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233 newworldmonkeys

  1. 1. NEW WORLD MONKEYS
  2. 2. <ul><li>Flattened muzzles </li></ul><ul><li>Rounded laterally placed nostrils </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved in isolation in SA </li></ul><ul><li>Fill a variety of niches </li></ul><ul><li>Retain some primitive characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Some spp converged on prosimian and ape characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Small to medium size </li></ul><ul><li>Arboreal and diurnal except Aotus </li></ul><ul><li>Most have relatively short arms and no opposable thumb </li></ul><ul><li>5 genera have prehensile tails </li></ul>PLATYRRHINES
  3. 5. CEBIDAE <ul><li>Callitrichinae & Cebinae </li></ul>
  4. 6. CALLITRICHINES <ul><li>More specialized and smallest </li></ul><ul><li>Bright colors & patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Some VCL capabilities </li></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>2 nipples and single uterus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristic of mammals with singletons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twinning is norm (except Callimico) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple placentae ↑5 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 9. Males & nonreproductive siblings carry infants
  7. 10. Mating pattern – tendency for 1 breeding female with one or two males 2 nd breeding female has been observed except Callimico where breeding mother and daughter
  8. 11. <ul><li>High female-female competition within groups: aggression, ovulatory suppression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pheromonal in Saguinus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behavioral? & pheromonal in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leontopithecus </li></ul></ul>
  9. 12. Callimico - Goeldi's monkey <ul><li>Tufted, silky black monkey </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Amazonia </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary forest- low levels </li></ul><ul><li>Variable SO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1- ♂ & multi-♂ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>>1 ♀ may breed, e.g. m other and daughter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single births </li></ul><ul><li>VCL </li></ul><ul><li>Invertebrates & FR, no exudates </li></ul>
  10. 13. Saguinus - tamarins <ul><li>Southern CA, Amazonia </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of habitats and elevations </li></ul>CA=Central America SA=South America
  11. 14. <ul><li>Many colors and facial elaborations </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Lack dental specializations </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Reproductive suppression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pheromonal </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Work with S. fuscicollis found that in absence of 2nd male, one twin had poor survivorship </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>Many spp sympatric </li></ul><ul><li>Polyspecific/mixed-species associations </li></ul>HEY! Those aren’t tamarins
  16. 19. Leontopithecus Lion tamarins <ul><li>More of the same </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive suppression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pheromonal – both by dominant ♀->♀ & dominant ♂->♂ </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Interspecific pelage variability
  18. 21. <ul><li>Long fingers reach into tree holes </li></ul>
  19. 22. MARMOSETS <ul><li>Smallest NW monkeys </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>Specialized dentition: long, chisel-like incisors and peg-like canines for gnawing bark -> exudate flow </li></ul><ul><li>Exudates very important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defend trees </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Marmosets <ul><li>2 genera: Callithrix & Mico </li></ul><ul><li>Amazonia, Brazil, Bolivia </li></ul><ul><li>Dry forest especially edge and secondary </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Forage for insects in understory tangles </li></ul><ul><li>SO more variable </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>Sometimes multiple breeding females </li></ul>
  24. 27. Cebuella pygmaea - pygmy marmoset <ul><li>Smallest anthropoid </li></ul><ul><li>Amazonia </li></ul><ul><li>Low levels of forest and vine tangles </li></ul><ul><li>Also, dwarf marmoset: Callibella </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>Usually 1male-1female groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be 2 males, 1 dominant </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>↑ VCL </li></ul><ul><li>Highest gums, some insects, low FR </li></ul>
  27. 30. CEBINAE: Cebus and Saimiri
  28. 31. <ul><li>Grouped together based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skull morphology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rounded like OW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>large brains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locomotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SO similarities - multi-male-female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar habitats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HR's contain patchily distributed fruit and insects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource-defense vs territoriality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>↑ o lfactory communication - urine-wash </li></ul></ul>
