OpenHPI 4.4 - Ontology Types

1,009 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,009
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
99
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

OpenHPI 4.4 - Ontology Types

  1. 1. Semantic Web TechnologiesLecture 4: Knowledge Representations I 04: Ontology Types Dr. Harald Sack Hasso Plattner Institute for IT Systems Engineering University of Potsdam Spring 2013 This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)
  2. 2. 2 Lecture 4: Knowledge Representations I Open HPI - Course: Semantic Web Technologies Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  3. 3. 163 04 Ontology TypesOpen HPI - Course: SemanticHarald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Web Technologies - Lecture 4: Knowledge Representations I
  4. 4. Ontology Types and Categories164 general, cross domain ontologies (represent very general concepts Top-Level Ontology as e.g., Time, Space, Event (Upper Ontology, independent of a specific domain Foundation Ontology) or problem.) Domain Ontology Task Ontology fundamental concepts fundamental concepts according according to a to a general activity or task. generic domain. Application Ontology specialized ontology focussed on a specific task and domain (according to Guarino,1998) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  5. 5. Ontology Types and Categories165 general, cross domain ontologies (represent very general concepts Top-Level Ontology as e.g., Time, Space, Event (Upper Ontology, independent of a specific domain Foundation Ontology) or problem.) Domain Ontology Task Ontology fundamental concepts according fundamental concepts according to a to a general activity or task. generic domain. Application Ontology specialized ontology focussed on a specific task and domain (according to Guarino,1998) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  6. 6. Ontology Types and Categories166 general, cross domain ontologies (represent very general concepts Top-Level Ontology as e.g., Time, Space, Event (Upper Ontology, independent of a specific domain Foundation Ontology) or problem.) Domain Ontology Task Ontology fundamental concepts fundamental concepts according according to a to a general activity or task. generic domain. Application Ontology specialized ontology focussed on a specific task and domain (according to Guarino,1998) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  7. 7. Ontology Types and Categories167 general, cross domain ontologies (represent very general concepts Top-Level Ontology as e.g., Time, Space, Event (Upper Ontology, independent of a specific domain Foundation Ontology) or problem.) Domain Ontology Task Ontology fundamental concepts fundamental concepts according according to a to a general activity or task. generic domain. Application Ontology specialized ontology focussed on a specific task and domain (according to Guarino,1998) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  8. 8. Ontology Types and Categories168 general, cross domain ontologies (represent very general concepts Top-Level Ontology as e.g., Time, Space, Event (Upper Ontology, independent of a specific domain Foundation Ontology) or problem.) Domain Ontology Task Ontology fundamental concepts fundamental concepts according according to a to a general activity or task. generic domain. Application Ontology specialized ontology focussed on a specific task and domain (according to Guarino,1998) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  9. 9. Ontology Types and Categories169 informal formal - Expressivity + general controlled formal Frames logical Thesauri Vocabulary IS-A Constraints Disjunctness, Glossaries informal formal Value Inversiveness, IS-A Instance Restrictions Part-of… Logic First Order Terms Folksonomies Data formal Programming Description Logics Dictionaries Taxonomies Logics lightweight ontologies heavyweight ontologies (according to Lassila/McGuinnes, 2001) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  10. 10. Ontology Types and Categories • Controlled Vocabulary: finite list of terms (e.g. catalogue)1610 • Glossary: finite list of terms including an informal definition of their semantics in natural language • Thesauri: [greek. „treasure, treasure house“] controlled vocabulary, concepts are connected via relations. • Equivalency (synonyms) • Hierarchies (subclasses, superclasses) • Homographs (Homonyms) • Associations (similar concepts) general controlled formal Frames logical Thesauri Vocabulary is-a Constraints Disjunctness, Terms/ informal formal Value Inversiveness, Glossary is-a Instance Restrictions Part-of… Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  11. 11. Thesaurus - an Example1611 Underpants http://frat.manmosh.com/category/home/ Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  12. 12. Thesaurus - an Example1611 Underpants Synonyms Knickers http://frat.manmosh.com/category/home/ Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  13. 13. Thesaurus - an Example1611 narrower concept Panties Underpants Briefs Bloomers Synonyms Boxershorts Knickers http://frat.manmosh.com/category/home/ Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  14. 14. Thesaurus - an Example1611 narrower concept Panties broader concept Underwear Underpants Briefs Bloomers Synonyms Boxershorts Knickers http://frat.manmosh.com/category/home/ Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  15. 15. Thesaurus - an Example1611 narrower concept Panties broader concept Underwear Underpants Briefs Bloomers Synonyms Boxershorts Knickers Association Undershirt http://frat.manmosh.com/category/home/ Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  16. 16. Taxonomies1612 Taxonomy: Definition of a hierarchical system of groups (from [greek] τασσεῖν (tassein) = to arrange and νόµος (nomos) = method) ... • also classification schema, nomenclature, … • in science most times classification into (mono-)hierarchical sets (classes, subclasses, ...) • (also) subject of biology: • the arrangement of organisms into a classification according to similarities Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  17. 17. Taxonomies • Carl Linnaeus (ca. 1740) created a simple classification schema for1613 organisms that is still used today Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam Des Ritters Carl von Linné vollständiges Natursystem, 1778
  18. 18. Taxonomies • informal IS-A-Hierarchy:1614 explicite hierarchy of classes, subclass relations are not strict (e.g. index of a library) • formal IS-A-Hierarchy: explicite hierarchy of classes, subclass relations are strict • formale instance: explicite class hierarchy, besides strict subclass relations also instance-of relations are allowed generalcontrolled formal Frames logical ThesauriVocabulary is-a Constraints Disjunctness, Terms/ informal formal Value Inversiveness, Glossary is-a Instance Restrictions Part-of… Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  19. 19. Ontologies as Interpretation of Reality16 various categories of animals from "a certain chinese encyclopedia"15 according to Jorge Luis Borges: • Those that belong to the emperor • Embalmed ones • Those that are trained • Suckling pigs • Mermaids (or Sirens) • Fabulous ones • Stray dogs • Those that are included in this classification • Those that tremble as if they were mad • Innumerable ones • Those drawn with a very fine camel hair brush • Et cetera • Those that have just broken the flower vase Jorge Luis Borges • Those that, at a distance, resemble flies (1899-1986) Jorge Luis Borges: The Analytical Language of John Wilkins (1942) Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam
  20. 20. 16 05 Foundations of LogicOpen HPI - Course: SemanticHarald Sack, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Universität Potsdam Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Web Technologies - Lecture 4: Knowledge Representations I

×