TO KNOW: <ul><li>RECOGNIZE BETTER KNOWN GENERA  </li></ul><ul><li>GENUS </li></ul><ul><li>COMMON NAME </li></ul><ul><li>DI...
 
LEMURIFORMES OF MADAGASCAR ALL ENDANGERED HUMANS ARRIVED 1.5 kya
LEMURIDAE (low sexual dimorphism)
<ul><li>True lemurs  </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-male/female </li></ul><ul><li>Some dichromatic </li></ul><ul><li>Cathemeral –...
Lemur <ul><li>1 species:  L.   catta  - ring-tailed lemur </li></ul><ul><li>Cat-sized, ~6# </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores </...
<ul><li>Most terrestrial  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Large multi-male/female groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even in face of food shortages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add...
<ul><li>Vulnerable to predators </li></ul><ul><li>Have distinct alarm calls – aerial vs. terrestrial </li></ul><ul><li>Mal...
<ul><li>Polyspecific association - brown lemurs </li></ul>
Hapalemur Gentle or bamboo lemur <ul><li>3 sympatric species at 1 site </li></ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanogenic...
SETH PALMER IN MADAGASCAR 11” WALKING STICK!!!
<ul><li>1 species:  V.   variegata  - ruffed lemur </li></ul><ul><li>Only large lemur to give birth to multiple offspring ...
MEGALADAPIDAE
<ul><li>Sportive, weasel lemurs </li></ul><ul><li>Broad distribution </li></ul><ul><li>1 sp cannot survive well in logged ...
CHEIROGALEIDAE Smallest and most primitive lemuriformes
<ul><li>Nocturnal </li></ul><ul><li>Nest-building - sleep in nests or tree holes during day </li></ul><ul><li>Some hiberna...
Allocebus <ul><li>Hairy-eared dwarf lemur </li></ul><ul><li>Thought extinct (critically endangered) </li></ul><ul><li>Redi...
Cheirogaleus <ul><li>Dwarf/fat-tailed lemurs </li></ul>
<ul><li>Most abundant and widespread of lemurs </li></ul><ul><li>M. myoxinus  – pygmy mouse lemur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sm...
<ul><li>Infants 1/5 oz, adults  2 oz </li></ul><ul><li>Females > males </li></ul><ul><li>Fat (base of tail) - seasonally c...
<ul><li>Solitary foragers </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersed polygyny social system </li></ul><ul><li>Females may congregate in n...
<ul><li>Coquerel's dwarf lemur </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t store fat in tail </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to usual scent mark...
<ul><li>1 species: fork-marked lemur </li></ul><ul><li>Gum specialists:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforced fingernails for ...
INDRIDAE <ul><li>3 genera which differ in size and activity patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized leapers with long limbs...
<ul><li>1 species –  A. laniger - Woolly lemur </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm call sounds like name in Malagasy “a ha hy” </li></...
<ul><li>Territorial pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Male and female stay in close contact, resting or grooming ↑40% of night </li>...
<ul><li>Sifaka </li></ul><ul><li>Long limbs, tail </li></ul><ul><li>Diurnal </li></ul>Propithecus
<ul><li>One-male or multi-male </li></ul><ul><li>Infanticide reported </li></ul><ul><li>Verreaux’s sifaka </li></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>VCL </li></ul><ul><li>Bipedally hop on ground </li></ul>
Indri <ul><li>Indris or babakotos (“little man of the forest”) </li></ul><ul><li>Diurnal </li></ul>
<ul><li>Largest – 13-16# </li></ul><ul><li>Short stubby tail (vs sifaka) </li></ul>
Duet - spacing mechanism
<ul><li>Territorial pairs – mate face-to-face hanging under branch! </li></ul>
<ul><li>Geophagic </li></ul><ul><li>High feed, low social </li></ul>
DAUBENTONIIDAE
Daubentonia aye-aye <ul><li>Largest nocturnal primate </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly most widely distributed but low density <...
