPMG Report 2010) World s• World’s 4th largest economy by PPP and 11th largest by nominal GDP• Ranks 49th out of 133 economies in terms of Global Competitiveness Index, GCI (2009-2010) (World Economic Forum: The India Competitiveness R i Review 2009) Pictures Courtesy Google Images
  15. 15. • Abject poverty coexists with rising affluence – over 50 Indians figure in 2011 Forbes list but 1/3 or 33% of the world’s poor also reside in p India• Ranks pretty low on Human Development Index – 119th out of 169 countries, way behind China which ranks 89th (UNDP 2010 Report)• 37.2% Indian population is BPL (Tendulkar Committee Report 2009) 41.6% Indians earn below $1.25/day and 75.6% below $2/ day (World Bank Im Pi mages ictures Courtesy Google 2008 Report based on 2005 data) y
  16. 16. • A largely agrarian society getting urbanized at the rate of 29%• 234.1 million people engaged in agriculture in 2001 (GOI, Ministry of Agriculture, 2010)• Agriculture contribution to India’s GDP - Rs 6519.01/ billion in India s Rs. 6519 01/ 2009-10 (GOI, Ministry of Agriculture, 2010)• Industry contribution to India’s GDP Rs. 12708 97/ billion in 2009 India s Rs 12708.97/ 2009- 10 (GOI, Ministry of Agriculture, 2010)• By B 2025 th rate of urbanization estimated t i the t f b i ti ti t d to increase t 38% to• Home to 3 megacities of the world out of 19• 2/3 of India’s GDP and 90% of government revenue generated by less than 1/3 of India’s urban population living in big and megacities
  17. 17. India as per the Indian ConstitutionIndia, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States. (2) The States and the territories thereofshall be as specified in the First Schedule. (3) The territory of India shall comprise—(a) theterritories of the States; (b) the Union territories specified in the First Schedule; and (c)such other territories as may be acquired. (Article 1 of the Indian Constitution)
  18. 18. India: Geography and Demography• L Location: S th ti Southern A i b d i th A bi S and Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea d the Bay of Bengal, between Myanmar (Burma) and Pakistan• Geographic Coordinates: 20 00 North, 70 00 EastAreaLand:L d 2,973,190 2 973 190 sq kkmWater: 314,400 sq kmTotal: 3,287,590 3 287 590 sq km (Slightly more than one- third the size of the US)Coastline: 7000 km
  19. 19. Demography of IndiaAs Per Census 2011:• Total Population: 1, 210 billion• Male: 623.7 623 7 million• Female: 586.5 million• Density of Population: 325 persons/sq km• State with Highest Density of Population: West Bengal– 903 persons/sq km• State with Lowest Density p of Population: Arunachal Pradesh– 13 persons/sq km• State with Highest Population: Uttar Pradesh- 166,197,921 166 197 921• State with Lowest Population: Sikkim- 540,851
  20. 20. Ethnic Diversity in India• There are many diverse ethnic groups among the people of India. The 6 main ethnic groups are as follows:• Negrito, Proto - Australoids or Austrics, Mongoloids, Mediterranean or Dravidian Western Brachycephals Nordic Aryans Dravidian, Brachycephals, Pictures Courtesy Google Images
  21. 21. Linguistic Diversity in India• I di l Indian languages b l belong t f to four l language f ili - I d families Indo- European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic (Austric) and Sino-Tibetan• Austric languages are spoken by the tribal community in India. Some of the languages are: Santali, Mundari, Ho, Korku, Kharia, Savara, Bhumij, Nocobarese among others• Tribes of the NE - Naga, Mizo, Khasi and Lushai speak dialects close to the Tib l h Tibeto-Burman or Si Tib B Sino-Tibetan family f il• The 8th schedule of Indian Constitution recognizes 22 languages. There’re eighteen official scripts and over hundred of regional languages. Most of the Indian scripts have originated from Brahmi and Kharoshti script
  22. 22. Social Stratification• Caste is the basis of social stratification A unique socio religious stratification. socio-religious system , determines status of an individual in the society on the basis of birth• Traditionally divided into Forward, Backward and Untouchable castes – pyramidal form, Forward at top, Backward in middle and Untouchable at the Bottom• Responsible for socio-economic and political discrimination and marginalization of a large section of society for a long time causing violent and ideological caste conflicts• National policy of Reservation in govt. jobs and education for the discriminated caste groups after independence
