1.3 The Importance of Meaning

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1.3 The Importance of Meaning

  1. 1. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0) Dr. Harald Sack Hasso-Plattner-Institut for IT Systems Engineering University of Potsdam Spring 2014 Knowledge Engineering with Semantic Web Technologies Lecture 1: Knowledge Engineering and the Web of Data 03: The Importance of Meaning
  2. 2. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam Lecture 1: Knowledge Engineering and the Web of Data 2 Open HPI - Course: Knowledge Engineering with Semantic Web Technologies
  3. 3. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 3 OpenHPI - Course Knowledge Engineering with Semantic Web Technologies Lecture 1: Knowledge Engineering and the Web of Data 03: The Importance of Meaning
  4. 4. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 4 Semantics Syntax Pragmatics Context Experience
  5. 5. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 5 Syntax (greek σψνταξις = Arrangement, Ordering) Syntax
  6. 6. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 5 Syntax (greek σψνταξις = Arrangement, Ordering) • In grammatics denotes the study of the principles and processes by which sentences are constructed in particular languages. Syntax
  7. 7. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 5 Syntax (greek σψνταξις = Arrangement, Ordering) • In grammatics denotes the study of the principles and processes by which sentences are constructed in particular languages. • In formal languages, syntax is just a set of rules, by which well formed expressions can be created from a fundamental set of symbols (alphabet). Syntax
  8. 8. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 5 Syntax (greek σψνταξις = Arrangement, Ordering) • In grammatics denotes the study of the principles and processes by which sentences are constructed in particular languages. • In formal languages, syntax is just a set of rules, by which well formed expressions can be created from a fundamental set of symbols (alphabet). • In computer science, syntax defines the normative structure of data. Syntax
  9. 9. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 6 Semantics (greek σεμαντικος = pertains to the character, the study of meaning) • is part of the linguistics focussed on • Sense and • Meaning Semantics
  10. 10. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 6 Semantics (greek σεμαντικος = pertains to the character, the study of meaning) • is part of the linguistics focussed on • Sense and • Meaning of language or symbols of language. Semantics
  11. 11. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 6 Semantics (greek σεμαντικος = pertains to the character, the study of meaning) • is part of the linguistics focussed on • Sense and • Meaning of language or symbols of language. • It is the study of interpretation of signs or symbols as used by agents or communities within particular circumstances and contexts. Semantics
  12. 12. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 6 Semantics (greek σεμαντικος = pertains to the character, the study of meaning) • is part of the linguistics focussed on • Sense and • Meaning of language or symbols of language. • It is the study of interpretation of signs or symbols as used by agents or communities within particular circumstances and contexts. • Semantics asks, how sense and meaning of complex concepts can be derived from simple concepts based on the rules of syntax. Semantics
  13. 13. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 6 Semantics (greek σεμαντικος = pertains to the character, the study of meaning) • is part of the linguistics focussed on • Sense and • Meaning of language or symbols of language. • It is the study of interpretation of signs or symbols as used by agents or communities within particular circumstances and contexts. • Semantics asks, how sense and meaning of complex concepts can be derived from simple concepts based on the rules of syntax. • The semantics of a message depends on context and pragmatics. Semantics
  14. 14. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 7 Context (lat. contextus = interweaved) Context
  15. 15. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 7 Context (lat. contextus = interweaved) • denotes the surrounding of a symbol (concept) in an expression resp. its relationship with surrounding expressions (concepts) and further related elements, Context
  16. 16. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 7 Context (lat. contextus = interweaved) • denotes the surrounding of a symbol (concept) in an expression resp. its relationship with surrounding expressions (concepts) and further related elements, • Contexts denotes all elements of any sort of communication that define the interpretation of the communicated content. Context
  17. 17. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 7 Context (lat. contextus = interweaved) • denotes the surrounding of a symbol (concept) in an expression resp. its relationship with surrounding expressions (concepts) and further related elements, • Contexts denotes all elements of any sort of communication that define the interpretation of the communicated content. • We distinguish Context
  18. 18. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 7 Context (lat. contextus = interweaved) • denotes the surrounding of a symbol (concept) in an expression resp. its relationship with surrounding expressions (concepts) and further related elements, • Contexts denotes all elements of any sort of communication that define the interpretation of the communicated content. • We distinguish • general contexts: place, time, interrelation of action in a message Context
  19. 19. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 7 Context (lat. contextus = interweaved) • denotes the surrounding of a symbol (concept) in an expression resp. its relationship with surrounding expressions (concepts) and further related elements, • Contexts denotes all elements of any sort of communication that define the interpretation of the communicated content. • We distinguish • general contexts: place, time, interrelation of action in a message • personal or social contexts: relation between sender and receiver of a message Context
  20. 20. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 8 Pragmatics (greek. πραγμα = action) Pragmatics
  21. 21. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 8 Pragmatics (greek. πραγμα = action) • reflects the intention by which the language is used to communicate a message. Pragmatics
  22. 22. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 8 Pragmatics (greek. πραγμα = action) • reflects the intention by which the language is used to communicate a message. • In linguistics pragmatics denotes the study of applying language in different situations. Pragmatics
  23. 23. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 8 Pragmatics (greek. πραγμα = action) • reflects the intention by which the language is used to communicate a message. • In linguistics pragmatics denotes the study of applying language in different situations. • It also denotes the intended purpose of the speaker. Pragmatics
  24. 24. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 8 Pragmatics (greek. πραγμα = action) • reflects the intention by which the language is used to communicate a message. • In linguistics pragmatics denotes the study of applying language in different situations. • It also denotes the intended purpose of the speaker. • Pragmatics studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning. Pragmatics
  25. 25. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 9 • Experience considers all information that you have learned and put in context with the world you are living in. • Experience in this sense also often is referred to as comon sense knowledge or world knowledge. Experience
  26. 26. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 10 For successful communication, • information has to be correctly transmitted (Syntax) • the meaning (Semantics) of the transmitted information must be interpreted correctly (= understanding) Understanding depends on • the context of both sender and receiver and • the pragmatics of the sender • the context of sender and receiver depends on • the experience (knowledge of the world) of both sender and receiver Successful Communication
  27. 27. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 11 Meaning Symbol Objectstands for sender receiver refers tosymbolizes Concept „Jaguar“ Context Pragmatics Ogden, Richards: The Meaning of Meaning: A Study of the Influence of Language upon Thought and of the Science of Symbolism (1923) Experience Experience
  28. 28. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 12 In the (traditional) Web there is no explicit semantics
  29. 29. Semantic Web Technologies , Dr. Harald Sack, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam 13 OpenHPI - Course Knowledge Engineering with Semantic Web Technologies Lecture 1: Knowledge Engineering and the Web of Data 04: The Limits of the (current) Web Pt.2 Next section

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