What’s important <ul><li>Primate evolutionary trends </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomic classifications down to family </li></ul>...
PRIMATE TAXONOMY AND CHARACTERISTICS
Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Family Infraorder:-formes; Superfamily:-oidea; Family:-idae; Subfamily:-inae, and Parvorde...
Catarrhini <ul><li>Suborder:  Anthropoidea (Haplorrhini – dry/simple-nosed primates – includes tarsiers) </li></ul><ul><li...
EVOLUTIONARY TRENDS NAPIER AND NAPIER LE GROS CLARK
Generalized/unspecialized skeleton allows varied locomotion
Pentadactyly, prehensility, opposability, nails, tactile pads
Reduction of snout/muzzle  and olfaction
Increased visual acuity, color perception, binocular and stereoscopic vision
Generalized dentition/diet Dental formula
<ul><li>Increased complexity of brain,  especially cerebral cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in efficiency of prenatal fe...
PROSIMIANS
Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Family
 
 
PROCUMBENT INCISORS / DENTAL COMB
Tendency  toward VCL
<ul><li>More pronounced muzzle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher reliance on olfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scent marking...
<ul><li>Digits act together in power grip </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple pairs of teats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent multipl...
TARSIERS
 
 
NEW WORLD MONKEYS
 
PARVORDERS:  Platyrrhini:  rounded widely-spaced nostrils Catarrhini:  narrow downward-facing nostrils
 
ARBOREAL
<ul><li>Long tails norm </li></ul><ul><li>Some prehensile </li></ul>
<ul><li>2-1-3-3 dental formula </li></ul><ul><li>Twinning in Callitrichines </li></ul>
 
Catarrhini
Catarrhini  (relative to Platyrrhini) <ul><li>2-1-2-3 </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded ischial tuberosities </li></ul><ul><li>La...
 
OLD WORLD MONKEYS CERCOPITHECINES
OLD WORLD MONKEYS COLOBINES
 
<ul><li>Evolutionarily successful / Taxonomically diverse  </li></ul><ul><li>More closely resemble earliest anthropoids th...
 
 
APES
 
 
 
Suspensory hanging adaptation
 
LESSER APES
Relative to great apes <ul><li>Smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Gracile skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>More primitive but most specia...
GREAT APES
Relative to lesser apes <ul><li>Less suspensory </li></ul><ul><li>Varying degrees of terrestriality </li></ul><ul><li>Buil...
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233 what are primates

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233 what are primates

  1. 1. What’s important <ul><li>Primate evolutionary trends </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomic classifications down to family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subfamily in case of Old World anthropoids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of various groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosimians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New World monkeys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old World monkeys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apes </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. PRIMATE TAXONOMY AND CHARACTERISTICS
  3. 3. Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Family Infraorder:-formes; Superfamily:-oidea; Family:-idae; Subfamily:-inae, and Parvorder & tribe:–ini (Strepsirhini) Prosimians
  4. 4. Catarrhini <ul><li>Suborder: Anthropoidea (Haplorrhini – dry/simple-nosed primates – includes tarsiers) </li></ul><ul><li>Infraorder: Simiiformes </li></ul><ul><li>Parvorder: Catarrhini </li></ul>
  5. 5. EVOLUTIONARY TRENDS NAPIER AND NAPIER LE GROS CLARK
  6. 6. Generalized/unspecialized skeleton allows varied locomotion
  7. 7. Pentadactyly, prehensility, opposability, nails, tactile pads
  8. 8. Reduction of snout/muzzle and olfaction
  9. 9. Increased visual acuity, color perception, binocular and stereoscopic vision
  10. 10. Generalized dentition/diet Dental formula
  11. 11. <ul><li>Increased complexity of brain, especially cerebral cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in efficiency of prenatal fetal nourishment </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency toward upright posture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of bipedalism at least for short periods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long pre- and postnatal life periods with greater reliance on learned behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency toward diurnality </li></ul>
  12. 12. PROSIMIANS
  13. 13. Suborder Infraorder Superfamily Family
  14. 16. PROCUMBENT INCISORS / DENTAL COMB
  15. 17. Tendency toward VCL
  16. 18. <ul><li>More pronounced muzzle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher reliance on olfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scent marking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mulitple scent glands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Moist rhinarium </li></ul><ul><li>Immobile upper lip </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpressive face </li></ul><ul><li>Large laterally oriented eyes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most species nocturnal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tapetum lucidum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Higher reliance on audition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile ears </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Digits act together in power grip </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple pairs of teats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent multiple births </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. TARSIERS
  19. 23. NEW WORLD MONKEYS
  20. 25. PARVORDERS: Platyrrhini: rounded widely-spaced nostrils Catarrhini: narrow downward-facing nostrils
  21. 27. ARBOREAL
  22. 28. <ul><li>Long tails norm </li></ul><ul><li>Some prehensile </li></ul>
  23. 29. <ul><li>2-1-3-3 dental formula </li></ul><ul><li>Twinning in Callitrichines </li></ul>
  24. 31. Catarrhini
  25. 32. Catarrhini (relative to Platyrrhini) <ul><li>2-1-2-3 </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded ischial tuberosities </li></ul><ul><li>Larger-bodied (in general) </li></ul><ul><li>More folivorous and terrestrial species </li></ul><ul><li>More complex derived brain </li></ul><ul><li>Nose </li></ul>
  26. 34. OLD WORLD MONKEYS CERCOPITHECINES
  27. 35. OLD WORLD MONKEYS COLOBINES
  28. 37. <ul><li>Evolutionarily successful / Taxonomically diverse </li></ul><ul><li>More closely resemble earliest anthropoids than do apes </li></ul><ul><li>Many have long tails and sexual swellings </li></ul><ul><li>Ischial callosities </li></ul><ul><li>Opposable thumbs except African colobines – thumbless (see left) </li></ul>
  29. 40. APES
  30. 44. Suspensory hanging adaptation
  31. 46. LESSER APES
  32. 47. Relative to great apes <ul><li>Smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Gracile skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>More primitive but most specialized </li></ul><ul><li>Monomorphic </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter snouts </li></ul><ul><li>Long canines </li></ul><ul><li>↑ IMI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer upper limbs/hands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long curved fingers, no thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Strictly arboreal </li></ul><ul><li>Ischial callosities </li></ul><ul><li>Most lack sexual swellings </li></ul>
  33. 48. GREAT APES
  34. 49. Relative to lesser apes <ul><li>Less suspensory </li></ul><ul><li>Varying degrees of terrestriality </li></ul><ul><li>Build nests </li></ul><ul><li>Larger-bodied </li></ul><ul><li>Longer-lived </li></ul><ul><li>Long developmental/dependency period </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually dimorphic </li></ul><ul><li>In captivity, symbolic behavior seen </li></ul>

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