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PRIMATE ECOLOGY
Geographic range: ≤40   N & S latitude
I. PRIMATE HABITAT TYPES
A. FOREST CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>Most primates inhabit forests </li></ul><ul><li>They can be categorized by: </li></ul>
1.  AGE/STRUCTURE <ul><li>Primary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undisturbed  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muriquis  </li></ul></ul><...
2.  TYPE <ul><li>Climate/latitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature/rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. tropical, tempera...
B. PRIMATE BIOMES
Tropical rainforest
Evergreen forest
Semi-evergreen to dry
Temperate forest some macaques and colobines
Riparian forest
Swamp forest Allen’s swamp monkey, orangs
Mangrove forest
Savanna/woodland Baboons
Scrub forest  Acacia scrub
Grassland
II. ECOLOGICAL NICHE <ul><li>Niche requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Niche partitioning </li></ul>
A. REQUIREMENTS / ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS <ul><li>Need enough resources and the space to contain them </li></ul><ul><li>Some...
B. NICHE PARTITIONING <ul><li>Text: e.g. Makoku, Gabon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 lorids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 monkey...
III. ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC FACTORS THAT AFFECT PRIMATES
A. ABIOTIC FACTORS <ul><li>1.  Space  </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Sleeping sites </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Climate </li></ul><ul><li...
1.  SPACE <ul><li>Tied to  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group/population size (biotic factor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other sy...
2. Sleeping sites <ul><li>I.  Trees (biotic but space) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particular ...
3.  Climate <ul><li>Rainfall, humidity, solar energy, wind </li></ul><ul><li>Within- and between-year variability </li></u...
4.  Water and minerals <ul><li>Water – plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul></...
B. BIOTIC FACTORS <ul><li>1.  Food species </li></ul><ul><li>2. Other animals/organisms </li></ul>
1.  Food <ul><li>Abiotic factors affect food availability at all levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FOOD CHAIN: plants  ->1°cons...
2. ANIMALS/ORGANISMS <ul><li>A. Mates </li></ul><ul><li>B. Group members </li></ul><ul><li>C. Competitors </li></ul><ul><l...
a. MATES <ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers and distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul>...
b. MEMBERS OF SOCIAL GROUP <ul><li>Competition for all resources </li></ul><ul><li>Support network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W...
c. COMPETITORS <ul><li>Within-group: All resources </li></ul><ul><li>Conspecifics: While compete due to identical niche re...
 
d. POLYSPECIFIC ASSOCIATIONS <ul><li>Primate ↔ primate, primate ↔ bird (use cues) </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul...
 
e. PREDATORS <ul><li>Strong influence, especially small primates </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial/arboreal </li></ul><ul><li>...
f. PATHOGENS <ul><li>Density dependent diseases/parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hosts - botflies...
IV. HOME/DAY RANGE  <ul><li>Geographic range:  genus vs. species </li></ul><ul><li>Home range </li></ul><ul><li>Core Area ...
V. DEGREE OF TERRITORIALITY <ul><li>Territorial pairs: gibbons, indris </li></ul><ul><li>Female philopatry </li></ul><ul><...
VI. ACTIVITY BUDGETS <ul><li>How do animals spend their time amongst the various activities </li></ul><ul><li>FEED, REST, ...
VII. DIET
A. DIETARY CATEGORIES <ul><li>HERBIVORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frugivory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folivory </li></ul></ul...
B. DIETARY ADAPTATIONS <ul><li>Phylogenetic constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomic group-level adaptations  </li></ul><ul...
C. NATURE OF RESOURCES <ul><li>Density, abundance, distribution, availability </li></ul><ul><li>Affects home & day range s...
1. Where resources are  defensible : <ul><li>Female cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of matrilines </li></ul><ul><l...
2. Where resources are  indefensible : <ul><li>Females unrelated & not cooperating </li></ul><ul><li>Forage on own </li></...
VIII. LIFE HISTORY CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Important conservation considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Species-specific charac...
A. BODY SIZE <ul><li>Larger animals  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need more space/resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow slowe...
B. LIFE STAGES : <ul><li>What are stages? </li></ul><ul><li>Length of stages </li></ul>
C. REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS : <ul><li>Litter size </li></ul><ul><li>Gestation length </li></ul><ul><li>Interbirth interval ...
IX. DEMOGRAPHY: <ul><li>Study of populations in terms of size, structure, change over time…. </li></ul><ul><li>Size of gro...
X. CONSERVATION: <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Human overpopulation </li></ul>...
PROBLEMS cont’d <ul><li>Less necessary economic interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals/gems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>War <...
PROBLEMS cont’d <ul><li>Hunting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food for indigenous people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bush meat </li...
PROBLEMS cont’d <ul><li>Animal Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomedical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folk remedies </li></ul><...
 