  29. 32. Polyspecific/mixed-species associations
  30. 33. Differences: <ul><li>Cebus : </li></ul><ul><li>Broader distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Groups don't congregate </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive towards some Atelids </li></ul><ul><li>Less male-male competition for females but more apparent dominance hierarchy </li></ul>
  31. 34. <ul><li>Less variable SO </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas Saimiri may be male or female philopatric </li></ul><ul><li>Adults allogroom, share food, allomaternal nursing (not in Saimiri except 1sp – allomaternal nursing) </li></ul>Differences cont’d
  32. 35. Saimiri : Squirrel monkeys <ul><li>Extensive distribution in southern CA and SA </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Small - squirrel-sized </li></ul><ul><li>Males fatten </li></ul><ul><li>Prehensile tail in infancy </li></ul>
  34. 37. Arboreal quadrupeds, good leapers - sometimes come to ground
  35. 38. <ul><li>Fruit, insects, some leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Glean cryptic (usually immobile) insects </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>Large multi-male multi-female groups </li></ul><ul><li>Come together into large aggregations of ↑ 100's animals – possibly dillution </li></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intragroup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contact calls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm calls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intergroup </li></ul></ul>
  38. 41. High predators: cats, raptors, snakes
  39. 42. S. Sciurius vs S. oerstedii Common (SA) vs Red-backed (CA) <ul><li>Endangered - pest status - crop raiders </li></ul><ul><li>Males stay females leave </li></ul><ul><li>No strict dominance hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Females stay males leave </li></ul><ul><li>Males and females have dominance hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>In Peru - females dominant to males </li></ul><ul><li>Males get fat and compete aggressively - females choose mates </li></ul>
  40. 44. Cebus capuchins or organ-grinder monkeys <ul><li>Tufts resemble Capuchin monks’ cowls </li></ul><ul><li>CA and SA </li></ul><ul><li>Tufted and nontufted spp </li></ul>
  41. 45. <ul><li>All forest types </li></ul><ul><li>All levels of canopy and ground </li></ul><ul><li>Arboreal quads but descend to ground </li></ul><ul><li>Furry prehensile tail - different </li></ul>
  42. 46. <ul><li>Fruit, fauna </li></ul><ul><li>Dental specializations for cracking nuts </li></ul><ul><li>Clever, most dexterous, especially tufted capuchin - if it’s there, they'll find it and get at it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invertebrates under bark & in leaf litter, hard nuts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>&quot;noisy destructive foragers&quot; </li></ul>
  43. 47. <ul><li>Alpha female higher than all but alpha male </li></ul>
  44. 48. MONKIDS
  45. 49. <ul><li>Tool use - use rocks to crack nuts or bang on branch </li></ul>
  46. 50. <ul><li>Large brains but no complex problem-solving capabilities, i.e. more trial and error learning (Visalberghi) </li></ul><ul><li>Opposable thumb </li></ul>
  47. 51. ATELIDAE <ul><li>Atelinae </li></ul><ul><li>Pitheciinae </li></ul><ul><li>Aotinae </li></ul>
  48. 52. ATELINAE <ul><li>Largest and pronounced SD </li></ul><ul><li>Long prehensile tail w/ friction ridges </li></ul><ul><li>To varying degrees have converged on suspensory hanging adaptation & brachiation </li></ul>
  49. 53. Alouatta howler/howling monkeys <ul><li>Also subfamily Alouattinae </li></ul><ul><li>Species are allopatric </li></ul><ul><li>Broadest distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of habitats and altitudes </li></ul>
  50. 54. <ul><li>Large </li></ul><ul><li>Inter- and intra-specific pelage variability and some sexual dichromatism </li></ul><ul><li>Male howling as spacing mechanism - dawn and evening chorus </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded hyoid bone forms large resonant chamber </li></ul><ul><li>If high stimulation, females howl </li></ul>
  51. 55. <ul><li>Poorly differentiated thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore Schizodactyly - II and III to hold things </li></ul><ul><li>Slow arboreal quadrupeds with ↑tail use </li></ul>
  52. 56. <ul><li>1-male or multi-male </li></ul><ul><li>High male-male competition for group access </li></ul><ul><li>Infanticide seen </li></ul><ul><li>Aunting </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse age/tenure dominance hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Mean=15 individuals, range=2-45 </li></ul>
  53. 57. <ul><li>Leaves, FR, FL </li></ul><ul><li>Can exploit unripe fruit and mature leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Combo: enlarged salivary glands and hindgut, slow throughput time </li></ul><ul><li>Folivorous dental characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Low travel, high rest, especially when food low quality </li></ul>
  54. 58. Startling new research shows that howler monkeys are capable of using toilets. Amazing!!!
