Chapter Nineteen Social Welfare
Types of Programs <ul><li>Benefit most citizens, no means test (e.g., Social Security and Medicare) </li></ul><ul><li>Bene...
Popular Support <ul><li>Majoritarian benefit programs are sacrosanct </li></ul><ul><li>The appeal of client-based, means-t...
Social Welfare in the United States <ul><li>The appeal of client-based, means-tested programs changes with popular opinion...
Who Benefits? <ul><li>The public insists that it be only those who cannot help themselves </li></ul><ul><li>There is a slo...
Non-Governmental Organizations <ul><li>Contracts and grants are awarded to national non-profit organizations, such as Big ...
Social Security Act of 1935 <ul><li>Insurance for the unemployed and elderly—workers contribute and benefit </li></ul><ul>...
Medicare Act of 1965 <ul><li>Medical benefits were omitted in 1935 in order to ensure passage of the Social Security Act <...
Reforming Welfare Programs <ul><li>Problem: there will soon be insufficient people paying Social Security taxes to provide...
Table 19.2: Health Care Spending in the United States and Abroad, 2001
Possible Solutions for Social Security <ul><li>Raising the retirement age to 70, freezing retirement benefits, and raising...
Table 19.1: Public Views on Reforming Social Security
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) <ul><li>Block grant program </li></ul><ul><li>Had strict federal requiremen...
Figure 19.1: SSI, TANF, and Food Stamp Recipients, 1980-2002 U.S. Census Bureau,  Statistical Abstract of the United State...
Majoritarian Politics <ul><li>Costs and benefits are widely distributed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Social Security Ac...
Client Politics <ul><li>Family assistance politics are less about cost than about the legitimacy of beneficiaries </li></u...
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  • ap gov chap 19

    1. 1. Chapter Nineteen Social Welfare
    2. 2. Types of Programs <ul><li>Benefit most citizens, no means test (e.g., Social Security and Medicare) </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit a few citizens, means tested (e.g. Medicaid and Food Stamps) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Popular Support <ul><li>Majoritarian benefit programs are sacrosanct </li></ul><ul><li>The appeal of client-based, means-tested programs changes with popular opinion </li></ul>
    4. 4. Social Welfare in the United States <ul><li>The appeal of client-based, means-tested programs changes with popular opinion </li></ul><ul><li>America has been slower than other nations to embrace the welfare state </li></ul><ul><li>State and private enterprise play a large role in administering welfare programs </li></ul><ul><li>Non-governmental organizations play a large role </li></ul>
    5. 5. Who Benefits? <ul><li>The public insists that it be only those who cannot help themselves </li></ul><ul><li>There is a slow, steady change in popular views, distinguishing between the deserving and the undeserving </li></ul><ul><li>The American public prefers to give services, not money, to help the “deserving poor” </li></ul>
    6. 6. Non-Governmental Organizations <ul><li>Contracts and grants are awarded to national non-profit organizations, such as Big Brothers Big Sisters, Jewish Federations, and Catholic Charities </li></ul><ul><li>Charitable Choice : provision that allowed religious non-profit organizations to compete for grants to administer welfare-to-work and related policies </li></ul><ul><li>Faith-based organizations playing prominent roles in urban welfare-to-work programs </li></ul>
    7. 7. Social Security Act of 1935 <ul><li>Insurance for the unemployed and elderly—workers contribute and benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody is eligible for insurance programs </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance for dependent children, the blind, and the elderly </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance programs are means tested </li></ul>
    8. 8. Medicare Act of 1965 <ul><li>Medical benefits were omitted in 1935 in order to ensure passage of the Social Security Act </li></ul><ul><li>Covers medical care for the poor and pays doctors’ bills for the elderly </li></ul>
    9. 9. Reforming Welfare Programs <ul><li>Problem: there will soon be insufficient people paying Social Security taxes to provide benefits for every retired person </li></ul><ul><li>Most solutions are opposed by the public </li></ul><ul><li>Health care issues will remain on the political agenda </li></ul>
    10. 10. Table 19.2: Health Care Spending in the United States and Abroad, 2001
    11. 11. Possible Solutions for Social Security <ul><li>Raising the retirement age to 70, freezing retirement benefits, and raising Social Security taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Privatizing Social Security </li></ul><ul><li>Combine the first two reforms, and allow citizens to invest a portion of their Social Security taxes into mutual funds </li></ul>
    12. 12. Table 19.1: Public Views on Reforming Social Security
    13. 13. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) <ul><li>Block grant program </li></ul><ul><li>Had strict federal requirements about work, limited how long families can receive federally funded benefits </li></ul><ul><li>By 2003, welfare caseloads had declined nationally by 60% </li></ul>
    14. 14. Figure 19.1: SSI, TANF, and Food Stamp Recipients, 1980-2002 U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2003 , 371, 374.
    15. 15. Majoritarian Politics <ul><li>Costs and benefits are widely distributed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Social Security Act, Medicare Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question of legitimacy: conservatives argued that nothing in the Constitution authorized the federal government to spend money this way </li></ul>
    16. 16. Client Politics <ul><li>Family assistance politics are less about cost than about the legitimacy of beneficiaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: TANF program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beneficiaries changed: 1996-2003, able-bodied adults had a harder time getting benefits, but child-care spending in most states rose by 50% or more </li></ul>

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