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233 primate ecology

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233 primate ecology

  1. 1. PRIMATE ECOLOGY
  2. 2. Geographic range: ≤40  N & S latitude
  3. 3. I. PRIMATE HABITAT TYPES
  4. 4. A. FOREST CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>Most primates inhabit forests </li></ul><ul><li>They can be categorized by: </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1. AGE/STRUCTURE <ul><li>Primary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undisturbed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muriquis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regenerating, successional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Santa Rosa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recently disturbed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires, anthropogenic activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some species adapted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even urban </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Langurs, macaques (crop raiders), marmosets (tree plantations) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Edge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some callitrichines </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 2. TYPE <ul><li>Climate/latitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature/rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. tropical, temperate, dry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Species composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Dipterocarp forests of SE Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Altitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. lowland, montane, cloud </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. B. PRIMATE BIOMES
  8. 8. Tropical rainforest
  9. 9. Evergreen forest
  10. 10. Semi-evergreen to dry
  11. 11. Temperate forest some macaques and colobines
  12. 12. Riparian forest
  13. 13. Swamp forest Allen’s swamp monkey, orangs
  14. 14. Mangrove forest
  15. 15. Savanna/woodland Baboons
  16. 16. Scrub forest Acacia scrub
  17. 17. Grassland
  18. 18. II. ECOLOGICAL NICHE <ul><li>Niche requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Niche partitioning </li></ul>
  19. 19. A. REQUIREMENTS / ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS <ul><li>Need enough resources and the space to contain them </li></ul><ul><li>Some species have more specific requirements than others and are more vulnerable, e.g. pitheciines </li></ul><ul><li>Others are more adaptable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Howlers, langurs, macaques </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. B. NICHE PARTITIONING <ul><li>Text: e.g. Makoku, Gabon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 lorids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 monkeys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 ape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substrates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Howlers vs spiders – plant categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 sympatric bamboo lemurs - plant parts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foraging habits – squirrel vs capuchins (Polyspecific associations) </li></ul><ul><li>Level </li></ul><ul><li>Timing – nocturnal species </li></ul>
  21. 21. III. ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC FACTORS THAT AFFECT PRIMATES
  22. 22. A. ABIOTIC FACTORS <ul><li>1. Space </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sleeping sites </li></ul><ul><li>3. Climate </li></ul><ul><li>4. Water & Minerals </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1. SPACE <ul><li>Tied to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group/population size (biotic factor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other sympatric species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Home ranges related to available space/resources and group size </li></ul>
  24. 24. 2. Sleeping sites <ul><li>I. Trees (biotic but space) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particular architecture/species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insect repellent properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: howlers and vervets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>II. Holes/tangles for galagos, callitrichines </li></ul><ul><li>III. Cliffs – savanna, Hamadryas, and gelada baboons </li></ul>
  25. 25. 3. Climate <ul><li>Rainfall, humidity, solar energy, wind </li></ul><ul><li>Within- and between-year variability </li></ul><ul><li>Food availability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home range use/travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy available for activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seasonal fluctuations in activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain/heat may impede activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hibernating species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasite load </li></ul>
  26. 26. 4. Water and minerals <ul><li>Water – plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumption - geophagy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trace minerals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aid to digestion – interfere with tannins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clay – kaolin – binding agent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Salt licks </li></ul><ul><li>Gums for calcium (biotic) </li></ul>Colobus eating charcoal
  27. 27. B. BIOTIC FACTORS <ul><li>1. Food species </li></ul><ul><li>2. Other animals/organisms </li></ul>
  28. 28. 1. Food <ul><li>Abiotic factors affect food availability at all levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FOOD CHAIN: plants ->1°consumers->2 °consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intra- and inter-year climatic fluctuations (millipede boom, Lonchocarpus , Chicle fruit) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biotic factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition – plant and animal foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conspecifics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primates – similar niche requirements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other spp – e.g. leaf cutter ants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. 2. ANIMALS/ORGANISMS <ul><li>A. Mates </li></ul><ul><li>B. Group members </li></ul><ul><li>C. Competitors </li></ul><ul><li>D. Polyspecific associations </li></ul><ul><li>E. Predators </li></ul><ul><li>F. Pathogens </li></ul>
  30. 30. a. MATES <ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers and distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within- and between-group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-male groups – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High variation in reproductive success </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. b. MEMBERS OF SOCIAL GROUP <ul><li>Competition for all resources </li></ul><ul><li>Support network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within-group and between-group competition/ aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominance hierarchy </li></ul>
  32. 32. c. COMPETITORS <ul><li>Within-group: All resources </li></ul><ul><li>Conspecifics: While compete due to identical niche requirements, maintain at least core area </li></ul><ul><li>Congeners: Close niche requirements but often allopatric </li></ul><ul><li>Other primates: Similar niche requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Other species (e.g. my monkeys) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coatis, guans, parrots, leaf cutter ants… in tree </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. d. POLYSPECIFIC ASSOCIATIONS <ul><li>Primate ↔ primate, primate ↔ bird (use cues) </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foraging success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase vigilance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dilution effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition – Text e.g.’s decreased foraging efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase apparency and risk of predation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capuchins/squirrel monkeys, other e.g.’s? </li></ul><ul><li>Guenons, guenons-swamp monkeys, guenon/colobus, tamarins, Goeldi’s/tamarins, lemurs </li></ul>