<ul><li>Large continuously growing rodent-like incisors </li></ul><ul><li>1.0.(1).3/1.0.0.3 </li></ul>
<ul><li>Skeletal 3rd digit </li></ul><ul><li>Metacarpo-phalangeal joint is ball and socket vs. condylar </li></ul>
<ul><li>Nocturnal arboreal quadrupededs </li></ul><ul><li>Some fear – kill chickens and don’t fear humans </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Specialize on grub/larvae  </li></ul><ul><li>Also eat fruit, coconuts </li></ul>
<ul><li>Hunt by audition, gnaw bark w/ incisors, probe w/ 3rd digit </li></ul><ul><li>Niche of woodpecker </li></ul>
Crop raiders for coconuts and sugar cane
<ul><li>Build leaf nests </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary foragers but observed in multi-adult groups BUT Rowe says male overlap...
AFRICA
GALAGONIDAE
Galago <ul><li>Bushbabies – some sound like babies crying </li></ul><ul><li>All species are sympatric with congeners </li>...
<ul><li>Small nocturnal VCL’s </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary foragers </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersed polygyny </li></ul><ul><li>F...
TOO CUTE!!!! <ul><li>In unpredictable areas have 2 litters per year </li></ul>
<ul><li>High insects  and gums </li></ul><ul><li>Male dominance hierarchy based on age and weight </li></ul>
 
Other species <ul><li>Otolemur  – Greater bushbaby – largest  </li></ul><ul><li>Galagoides  – Demidoff’s or Zanzibar bushb...
LORIDAE <ul><li>Slow for most part </li></ul><ul><li>IMI~100 </li></ul><ul><li>Scapular shield: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elon...
Perodicticus <ul><li>Potto (“softly” - soft, slow, silent) </li></ul><ul><li>Forests, savanna, plantations </li></ul><ul><...
Slow climber with nose to branch Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
<ul><li>Low insects ~10%, high FR 65% gums 21% </li></ul>
<ul><li>Dispersed polygyny </li></ul><ul><li>~Monomorphic </li></ul><ul><li>Infanticide  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Angwantibos </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller, slender </li></ul><ul><li>Slow climber </li></ul><ul><li>High insects w/ so...
<ul><li>Pseudopotto </li></ul><ul><li>I know nothing! </li></ul>Pseudopotto
ASIA
Loris <ul><li>Slender loris - &quot;banana on stilts&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Arboreal quadruped </li></ul><ul><li>High ins...
<ul><li>Slow lorises </li></ul><ul><li>Wide geographic range </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Stock...
 
Can sneak up on prey and strike with great speed by perching on its feet and throwing the body forward
Slow loris <ul><li>Toxin in glands in elbows  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lick - Mixes with saliva –  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
TARSIIDAE
Tarsius Tarsiers <ul><li>Multiple species on various islands </li></ul><ul><li>Small (adults: 4-5 oz)  </li></ul><ul><li>A...
Claws on 2 nd  and 3 rd  toes
T. Syrichta (Philippine Tarsier) T. Bancanus (Horsfield’s tarsier) T. Spectrum (spectral tarsier) T. Pumilus (pygymy tarsi...
 
<ul><li>Brain is smooth like carnivores </li></ul><ul><li>Huge eyes - >brain or stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturnal but fo...
<ul><li>Totally faunivorous –  </li></ul><ul><li>large insects and small animals </li></ul>
<ul><li>Large hands and feet - adaptation for clinging and grasping prey </li></ul><ul><li>Long legs with many adaptations...
<ul><li>Solitary, pairs, or multi-male, depending on species </li></ul>
<ul><li>Relatively large offspring </li></ul>
Conservation Philippine tarsiers, spectral tarsiers, Dian’s tarsiers and Horsfield’s tarsiers are all on conservation list...
