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OpenHPI 5.6 - Web Ontology Language (Part 3)

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OpenHPI 5.6 - Web Ontology Language (Part 3)

  1. 1. Semantic Web TechnologiesLecture 5: Knowledge Representations II 06: Web Ontology Language (Part 3) Dr. Harald Sack Hasso Plattner Institute for IT Systems Engineering University of Potsdam Spring 2013 This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)
  2. 2. 2 Lecture 5: Knowledge Representations II Open HPI - Course: Semantic Web Technologies Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  3. 3. 3 06 Web Ontology Language - OWL (Part 3)Open HPI - Course: SemanticHarald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Web Technologies - Lecture 5: Knowledge Representations II
  4. 4. OWL – Relationships among Individuals4 :WegelerRheingauRiesling a :Wine ; :isMadeOf :Riesling ; :hasVintageYear 2007 ; owl:sameAs :WRR012345 . :Wine a owl:Class ; rdfs:subClassOf :AlcoholicBeverage . :AlcoholicBeverage a owl:Class. • via inference it can be entailed that „WRR012345“ is an „AlcoholicBeverage“ • Difference of Individuals via owl:differentFrom :WRR012346 a :Wine ; owl:differentFrom :WRR012345 . Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  5. 5. OWL – Relationships among Individuals5 • OWL provides a shortcut to define several individuals to be different [] a owl:AllDifferent ; owl:distinctMembers (:WegelerRheingauRiesling :AltoAdigeChardonnay :ChateauxLafiteRothschild :MarquesDeRiscal) . Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  6. 6. OWL – Closed Classes (Nominals) :Wine a owl:Class ;6 :ChateauxLatourPauillac a :Wine . :ChateauxLafiteRothschild a :Wine . :RedwinesInStore a owl:Class ; owl:oneOf (:ChateauxLatourPauillac, :ChateauxLafiteRothschild) . RedwinesInStore ⊑ {ChateauxLatourPauillac, ChateauxLafiteRothschild} • This says that there are only two redwines available in the store. Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  7. 7. OWL – Logical Class Constructors7 • logical AND (conjunction): owl:intersectionOf ⊓ • logical OR (disjunction): owl:unionOf ⊔ • logical negation: owl:complementOf ¬ • Logical constructors are applied to create complex class descriptions from atomic classes. Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  8. 8. OWL – Logical Class Constructors8 WinesInStore ≣ ThingsInStore ⊓ Wine :Wine a owl:Class . :ThingsInStore a owl:Class . :WinesInStore a owl:Class ; owl:intersectionOf (:Wine :ThingsInStore) . • The class “WinesInStore“ results from the intersection of all individuals of the classes “ThingsInStore“ and “Wine“ Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  9. 9. OWL – Logical Class Constructors9 Wine ≣ DryWine ⊔ MediumWine ⊔ SweetWine :Wine a owl:Class ; owl:equivalentClass [ owl:unionOf ( :DryWine :MediumWine :SweetWine ) ] . • Dry, medium and sweet wines are also wines Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  10. 10. OWL – Logical Class Constructors10 Wine ⊑ ¬Pizza :Wine a owl:Class ; rdfs:subClassOf [ owl:complementOf :Pizza ] . • semantically equivalent assertion: :Wine a owl:Class ; owl:disjointWith :Pizza . Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  11. 11. OWL – Property Restrictions • are used to describe complex classes via properties11 • restrictions on values: • owl:hasValue! ! ! • owl:allValuesFrom • owl:someValuesFrom • restrictions on cardinality: • owl:cardinality • owl:minCardinality • owl:maxCardinality Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  12. 12. OWL – Property Restrictions with Constants HaraldsCourses ⊑ isManagedBy.(Harald)12 :HaraldsCourses a owl:Class ; rdfs:subClassOf [ a owl:Restriction ; owl:onProperty :isManagedBy ; owl:hasValue :Harald ] . • Class „HaraldsCourses“ is described via fixed value assignment (=constant) of the individual „Harald“ to the property „isManagedBy“ Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  13. 13. OWL – Property Restrictions with Constants HaraldsCourses ⊑ isManagedBy.(Harald)12 :HaraldsCourses a owl:Class ; rdfs:subClassOf [ a owl:Restriction ; owl:onProperty :isManagedBy ; owl:hasValue :Harald ] . • Class „HaraldsCourses“ is described via fixed value assignment (=constant) of the individual „Harald“ to the property „isManagedBy“ :Person a owl:Class . :Course a owl:Class . :Harald a :Person . :isManagedBy a owl:ObjectProperty ; rdfs:domain :Course ; rdfs:range :Person . Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  14. 14. OWL – Property Restrictions • owl:allValuesFrom13 fixes all instances of a specific class C as allowed range for a property P → (Universal Quantification) ∀P.C Wine ⊑ ∀hasProducer.Winemaker :Wine a owl:Class ; rdfs:subClassOf [ a owl:Restriction ; owl:onProperty :hasProducer ; owl:allValuesFrom :Winemaker ] . Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  15. 15. OWL – Property Restrictions • owl:allValuesFrom13 fixes all instances of a specific class C as allowed range for a property P → (Universal Quantification) ∀P.C Wine ⊑ ∀hasProducer.Winemaker :Wine a owl:Class ; rdfs:subClassOf [ a owl:Restriction ; owl:onProperty :hasProducer ; owl:allValuesFrom :Winemaker ] . :Producer a owl:Class . :Product a owl:Class . :Winemaker owl:subClassOf :Producer . :hasProducer a owl:ObjectProperty ; rdfs:domain :Product ; rdfs:range :Producer . Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  16. 16. OWL – Property Restrictions • owl:someValuesFrom14 describes that there must exist an individual for property P and fixes its range to class C → (existential quantification) ∃P.C WineLover ⊑ ∃likes.Wine :WineLover a owl:Class ; rdfs:subClassOf [ a owl:Restriction ; owl:onProperty :likes ; owl:someValuesFrom :Wine ] . Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  17. 17. OWL – Property Restrictions • owl:someValuesFrom14 describes that there must exist an individual for property P and fixes its range to class C → (existential quantification) ∃P.C WineLover ⊑ ∃likes.Wine :WineLover a owl:Class ; rdfs:subClassOf [ a owl:Restriction ; owl:onProperty :likes ; owl:someValuesFrom :Wine ] . :WineLover a owl:Class . :Wine a owl:Class . :likes a owl:ObjectProperty ; Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  18. 18. OWL – Cardinality Restrictions • owl:cardinality restricts to an exact number15 (for OWL Lite only 1/0) • owl:minCardinality, owl:maxCardinality restricts to upper / lower bounds Stringquartett ⊑ (=4)hasMembers :Stringquartett a owl:Class ; rdfs:subClassOf [ a owl:Restriction ; owl:onProperty :hasMembers ; owl:cardinality 4 ] . Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  19. 19. OWL – Cardinality Restrictions • owl:cardinality restricts to an exact number15 (for OWL Lite only 1/0) • owl:minCardinality, owl:maxCardinality restricts to upper / lower bounds Stringquartett ⊑ (=4)hasMembers :Stringquartett a owl:Class ; rdfs:subClassOf [ a owl:Restriction ; owl:onProperty :hasMembers ; owl:cardinality 4 ] . :hasMembers a owl:DatatypeProperty ; rdfs:domain :Thing ; rdfs:range xsd:integer . Vorlesung Semantic Web, Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  20. 20. 16 07 Web Ontology Language - OWL (Part 4)Open HPI - Course: SemanticHarald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Web Technologies - Lecture 5: Knowledge Representations II

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