  23. 23. The History of Indian Civilization• Broad timeline of Indian history – Pre-historic- 3300 BC-1700 BC, Ancient- 500 BC – 550 AD, Medieval – 550 AD – 1857 AD and Modern – 1857 onwards• Known histor Kno n history of Indian ci ili ation begins with Ind s valley civilization ith Indus alle civilization in the north-western part of India during 3300 BC–1300 BC• It’s followed by Vedic Age - Period: 1500 BC to 500 BC• The Vedic Period or the Vedic Age refers to the period when the Vedic h d d h d f h d h h d Sanskrit texts were composed in India
  24. 24. Confluence of Cultures• Vedic age flourished during 1500 BC and 500 BC on the Indo-Gangetic Plain g g g• India became a melting pot of different ethnic groups – Greeks, Scythians, Huans, Huans Turks among others• The Aryan invaded India around 1500 BC - 2000 BC from central Asia. Drove the original D idi i h bit t d D th i i l Dravidian inhabitants down south th• Indian civilization later got divided into Dravidian and Aryan civilization. In the Indian context Dravidian was the pre-Aryan civilization• Christianity came to Kerala in India in 52 AD with St. Thomas• Islam came to India in circa 11th century and manifested as an empire (Mogul) in 16th century ruled till mid 19th century, defeated by the British
  25. 25. • Aryans were pastoral people. Had a flair for poetry, philosophical contemplation and elaborate rituals• Introduced a set of philosophical treaties in the form of four Vedas - the basis for Hindu religion• Hindu religion also accommodated the pre-Aryan Gods and Goddesses alongside the Aryan nature Gods and Goddesses• Shiva, Kali not mentioned in Vedas co-existed with Indra, Surya, Varun and the rest• Hindu religion is not a contribution of any one God, one preacher or one sacred book• Has multiplicity of all the three; thus a way of life both in terms of its i creed and cult d d l
  26. 26. Religion and Philosophy• Philosophy in India is essentially spiritual Religion in India is not dogmatic A spiritual. dogmatic. rational synthesis which goes on gathering itself new conceptions as philosophy progresses. Experimental and provisional in nature attempting to keep pace with the progress of thought. (Radhakrishnan in Indian Philosophy, Vol. 1, Pg. 25)• Indian philosophy may be divided into two schools of thought – Orthodox and Heterodox (Aastik and Nastik) one which believed and the other which didn’t believe in God• Six schools of orthodox philosophy: Nyaya, Samkhya, Viaseshika, Yoga, Purva Mimamsa and Upnishad• Nyaya: Attributed to Gautama, deals with the concepts of reasoning and logic• Samkhya: The school of enumeration is the philosophy of manifestation, includes manifestation of all entities – from subtle to grossest
  27. 27. • Viaseshika: Propounded by Prashastapada, deals with the p y p , physical sciences. Explores five elements, interprets mind and soul of living beings• Yoga: Propounded by Patanjali, explores all the states of human existence underscores unification of body and soul existence,• Purva Mimamsa: Propounded by Jamini, focuses on emancipation of the h i i f h human soul with action l ih i• Upnishad: Vedas are considered the source of all knowledge and Upnishads the interpretation of the Vedas, thus called Vedanta. The Vedantic philosophy focuses on the concept of self-realization enabling man to find his true nature beyond death and decay
  28. 28. Hindu Religion: the Salient Features• The trinity God – Brahma Vishnu and Mahesh gives a Brahma, philosophical explanation to the process of creation, existence and destruction d d t ti• Believes in Gods and Gods incarnated – Vishnu has several avtars• Avtars may be historical fact or myth but enjoy status of God itself• The belief in the concept of avatar thus makes it easier to accept other great souls f t th t l from diff different b li f system and t belief t d accord them the status of God
  29. 29. • Vedanta, underscores only one Ultimate Reality, the , y y, Brahman, which is true and real• Rest is all illusion or appearance (maya) with no enduring significance• There’s no one God, one messenger or one book to lead the There s God path• There’s no one cult or creed• The acceptance to the multiplicity of views and rituals makes it more a way of life than a religion
  30. 30. The Heterodox Nastik School• The Heterodox or the Nastik school of Indian philosophy includes the philosophical tenets of Carvaka, Buddhism and Jainism• Carvaka Believed in atheism and materialism. Also known as Lokayata or materialist school.• According to the Carvaka philosophy matter is the only real and knowable entity. Asserted that pratyaksa (perception) alone is the pramana (source of truthful knowledge) – pramanam tvaksajam eva hi.