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233 prosimians

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233 prosimians

  1. 1. TO KNOW: <ul><li>RECOGNIZE BETTER KNOWN GENERA </li></ul><ul><li>GENUS </li></ul><ul><li>COMMON NAME </li></ul><ul><li>DISTINGUISHING/INTERESTING CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>Books on reserve and ppt’s </li></ul>
  2. 3. LEMURIFORMES OF MADAGASCAR ALL ENDANGERED HUMANS ARRIVED 1.5 kya
  3. 4. LEMURIDAE (low sexual dimorphism)
  4. 5. <ul><li>True lemurs </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-male/female </li></ul><ul><li>Some dichromatic </li></ul><ul><li>Cathemeral – important pollinators (black lemurs more nocturnal than diurnal - night blooms) </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-terrestrial quadruped with VCL capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>FFTK: Brown lemurs salivate on millipedes and roll between hands before eating </li></ul>Crowned Black ( ♀ orange) Brown Mongoose Eulemur
  5. 6. Lemur <ul><li>1 species: L. catta - ring-tailed lemur </li></ul><ul><li>Cat-sized, ~6# </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores </li></ul><ul><li>Suffer seasonal periods of food scarcity </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Most terrestrial </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Large multi-male/female groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even in face of food shortages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional protection from predators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Core of females which are dominant to males in food contests </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Vulnerable to predators </li></ul><ul><li>Have distinct alarm calls – aerial vs. terrestrial </li></ul><ul><li>Males stink fight </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Polyspecific association - brown lemurs </li></ul>
  10. 11. Hapalemur Gentle or bamboo lemur <ul><li>3 sympatric species at 1 site </li></ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanogenic compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Niche partitioning: plant part, (level, time?) </li></ul>
  11. 12. SETH PALMER IN MADAGASCAR 11” WALKING STICK!!!
  12. 13. <ul><li>1 species: V. variegata - ruffed lemur </li></ul><ul><li>Only large lemur to give birth to multiple offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t survive well in logged areas – eat large fruit from large trees </li></ul>Varecia
  13. 14. MEGALADAPIDAE
  14. 15. <ul><li>Sportive, weasel lemurs </li></ul><ul><li>Broad distribution </li></ul><ul><li>1 sp cannot survive well in logged areas – cannot sustain themselves moving too far between trees </li></ul><ul><li>Small, drab-colored </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturnal VCL’s </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial – ↑ scars </li></ul><ul><li>↑ Leaves, ↓ activity, copraphagic </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary or pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Single births, parking </li></ul>Lepilemur
  15. 16. CHEIROGALEIDAE Smallest and most primitive lemuriformes
  16. 17. <ul><li>Nocturnal </li></ul><ul><li>Nest-building - sleep in nests or tree holes during day </li></ul><ul><li>Some hibernate for as long as 6-9 mos </li></ul><ul><li>Most store fat in tail </li></ul><ul><li>3 pairs nipples </li></ul><ul><li>Usually multiple offspring (1-4 depending on species) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Allocebus <ul><li>Hairy-eared dwarf lemur </li></ul><ul><li>Thought extinct (critically endangered) </li></ul><ul><li>Rediscovered in 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>1 location in N Madagascar </li></ul>
  18. 19. Cheirogaleus <ul><li>Dwarf/fat-tailed lemurs </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Most abundant and widespread of lemurs </li></ul><ul><li>M. myoxinus – pygmy mouse lemur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest primate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults – 1 oz </li></ul></ul>Microcebus
  20. 21. <ul><li>Infants 1/5 oz, adults 2 oz </li></ul><ul><li>Females > males </li></ul><ul><li>Fat (base of tail) - seasonally can increase wt 4x </li></ul><ul><li>Arboreal quadrupeds but may travel on ground </li></ul><ul><li>Most faunivorous but ↓% of diet </li></ul>M. murinus Mouse lemurs
