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Everything you always wanted to know about Semantic Web Technologies - but were afraid to ask

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Dinner speech - Bayer Semantics Data Analytics 2017, 6.12.2017
Abstract: 15 years ago the vision of the nearby Semantic Web future was subject of a prominent article in the popular science magazine Scientific American. Since then, a litte semantics has gone a long way. Linked data as lightweight implementation of the previously envisioned Semantic Web has become an instrument for low effort data integration. On the other hand, knowledge graphs as core of the information architecture are driving information systems in the Web as well as on the enterprise level.

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Everything you always wanted to know about Semantic Web Technologies - but were afraid to ask

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  4. 4. 6 rdf:type dbo:Philosopher rdfs:subClassOf dbo:Person 6 dbr:Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz dbr:Christian_Wolff dbo:doctoralAdvisor dbo:Philosopher rdf:type dbr:Ontology dbo:notableIdea foaf:name dbo:birthDate “Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz“@de “ ”^^xsd:date “ ”^^xsd:date dbo:deathDate dbr:Calculus_Ratiocinator dbo:notableIdea dbr:Leipzig dbo:birthPlace dbo:City dbo:Settlement rdf:type rdfs:subClassOf
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  7. 7. 10 Calculemus! „The only way to rectify our reasonings is to make them as tangible as those of the Mathematicians, so that we can find our error at a glance, and when there are disputes among persons, we can simply say: Let us calculate, without further ado, to see who is right.“
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  11. 11. 15 according to Thomas R. Gruber: A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications.Knowledge Acquisition, 5(2):199-220, 1993.
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  13. 13. 17 ● ● ● Person “Gottfried” “Wilhelm” “Leibniz”
  14. 14. 18 ● Person Philosopher Student PhilosophyBook Location Book
  15. 15. 19 ● Person Philosopher Student Location Woman Man ⋂ ∅
  16. 16. 20 ● Philosopher Person GottfriedWilhelmLeibniz “Gottfried” LeipzigLocation
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  18. 18. 22 ● Philosopher(GottfriedWilhelmLeibniz) ● Location(Leipzig) ● birthPlace(GottfriedWilhelmLeibniz, Leipzig)
  19. 19. 23 ● Philosopher ⊑ ∃knows.self ● Book ⊑ ∀author.Writer ● birthPlace(GottfriedWilhelmLeibniz, Leipzig) ● ∃birthPlace.⊤ ⊑ Person ⊤ ⊑ ∀birthPlace.Location
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  22. 22. 26 Person Philosopher GottfriedWilhelmLeibniz Monadology Book
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  25. 25. 30 "[...] we are entering a technological age in which we will be able to interact with the richness of living information - not merely in the passive way that we have been accustomed to using books and libraries, but as active participants in an ongoing process, bringing something to it through our interaction with it, and not simply receiving something from it by our connection to it."
  26. 26. 31 ● Problems ● information access requires expert knowledge and is expensive ● information retrieval is even more expensive
  27. 27. 32 ● Advantages ● information access does not require expert knowledge ● information retrieval via search engines
  28. 28. 33 ● ● „The web of human-readable document is being merged with a web of machine understandable data. The potential of the mixture of humans and machines working together and communication through the web could be immense.“ Tim Berners-Lee, The World Wide Web: A very short personal history, May 1998
  29. 29. 34 ● Advantages ● Information can be automatically selected, aggregated, remixed and published according to personal preferences personal assistant intelligent Infrastructure services user Information aggregation & filtering
  30. 30. 35 1. . http://hpi.de 2. GET /index HTTP/2 Host: hpi.de 3. Harald works at <a href=”http://fiz-karlsruhe.de”> FIZ Karlsruhe </a>.
  31. 31. 36 ● ● ○ ○ ○
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  34. 34. 39 ● ●
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  38. 38. 44 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
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  41. 41. 47 :Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz rdf:type dbo:Philosopher . :Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz foaf:givenName “Gottfried”@en . :Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz dbo:birthYear 1646 . :Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz dbo:deathYear 1716 . :Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz dbo:birthPlace dbr:Leipzig . :Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz dbo:deathPlace dbr:Hannover . ... :Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz rdf:type dbo:Philosopher .
  42. 42. 48 dbo:Philosopher rdf:type owl:class . dbo:Philosopher rdfs:subClassOf dbo:Person . dbo:birthPlace rdf:type rdf:Property . dbo:birthPlace rdfs:domain dbo:Person . dbo:birthPlace rdfs:range dbo:Location . dbo:birthYear rdf:type rdf: Property . dbo:birthYearr rdfs:domain dbo:Person . dbo:birthYear rdfs:range xsd:Integer . ... Philosopher dbo:birthPlace Person rdfs:subClassOf Location
  43. 43. 49 Person Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz dbo:author new:LivingPeople new:DeadPeople∩ = ∅ rdf:type rdfs:subClassOf ∀x.∃y.deathDate(x,y) ∧Person(x)∧Date(y) → DeadPeople(x) Monadology
  44. 44. 50 Look for the Philosophers who have authored the most books PREFIX dbo: <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> PREFIX rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> select ?s COUNT(DISTINCT ?book) as ?num WHERE { ?s rdf:type dbo: Philosopher . ?book dbo:author ?s ; rdf:type dbo:Book . } GROUP BY ?s ORDER BY DESC(?num)
  45. 45. 51 Look for the Philosophers who have authored the most books
  46. 46. 52 Look for the Philosophers who have authored the most books select ?sLabel (COUNT(DISTINCT ?book) as ?num) WHERE { ?s wdt:P106 wd:Q4964182 . #Philosophers ?book wdt:P50 ?s ; #authors wdt:P31 wd:Q571 . #Book SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en, fr, de". } } GROUP BY ?sLabel ORDER BY DESC(?num)
  47. 47. 53 Look for the Philosophers who have authored the most books
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  49. 49. 55 ● ● ● ● http://stats.lod2.eu/ http://lod-cloud.net/
  50. 50. 57 rdf:type dbo:Philosopher rdfs:subClassOf dbo:Person 57 Leibniz wrote to Caroline of Ansbach that Newton’s physics was detrimental to natural theology. However, eager to defend the Newtonian view, it was Clarke who responded and the correspondence between both continued until the death of Leibniz. dbr:Gottfried_Willhelm_Leibniz dbr:Christian_Wolff dbo:doctoralAdvisor dbo:Philosopher rdf:type dbr:Ontology dbo:notableIdea text knowledge base foaf:name dbo:birthDate “Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz“@de “ ”^^xsd:date “ ”^^xsd:date dbo:deathDate
  51. 51. 58 58 Leibniz wrote to Caroline of Ansbach that Newton’s physics was detrimental to natural theology. However, eager to defend the Newtonian view, it was Clarke who responded and the correspondence between both continued until the death of Leibniz. text ● ●
  52. 52. 59 59 Leibniz wrote to Caroline of Ansbach that Newton’s physics was detrimental to natural theology. However, eager to defend the Newtonian view, it was Clarke who responded and the correspondence between both continued until the death of Leibniz.
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  54. 54. 61 SELECT ?o WHERE { wd:Q9047 wdt:P19 ?o . ?o wdt:P31/wdt:P279* wd:Q618123 . }
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  58. 58. 65 ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

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