  55. 59. Ateles - spider monkeys <ul><li>Yucatan to Amazonia </li></ul><ul><li>Species are allopatric </li></ul><ul><li>Upper canopy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often high primary rainforest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem with exclusive habitat needs </li></ul></ul>
  56. 60. <ul><li>Large and graceful </li></ul>
  57. 61. <ul><li>Variable pelage within and between species </li></ul><ul><li>Very similar looking sexes, even genitalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower SD </li></ul></ul>
  58. 62. Variety of locomotor habits <ul><li>arboreal quadruped </li></ul><ul><li>suspensory behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>brachiating </li></ul><ul><li>climbing </li></ul><ul><li>sometimes bipedal in trees </li></ul><ul><li>leap </li></ul>
  59. 63. <ul><li>&quot;hook grip&quot; - most spp lack external thumb - gets in way when swinging </li></ul>
  60. 64. <ul><li>High ripe FR but some YL's, insects… </li></ul>
  61. 65. <ul><li>Fission-fusion SO </li></ul><ul><li>Large groups </li></ul><ul><li>Male philopatric </li></ul><ul><li>Small foraging units, usually adult female w/ young or young males </li></ul>
  62. 66. <ul><li>↑ c alls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>barks, whinnies… </li></ul></ul>
  63. 67. Woolly monkeys <ul><li>Least known NW monkey </li></ul><ul><li>2 genera: Lagothrix & Oreonax </li></ul><ul><li>Primary forests of Amazon Basin and montane cloud forests of Andes ( Oreonax) </li></ul>
  64. 68. <ul><li>Similar diet (i.e. high fruit) and SO as Ateles </li></ul><ul><li>Similar locomotion to howlers </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting submissive display: sob and cover eyes with hand </li></ul><ul><li>Most hunted (food, pelts, pet trade) also habitat destruction pressures </li></ul>
  65. 69. Brachyteles - woolly spider monkey or muriqui <ul><li>Largest NW primate - up to 30# </li></ul><ul><li>High forest canopy </li></ul><ul><li>Similar morphology, locomotion, and SO to Ateles </li></ul><ul><li>Similar diet/dentition/low BMR to Alouatta </li></ul><ul><li>Round head and dense fur like woolly monkeys </li></ul><ul><li>Pendulous clitoris </li></ul>
  66. 71. <ul><li>No dominance hierarchy or male-male competition for females - take turns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large testes suggest sperm competition </li></ul></ul>
  67. 73. <ul><li>High leaves + FR & FL </li></ul><ul><li>Faster throughput time than Alouatta </li></ul><ul><li>Highly endangered - few patches of highly seasonal rainforest in SE Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Hunted for food and hides, also habitat destruction </li></ul>
  68. 74. <ul><li>3 genera </li></ul><ul><li>Not well-studied </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Seed predators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful jaws and muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large procumbent incisors and other dental specializations for gnawing and cracking hard nuts/tough fruits/seeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage - foods not available to other primates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endangered - hunted for food, bait, and tails - used as dusters and ornaments </li></ul>PITHECIINAE
  69. 75. <ul><li>Relatively furry </li></ul><ul><li>Leaping, climbing, dropping abilities, bipedally hop/walk when on ground </li></ul><ul><li>FR, seeds/nuts, when resources scarce: insects and some leaves, some spp – dirt </li></ul><ul><li>Multi- ♂ f luid SO except Pithecia - monogamous </li></ul>
  70. 76. Pithecia sakis <ul><li>Upper canopy of undisturbed (primary) forest </li></ul><ul><li>Long shaggy bushy fur, long fluffy tails </li></ul>
  71. 77. <ul><li>Smallest - ~7# </li></ul>
  72. 78. Chiropotes Bearded saki <ul><li>Upper canopy of undisturbed (primary) forest </li></ul>
  73. 79. <ul><li>Extra robust skull and jaws </li></ul><ul><li>Beards, rounded tufts of fur over temples and forehead </li></ul>
  74. 80. Larger than sakis
  75. 81. Cacajao uakari <ul><li>Upper canopy of undisturbed (primary) seasonally flooded forests </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult study conditions therefore one of least studied primates in wild </li></ul>
  76. 82. <ul><li><9#, short tail, long shaggy coat, bald head, red faces due to no pigment and high numbers capillaries - darken when upset </li></ul><ul><li>High leaping/swinging abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Urine wash, anogenital scentmarking, rub aromatics into fur, e.g. fruit juice </li></ul><ul><li>Have pungent smell </li></ul><ul><li>Wag tails when upset </li></ul>
  77. 83. <ul><li>High allogrooming & play </li></ul>
  78. 84. Callicebus - Titi monkey <ul><li>Small </li></ul><ul><li>Short faces, fluffy bodies and tails </li></ul><ul><li>Good leapers </li></ul>