  34. 36. e. PREDATORS <ul><li>Strong influence, especially small primates </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial/arboreal </li></ul><ul><li>Aerial </li></ul><ul><li>Can affect access to resources, e.g. water in dry season </li></ul>
  35. 37. f. PATHOGENS <ul><li>Density dependent diseases/parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hosts - botflies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vector borne illnesses - malaria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human pathogens - TB </li></ul><ul><li>Health of population and resistance to disease contingent on abiotic and biotic factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat/forest level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fecal pathogens higher in understory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 38. IV. HOME/DAY RANGE <ul><li>Geographic range: genus vs. species </li></ul><ul><li>Home range </li></ul><ul><li>Core Area </li></ul><ul><li>Day Range </li></ul><ul><li>Size/length tied to diet, resources, body size, competitors… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Howlers vs capuchins vs spiders </li></ul></ul>
  37. 39. V. DEGREE OF TERRITORIALITY <ul><li>Territorial pairs: gibbons, indris </li></ul><ul><li>Female philopatry </li></ul><ul><li>Resource-defense polygyny </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defends area/food to attract females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male philopatric – chimps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capuchins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spacing mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Non-territorial – high degree of overlap between groups but often defend core area </li></ul>
  38. 40. VI. ACTIVITY BUDGETS <ul><li>How do animals spend their time amongst the various activities </li></ul><ul><li>FEED, REST, MOVE, SOCIAL </li></ul><ul><li>Differences between and within species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species-specific patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intraspecific variability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age, sex, reproductive condition, individual differences </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 41. VII. DIET
  40. 42. A. DIETARY CATEGORIES <ul><li>HERBIVORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frugivory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folivory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gumnivory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gramnivory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nectivory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FAUNIVORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tarsiers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OMNIVORY </li></ul><ul><li>Small-bodied primates – frugivore-insectivores </li></ul><ul><li>Larger-bodied primates – frugivore-folivores </li></ul>
  41. 43. B. DIETARY ADAPTATIONS <ul><li>Phylogenetic constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomic group-level adaptations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource acquisition / processing /digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. morphological and physiological adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marmosets’ modified clawlike nails & peg-like incisors/canines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aye-ayes’ middle fingers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colobines’ digestive/ detoxification abilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Population - nature of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural adaptations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macaques opening coconuts and washing food, chimps cracking nuts & dipping/fishing </li></ul></ul>
  42. 44. C. NATURE OF RESOURCES <ul><li>Density, abundance, distribution, availability </li></ul><ul><li>Affects home & day range size, social organization & within-group relations, degree of territoriality & between-group relations </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution in time and space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patchy – in space and time – e.g. fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random – e.g. leaves of species that are edible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform – e.g. grass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defensibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlated with abundance and distribution in time and space </li></ul></ul>
  43. 45. 1. Where resources are defensible : <ul><li>Female cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of matrilines </li></ul><ul><li>Between-group competition </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. macaques, baboons, patas, langurs </li></ul><ul><li>Also within-group competition for resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in differential reproductive success </li></ul></ul>
  44. 46. 2. Where resources are indefensible : <ul><li>Females unrelated & not cooperating </li></ul><ul><li>Forage on own </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary foragers, e.g. nocturnal prosimians </li></ul><ul><li>Ripe fruit specialists, e.g. chimps, spiders </li></ul>
  45. 47. VIII. LIFE HISTORY CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Important conservation considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Species-specific characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Physical characteristics, e.g. size </li></ul><ul><li>Life stages, e.g timing, duration… </li></ul><ul><li>r- vs K-selected species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>classic examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>within order Primates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Related to phylogeny and environmental pressures, e.g. galagos </li></ul>
  46. 48. A. BODY SIZE <ul><li>Larger animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need more space/resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow slower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave fewer offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to hunt by humans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smaller animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More predators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can recover more quickly </li></ul></ul>
  47. 49. B. LIFE STAGES : <ul><li>What are stages? </li></ul><ul><li>Length of stages </li></ul>
  48. 50. C. REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS : <ul><li>Litter size </li></ul><ul><li>Gestation length </li></ul><ul><li>Interbirth interval </li></ul><ul><li>Generation length </li></ul><ul><li>Along with lifespan -> mean # offspring / lifetime </li></ul>
  49. 51. IX. DEMOGRAPHY: <ul><li>Study of populations in terms of size, structure, change over time…. </li></ul><ul><li>Size of group and numbers of individuals in each of the age-sex categories important conservation concerns </li></ul><ul><li>May indicate health of population(s) over time </li></ul>
  50. 52. X. CONSERVATION: <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Human overpopulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logging – arboricides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed stands and arboreal corridors important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel/mineral exploitation </li></ul></ul>
  51. 53. PROBLEMS cont’d <ul><li>Less necessary economic interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals/gems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbicides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hunger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migrations, e.g. into forest, former reserves… </li></ul></ul></ul>Brazil, result of mining
  52. 54. PROBLEMS cont’d <ul><li>Hunting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food for indigenous people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bush meat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stupid stuff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Empty forest syndrome” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose seed dispersers </li></ul></ul>
  53. 55. PROBLEMS cont’d <ul><li>Animal Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomedical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folk remedies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pets </li></ul></ul>

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