  21. 22. <ul><li>Solitary foragers </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersed polygyny social system </li></ul><ul><li>Females may congregate in nests </li></ul><ul><li>Males tolerate one another and may sleep together until mating season </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant male suppresses subordinate males via urine pheromones </li></ul><ul><li>Highest predation rates of all primates </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 offspring up to twice/yr </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Coquerel's dwarf lemur </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t store fat in tail </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to usual scent marking, practice scent discharge – perceptible to humans </li></ul>M. coquereli
  23. 24. <ul><li>1 species: fork-marked lemur </li></ul><ul><li>Gum specialists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforced fingernails for clinging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper and lower procumbent incisors, long canines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long narrow tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large cecum </li></ul></ul>Phaner
  24. 25. INDRIDAE <ul><li>3 genera which differ in size and activity patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized leapers with long limbs especially hindlimbs </li></ul><ul><li>Usually single births with long birth intervals </li></ul><ul><li>2 of 3 monogamous </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivorous </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>1 species – A. laniger - Woolly lemur </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm call sounds like name in Malagasy “a ha hy” </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturnal </li></ul>Avahi
  26. 27. <ul><li>Territorial pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Male and female stay in close contact, resting or grooming ↑40% of night </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Sifaka </li></ul><ul><li>Long limbs, tail </li></ul><ul><li>Diurnal </li></ul>Propithecus
  28. 29. <ul><li>One-male or multi-male </li></ul><ul><li>Infanticide reported </li></ul><ul><li>Verreaux’s sifaka </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Females dominant to males </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Have distinct alarm calls – aerial vs. terrestrial </li></ul>Critically endangered P. candidus
  29. 30. <ul><li>VCL </li></ul><ul><li>Bipedally hop on ground </li></ul>
  30. 31. Indri <ul><li>Indris or babakotos (“little man of the forest”) </li></ul><ul><li>Diurnal </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Largest – 13-16# </li></ul><ul><li>Short stubby tail (vs sifaka) </li></ul>
  32. 33. Duet - spacing mechanism
  33. 34. <ul><li>Territorial pairs – mate face-to-face hanging under branch! </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Geophagic </li></ul><ul><li>High feed, low social </li></ul>
  35. 36. DAUBENTONIIDAE
  36. 37. Daubentonia aye-aye <ul><li>Largest nocturnal primate </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly most widely distributed but low density </li></ul><ul><li>Medium size - ~5 ½# </li></ul><ul><li>Good hearing, smell, and manual dexterity -> large brain </li></ul><ul><li>Mate hanging upside down (1hr)! </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>Large continuously growing rodent-like incisors </li></ul><ul><li>1.0.(1).3/1.0.0.3 </li></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>Skeletal 3rd digit </li></ul><ul><li>Metacarpo-phalangeal joint is ball and socket vs. condylar </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Nocturnal arboreal quadrupededs </li></ul><ul><li>Some fear – kill chickens and don’t fear humans </li></ul><ul><li>Some believe good luck </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>Specialize on grub/larvae </li></ul><ul><li>Also eat fruit, coconuts </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>Hunt by audition, gnaw bark w/ incisors, probe w/ 3rd digit </li></ul><ul><li>Niche of woodpecker </li></ul>
  42. 43. Crop raiders for coconuts and sugar cane
  43. 44. <ul><li>Build leaf nests </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary foragers but observed in multi-adult groups BUT Rowe says male overlaps females but females seldom overlap </li></ul>A creature only a mother could love!!! Future chicken killer…YIKES!!!