  31. 31. • It professed maximizing worldly p p g y pleasure and minimizing g pains• Madhavacharya considered Brhaspati to be the founder of this school. The earliest complete carvaka treaties is Jayarasi Bhatta’s Tattvoplava simha• Buddhist philosophy is non-theist, does not give primacy to the existence of God. However, it focuses on Karma, reincarnation and Nirvana• There is no eternal, unchanging part of us, like the Hindu idea of Atman; there is no eternal, unchanging aspect of the universe, like the Hindu idea of Brahman
  32. 32. • Teaches four noble truths and eightfold (ashtangik marg)• There’s suffering “dukkha” in life There s dukkha• Attachment “tanha” is the origin of suffering• Cessation of suffering is possible• The path to cessation of suffering lies in the eightfold middle path (samyak marg) which leads to Nirvana• Buddhist metaphysics talks of Three Marks of Existence-• Anicca : impermanence: all things are transitory, nothing lasts• Anatta: no-self or no-soul: existence is without a soul or self• Dukkha: suffering: all existence, even the highest states of meditation, are forms of suffering, ultimately inadequate and unsatisfactory
  33. 33. • Jainism believes in 24 Tirthankars – the first was Rishabhdev and the last Bhagwan Mahavir• Vardhman or Mahavir – a contemporary of Buddha – born c. 599 BC at Vaishali , died 527 BCE at Pavapuri near Rajgir• Jainism believes world is eternal and endless - not made by anyone, surely not by God• World is made of Jiva and Ajiva - spirit and matter. Jain philosophy laid emphasis on Anekantvad implies liberalism Anekantvad, liberalism, allows truth to be assessed from various angles• Believes reality is constituted by innumerable material and spiritual substances, each having infinite qualities
  34. 34. Sufismखसरो दिरया प्रेेम का, उ टी वा की धार ु ो ि ी ीजो उतरा सो डूब गया, जो डूबा सो पार
  35. 35. • The early history of Sufism in India is vague, however, the first Sufi who travelled I di was the martyr M h ll d India h Mansur-al-Hallaj l H ll j• Sent to gallows for saying “anal-Haqq (I’m the absolute truth, I’m g y g qq ( , God)• India I di attracted d i h d dervishes f from Samarkand, Bukhara, I S k d B kh Iran d i 11th during century AD• Sufism is essentially Islamic mysticism which in India imbibed certain terms and notions prevalent in Hindu philosophy• Laid stress on tauba (repentance) and tawakkul (Faith in God)
  36. 36. • In India it tried to interpret Islam in a more liberal manner and succeeded in gaining f ll i to I l d di i i following Islam• A large part of Indian philosophical influence on Sufism came through the contact of Islamic mystics with the Buddhists who had set up monasteries in Balkh• The concept of fana (annihilation of self) is close to nirvana and moska• Habs-i-dam : holding back breath – a yogic process• Sama : spiritual concert• Rosaries and counting of beads – practiced by Hindus and Buddhists• Pir-O-Murid – Guru-Shishya tradition y
  37. 37. • Its history begins with the establishment of chishti and suhrawardi monasteries or khankas founded by Khawja Moinuddin Chishti of Ajmer and latter by Shaikh Bahauddin Zaki in Multan• There’re different different tariqas (orders) of Sufism• The most prominent tariqas of India include - Shadhiliyya, Chishtiyyah, Naqshbandiyyah, Qadiriyyah, Shadhiliyya Chishtiyyah Naqshbandiyyah Qadiriyyah Suhrawardiyya, Ahmadiyya, and Muhammadiya orders• Amir Khusro (1253-1325), Bulle Shah (1689-1752) are among the prominent Sufi poets
  38. 38. Gandhi: The Modern Messiah 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948
  39. 39. The Man and His Philosophy• A man whose whole lif was his ‘ h h l life hi ‘experiments with t th’ i t ith truth’, never shied away to learn from his mistakes• His Objectives: Swaraj & Sarvodaya– Self Rule & Uplift of all• His Weapons: Satya & Ahimsa – Truth and Non-violence• His Method: Satyagrah & Asahyog – Civil Disobedience and Non- cooperation• His Credo: Compassion, Self-sacrifice, Unity of Being, Spirituality, Practice what you Preach
  40. 40. Economic Ideals of Gandhi• According to me the economic constitution of India and for the matter of that of the world, should be such that no one under it should suffer from want of food d l thi f d and clothing. I other words everybody should b able t get sufficient In th d b d h ld be bl to t ffi i t work to enable him to make the two ends meet. And this ideal can be universally realized only if the means of production of the elementary necessaries of life remain in the control of the masses. These should be freely available to all as God’s air and water are or ought to be; they should not be made a vehicle of traffic for the exploitation of others. Their monopolization by any country, nation or group of persons would be unjust. The neglect of this simple principle is the cause of the destitution that we witness today not only in this unhappy land but in other parts of the world too.
