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Do neural networks dream of semantics?

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A Critical View on Semantics vs. AI. Impulse talk at the Vienna Semantic MeetUp "It's a kind of Magic", Vienna, September 11, 2018.

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Do neural networks dream of semantics?

  1. 1. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Prof. Dr. Harald Sack Do Neural Networks Dream of Semantics?
  2. 2. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2017/10/ 18/alphago-zero-google-deepmind-supercomp uter-learns-3000-years/ 2
  3. 3. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 The Futile Tries of “Strong” AI 20 years of “AI Winter”... "...in from three to eight years we will have a machine with the general intelligence of an average human being", Marvin Minsky (1970) 3
  4. 4. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Where did the Magic come from…?
  5. 5. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Transfering Biology into a Mathematical Model (Dendrites) (Soma) (Axon) Donald Hebb (1940) McCulloch & Pitts (1943) 5
  6. 6. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Cognitive Computing - The MARK 1 Perceptron (Rosenblatt, 1957) weight update error 6
  7. 7. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 The Triumphant Progress of Neural Network 7
  8. 8. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 8 Deep Convolutional Neural Networks on GPU Supercomputers
  9. 9. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. Arthur C. Clarke, Profiles of the Future (1973)
  10. 10. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Neural Network in Visual Analysis shallow deep
  11. 11. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Combining Visual Analysis and Linguistics
  12. 12. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 ● Near-human to superhuman level image classification ● Near-human level speech recognition ● Near-human level handwriting transcription ● Improved machine translation ● Improved text-to-speech conversion ● Digital assistants such as Google Now or Amazon Alexa ● Near-human level autonomous driving ● Superhuman Go playing What Deep Learning has achieved so far 12
  13. 13. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 First rule of magic: Don't let anyone know your real name. Neil Gaiman, The Invisible Labyrinth (1990)
  14. 14. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Carol Kaelson/Jeopardy Productions Inc., via Associated Press Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning 14 “The Goal of AI is to develop machines that behave as though they were intelligent.” - John McCarthy (1955) Artificial Intelligence Machine Learning Reasoning NLP Planning Supervised Learning Unsupervised Learning Reinforcement Learning Deep Learning (Neural Networks)
  15. 15. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0
  16. 16. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 The Universal Categories - Aristotle (384–322 BC)
  17. 17. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Gottfried_Wilhelm_Leibniz%2C_Bernhard_Christoph_Francke.jpg Calculemus! Calculus Ratiocinator - Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) The only way to rectify our reasonings is to make them as tangible as those of the Mathematicians, so that we can find our error at a glance, and when there are disputes among persons, we can simply say: Let us calculate [calculemus], without further ado, to see who is right. Leibniz in a letter to Ph. J. Spener, Juli 1687
  18. 18. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Begriffsschrift - Gottlob Frege (1848-1925)
  19. 19. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 https://www.flickr.com/photos/x-ray_delta_one/4128131032 Frames for Represent Knowledge - Marvin Minsky (1974)
  20. 20. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 The Renaissance of “Soft” AI Carol Kaelson/Jeopardy Productions Inc., via Associated Press From Linked Data to Knowledge Graphs
  21. 21. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 T. Tietz, J. Jäger, J. Waitelonis, H. Sack, Semantic Annotation and Information Visualization for Blogposts with refer, (VOILA 2016) Knowledge Graph Applications Semantic & Exploratory Search Recommender Systems Question Answering Data Integration Visualizations http://scihi.org
  22. 22. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 “There ain’t no such thing as a free Lunch.” Robert A. Heinlein, The Moon is a Harsh Mistress (1966)
  23. 23. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 What do Neural Networks (really) see? https://distill.pub/2017/feature-visualization/
  24. 24. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 What do Neural Networks (really) see? https://distill.pub/2017/feature-visualization/
  25. 25. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Knowledge Graphs: Local Details vs. Global Coverage
  26. 26. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 90% of most Magic merely consists of knowing one extra fact. Terry Pratchett, Night Watch (2002)
  27. 27. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Generative Adversarial Networks Example Han Zhang, Tao Xu, Hongsheng Li, Shaoting Zhang, Xiaogang Wang, Xiaolei Huang, Dimitris N. Metaxas: StackGAN++: Realistic Image Synthesis with Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks. CoRR abs/1710.10916 (2017)
  28. 28. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Generative Adversarial Networks Example Han Zhang, Tao Xu, Hongsheng Li, Shaoting Zhang, Xiaogang Wang, Xiaolei Huang, Dimitris N. Metaxas: StackGAN++: Realistic Image Synthesis with Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks. CoRR abs/1710.10916 (2017)
  29. 29. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Now let’s go for Something More General... http://t2i.cvalenzuelab.com/
  30. 30. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Now let’s go for Something more General... http://t2i.cvalenzuelab.com/
  31. 31. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Now let’s go for Something more General... http://t2i.cvalenzuelab.com/
  32. 32. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Now let’s go for Something more General... http://t2i.cvalenzuelab.com/
  33. 33. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Now let’s go for Something more General... http://t2i.cvalenzuelab.com/
  34. 34. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Now let’s go for Something more General... http://t2i.cvalenzuelab.com/
  35. 35. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Now let’s go for Something more General... http://t2i.cvalenzuelab.com/
  36. 36. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 (Long Term) Goals ● Combining Semantics (a.k.a. Symbolic Reasoning) and Machine Learning (Neuro-Symbolic Integration)
  37. 37. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 (Short Term) Goals ● Knowledge Graphs: Don’t try to make Everything Explicit ● Deep Learning: Try to make the Implicit Explicit otherwise….
  38. 38. It’s a kind of Magic, Semantic and AI,Semantic Meetup Vienna, 11 Sep. 2018, Harald Sack, CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 Otherwise... “All those moments will be lost in time, like tears in the rain.” (Bladerunner, 1982)

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