  44. 45. AFRICA
  45. 46. GALAGONIDAE
  46. 47. Galago <ul><li>Bushbabies – some sound like babies crying </li></ul><ul><li>All species are sympatric with congeners </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>Small nocturnal VCL’s </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary foragers </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersed polygyny </li></ul><ul><li>Female philopatric </li></ul><ul><li>Females sleep together in nests </li></ul>
  48. 49. TOO CUTE!!!! <ul><li>In unpredictable areas have 2 litters per year </li></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>High insects and gums </li></ul><ul><li>Male dominance hierarchy based on age and weight </li></ul>
  50. 52. Other species <ul><li>Otolemur – Greater bushbaby – largest </li></ul><ul><li>Galagoides – Demidoff’s or Zanzibar bushbaby –endangered – when interacting with adults, if kids hold tail in corkscrew pose, not attacked </li></ul><ul><li>Euoticus – Needle-clawed bushbaby – clawlike nails used to cling/climb - gumnivory </li></ul>
  51. 53. LORIDAE <ul><li>Slow for most part </li></ul><ul><li>IMI~100 </li></ul><ul><li>Scapular shield: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elongated cervical spines (hump) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Butt, bite, drop </li></ul><ul><li>Singletons </li></ul><ul><li>Some parking </li></ul><ul><li>Opposable thumbs </li></ul>
  52. 54. Perodicticus <ul><li>Potto (“softly” - soft, slow, silent) </li></ul><ul><li>Forests, savanna, plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Central and west Africa </li></ul><ul><li>1.8-3.5# </li></ul><ul><li>Short bottle-brush tail </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary foragers but can be social – groom, play, fight </li></ul><ul><li>Hunt by olfaction </li></ul>
  53. 55. Slow climber with nose to branch Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
  54. 56. <ul><li>Low insects ~10%, high FR 65% gums 21% </li></ul>
  55. 57. <ul><li>Dispersed polygyny </li></ul><ul><li>~Monomorphic </li></ul><ul><li>Infanticide </li></ul>
  56. 58. <ul><li>Angwantibos </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller, slender </li></ul><ul><li>Slow climber </li></ul><ul><li>High insects w/ some fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Similar social organization as pottos </li></ul>Arctocebus
  57. 59. <ul><li>Pseudopotto </li></ul><ul><li>I know nothing! </li></ul>Pseudopotto
  58. 60. ASIA
  59. 61. Loris <ul><li>Slender loris - &quot;banana on stilts&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Arboreal quadruped </li></ul><ul><li>High insects </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary foragers – males may sleep together or 1 or more with female (Nekaris) </li></ul>
  60. 62. <ul><li>Slow lorises </li></ul><ul><li>Wide geographic range </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Stockier </li></ul><ul><li>Slow climbers – can move on top or under branch </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful grasp – reduced 2nd digit with 1st and 3rd coming together </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit, insects (especially slow ones), eggs, cocoa </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary foragers </li></ul><ul><li>No parking - precocious young cling </li></ul>Nyctocebus
  61. 64. Can sneak up on prey and strike with great speed by perching on its feet and throwing the body forward
  62. 65. Slow loris <ul><li>Toxin in glands in elbows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lick - Mixes with saliva – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fur </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parked offspring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nauseates predators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can kill mice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When threatened </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold hands above to lick toxins in preparation for the fight </li></ul></ul>
  63. 66. TARSIIDAE
  64. 67. Tarsius Tarsiers <ul><li>Multiple species on various islands </li></ul><ul><li>Small (adults: 4-5 oz) </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomical intermediates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grooming claws, multiple nipples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postorbital closure (but Beard), foveal retina, nasal anatomy, efficient placenta </li></ul></ul>
  65. 68. Claws on 2 nd and 3 rd toes
  66. 69. T. Syrichta (Philippine Tarsier) T. Bancanus (Horsfield’s tarsier) T. Spectrum (spectral tarsier) T. Pumilus (pygymy tarsier) T. Dianae (Dian’s tarsier)
  67. 71. <ul><li>Brain is smooth like carnivores </li></ul><ul><li>Huge eyes - >brain or stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Nocturnal but foveal retina </li></ul>
  68. 72. <ul><li>Totally faunivorous – </li></ul><ul><li>large insects and small animals </li></ul>
  69. 73. <ul><li>Large hands and feet - adaptation for clinging and grasping prey </li></ul><ul><li>Long legs with many adaptations for VCL >3m </li></ul>
  70. 74. <ul><li>Solitary, pairs, or multi-male, depending on species </li></ul>
  71. 75. <ul><li>Relatively large offspring </li></ul>
  72. 76. Conservation Philippine tarsiers, spectral tarsiers, Dian’s tarsiers and Horsfield’s tarsiers are all on conservation lists (lower risk)

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