  41. 41. Social Ideals of Gandhi• I want to bring about an equalization of status. The working classes have all these centuries been isolated and relegated to a lower status. They have been shudras, and the word has been interpreted to mean and inferior status. I want to allow no differentiation between the son of a weaver, of an agriculturist and of a schoolmaster. schoolmaster
  42. 42. Political Ideals of Gandhi• To me political power is not an end but one of the means of enabling people to better their condition in every department of life. Political power means capacity to regulate national life through national representatives. If national life becomes so p perfect as to become self-regulated, no representation becomes g , p necessary. There is then a state of enlightened anarchy. In such a state everyone is his own ruler. He rules himself in such a manner that he is never a hindrance to his neighbours. In the ideal state therefore, there is no political power because there is no State. But the ideal is never fully realized in life. Hence the classical statement of Thoreau that that government is best which governs the least.
  43. 43. Science & Technology in India• Development of S&T adopted as a national policy in post- independence era• Scientific Policy Resolution 1958 and Technology Policy Statement of 1983 enunciated principles for the g p p growth of S&T in India• Nehru emphasized on developing the ‘scientific temper’• Called dams and industries temples of modern India• The 2004 S&T policy emphasizes on integrating it with education and research in view of the economic liberalization and demands in agriculture, industry, service and social sector
  44. 44. • The S&T infrastructure has grown up from about Rs. 10 million at the time of independence in 1947 to Rs. 30 billion• Significant achievements made in the areas of nuclear and space science, electronics and defense• Third largest scientific and technical manpower in the world; 162 universities award 4,000 doctorates and 35,000 postgraduate degrees and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research runs 40 research laboratories• Atomic Energy, Space Research, Oceanography, Biotechnology, IT, A h l Agriculture, Medicine and Medical S l d d d l Science are part of the large gamut
  45. 45. Major S&T Setup in IndiaSource: Deptt. of Science & Technology, Govt. of India
  46. 46. Indian Economy• From a mixed economy with a socialist bias, India has moved on to market economy since 1990• Public sector dominance is over, the competition between private and foreign players in all sectors of economy: telecom, aviation, automobile, IT, media, pharma, steel, infrastructure, white goods, hospitality, banking and the rest is order of the day• Indian companies have become MNCs – Tata, Mittal, Birla, Airtel, Reliance, Videocon are among a few Indian multinational operators• Strong Balance of Payment ( g y (BOP) has helped in considerable ) p accumulation of foreign reserve
  47. 47. • Indian Forex reserve as on July 22, 2011 was US $316,801 mn. (Source: RBI)• Exports during March, 2011 were valued at US $ 29134.89 mn. (Rs. 131081.97 crore)• Cumulative value of exports for the period April-March 2010 - 11 was US $ 245868.29 mn. (Rs 1118822.85 crore)• I Imports during March, 2011 were valued at US $ 34743 08 mn. t d i M h l d t 34743.08 (Rs.156314.00 crore)• Cumulative value of imports for the period April-March, 2010- 11 was US $ 350694.97 mn. (Rs. 1596869.37 crore) (Source: Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Govt. of India)
  48. 48. • The above characteristics make it a developing economy but the low per capita income (appx. US $ 1000/) also make it an underdeveloped economy• Indian economy is expected to grow at the rate of 8.2% as per IMF Report• The rate of unemployment is 9 4% which in absolute numbers 9.4% is 40 million persons• 65% of Indian population depends on agriculture but the sector contributes only 23% of the GDP
  49. 49. Media, Entertainment & Cinema• Media is considered the fourth pillar of democracy in India p y• Draws strength from “Freedom of Expression” a Fundamental Right guaranteed under Constitution• Th t t l number of registered newspapers, M h 2009 The total b f i t d March 2009: 73,146. Hindi Publications: 29,094, English publications: 10,530. Hindi, English, Regional: 25,79,53,373• 26% FDI is allowed in news publications and 100% in non- non news publications• P i t l owned except f th N ti Privately d t for the National T l i i – l Television Doordarshan and Broadcast Service – Aakashvani (AIR)