  79. 85. Geographic Distribution C. moloch group range (in red) C. cupreus group range (in yellow) C. donacophilus group range (in green)
  80. 86. <ul><li>13 Species recognized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C. modestus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. donacophilus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. olallae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. oenanthe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. cinerascens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. hoffmannsi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. moloch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. brunneus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. cupreus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. caligatus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. dubius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. personatus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. torquatus </li></ul></ul>Many species Some dispute over taxonomy. Previously only 3 species recognized. Debate over species subdivision based on ecology and habitat.
  81. 87. <ul><li>Lower canopy </li></ul><ul><li>Usually near water </li></ul><ul><li>Raptors and arboreal snakes </li></ul><ul><li>Rare accounts of tufted capuchin attacks. </li></ul>
  82. 88. <ul><li>Coat long & colorful </li></ul><ul><li>Upper body ranges between red, grey-brown, yellow, and/or black </li></ul>
  83. 89. <ul><li>Monogamous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entwine tails & hold hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressed if separated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More attached to each other than infant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When around outsider males, male behaves ‘jealously’ with increased display of affection towards mate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duets to maintain spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial defense </li></ul><ul><li>Male carries young </li></ul>
  84. 90. AOTINAE
  85. 91. Aotus owl or night monkey <ul><li>Only nocturnal anthropoid </li></ul>
  86. 92. Primitive Gray Neck Group A. lemurinus A. trivirgatus
  87. 93. Derived Red Neck Group A. miconax A. infulatus
  88. 94. <ul><li>Panama to N Argentina except Guianas and SE Brazil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low BMR allows them to live in colder climates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All forest types and levels </li></ul>
  89. 95. <ul><li>Small ~2#, monomorphic </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive masks </li></ul><ul><li>Long tail (entwine tails) </li></ul><ul><li>Nails except 4th toe – clawlike nail </li></ul>
  90. 96. <ul><li>Nocturnality avoids competition with other monkeys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can exploit different levels, all resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small HR's, short path length </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Largest relative eyes of anthropoids </li></ul><ul><li>Eye features suggest diurnal ancestry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No tapetum lucidum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small olfactory bulbs </li></ul></ul>
  91. 97. <ul><li>Travel further on well-lit nights, thought they don't see well in dark </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic/races </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern areas more diurnal – thought related to less competition with larger monkeys and/or low night temperatures </li></ul></ul>
  92. 98. <ul><li>Arboreal quadrupeds but good leapers </li></ul><ul><li>FR, insects, leaves, FL, nectar </li></ul>
  93. 99. <ul><li>Monogamous with ↑ 3 offspring <3yr </li></ul><ul><ul><li>↓ allogrooming, no duets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New evidence suggests may change partners </li></ul><ul><li>In captivity mate for life, more flexible in wild. </li></ul><ul><li>Share offspring care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males carry, feed, play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females lactate with less interaction with kid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No birth season but birth peaks appear to correspond to FR availability </li></ul>
  94. 100. <ul><li>Repeatedly use communal sleeping sites: tree holes or brush/tangles </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful within group interactions but aggressive between groups at FR trees on well-lit nights </li></ul><ul><li>Whoop yells - inflate throat pouches </li></ul><ul><li>Threaten with stiff pounces, chase, whoop, wrestle, urine wash, and scent mark - then return to territory </li></ul><ul><li>Few predators except humans </li></ul>
  95. 101. THE END … .FOR GOODNESS SAKE

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