  50. 50. • Political affiliations and business interest often deviate India media from its mission• Gl Glamour, celebrityhood, sensationalism and bi money h l b it h d ti li d big have trivialized the content of India media, particularly the electronic media l d• The distinction between news and entertainment in the news channels is thinning• TRP (Television Rating Point) competition has made news reporting sensational and often incredible• Nevertheless, the institution of media is growing stronger
  51. 51. Entertainment: Indian Cinema Industry• Production of over 1000 films a year, it s the largest film industry year it’s in the world. FICCI-KPMG Report envisages Indian entertainment industry to touch US $ 28 Billion by 2015 – a 14% growth• Indian films range from fantasy, melodrama, to social realism. A mix of aesthetics, drama and action. The popular cinema is guided by the market forces. Love and romance are central to the theme• Dance, music, romance and action are hallmark of the genre called Indian cinema. Has economic and a cultural dimension too cinema• Indian cinema has resisted the cultural imperialism of Hollywood though its form has been inspired by it, But thematically and structurally it has been quite distinct
  52. 52. • Swiss locations are favourite to Indian filmmakers. Shooting on Swiss locations began in 1960s. Raj Kapur’s Sangam and Shakti Samanta’s An Evening in Paris were the pioneers http://www youtube com/watch?v Dt64ijB9ZRs• In 1995 Yash Chopra’s Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge made Switzerland popular among Indians• Indian film industry becoming globalized - Reliance Big Pictures has JV with Spielberg US$ 825 million: Warner Brothers has produced Chandani Chowk to China Town: Slumdog Millionaire directed by British Director Danny Boyle also received Oscar for best original score by AR Rahman, best original track by AR Rahman & Gulzar y , g y and best sound mixing by Resul Pookutty
  53. 53. Concludingly• Multiplicity and diversity characterize the nation called India and the Indian society• Conflict and reconciliation are the two parallel forces which go on simultaneously• So the Naxalites, the Maoist, the Secessionists armed struggle against the state is subdued and subsumed in democratic process• Liberalism always prevails over authoritarianism• Indian renaissance which awakened the Indian society in 19th y century ensured India gets its rightful place in the world• That it’s known as a modern nation yet not disjointed from its civilizational anchorage
  54. 54. Select BibliographyBasham, A.L. The Wonder that was India. London: Picador, 2004.Bhandarkar, D.R. Lectures on the Ancient History of India. Delhi: Asian Educational Service, 1994.Geiger, Thierry & Rao, S. P. (Editors) “The India Competitiveness Review 2009” Geneva: World Economic Forum. 2009.<> ON 29 July 2011.Guha, Ramchandra. Makers of Modern India. Delhi: Penguin, 2010---------------- India After Gandhi – The History of World’s Largest Democracy. Delhi: Pan Macmillan, Picador India, 2008.Habib, Irfan. “Kosambi, Marxism and Indian History” Economic & Political Weekly. 26 July 2008<> ON 14 Aug. 2011.Husain, Yusuf. Glimpses of Medieval Indian Culture. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1962.Kosambi, D. D. Myth and Reality: Studies in the Formation of Indian Culture. Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 2005Muller, F. Max. The Upnishadas Part II: The Sacred Books of the East Part Fifteen. <> ON 15 Aug.2011Naipaul, V. S. India a Wounded Civilization. New York: Vintage Books, 2003.Nehru, J.L. Discovery of India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. 1985.Radhakrishnan, S. Indian Philosophy. London: Allen & Unwin, 1996.------------------- A Hindu View of Life. London: Unwin Books, 1963.Tendulkar, S. D. “Report of the Expert Group to Review the Methodology for Estimation of Poverty”. New Delhi: Govt. ofIndia, Planning Commission, 2009.UNDP 2010 Human Development Index <> ON 15 Aug,2011.2008 World Development Indicators. Washington D.C. : World Bank, 2008. <> ON 13 Aug. 2011.