Simulations and Educational Games


Published on

Keynote address for the Community College of Aurora Faculty in-service on the use of simulation and educational games in immersive environments.

For more information, visit: my research and class blog at

Published in: Education, Technology

Simulations and Educational Games

  1. 1. Simulation & Educational Games in Immersive Environments Cynthia Calongne, Institute for Advanced Studies Colorado Technical University, November 2009
  2. 2. Physical Simulations <ul><li>Simulations at CCA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Command center – disaster response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real life police & fire chiefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business simulation center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Live stock tickers, board rooms, court rooms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CAPSIM management simulations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropology dig – active participants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are you using Augmented Reality? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Augmented Reality <ul><li>Are you using augmented reality? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of handheld devices & virtual data in real locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or virtual patient data masked over a real world body [1] </li></ul></ul>Images courtesy of Wired video, August 2009. [1]
  4. 4. Session Terminology <ul><li>For realistic physical & virtual simulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction and behavior – decisions & their impacts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measurements, rubrics & assessment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activity-based learning & authentic assessment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multisensory interfaces – visual, verbal/analytic, haptic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a level of fidelity to be effective </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. NESIM OR – Second Life simulation to diagnose and treat emergency room patients by Virtual Education Simulations (VESIM) – Dec 2007 [2]
  6. 6. NESIM OR – scenario and heads up display (HUD) device on screen [2]
  7. 7. Research Domain - 2009 <ul><li>Vanderbilt University Medical Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research grant to investigate medical simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Center 2008 Statistics [3] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1500+ Clinical Practitioners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1,266,255 Ambulatory visits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>51,575 Inpatient discharges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>39,880 surgical operations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15,000+ employees </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Characterizing the Problem <ul><li>High demand for medical education [3] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40,285 applicants for nursing degrees rejected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High industry demand for nursing staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient number of nursing faculty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average age of medical faculty is 55.3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need more nursing faculty with doctoral degrees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to provide faculty training and support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On the use of medical simulations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Research Grant <ul><li>Three year grant – $1.6 million [3] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach nursing faculty how to manage clinical simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advance their teaching competency & proficiency levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design geriatric simulations using Second Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delphi study - identified 127 virtual world competencies for effective simulation use </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Additional Opportunities <ul><li>Early diagnosis of diabetes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to the onset -- 1-3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying prevention measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestational diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Life innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medical simulations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education and training opportunities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. SL Simulation Characteristics <ul><li>Actions are observable within a context </li></ul><ul><li>Built-in competencies and learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Competencies for virtual world interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving your avatar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking around </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interacting with objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating with one another </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Ancient Spaces Student-Driven Design in the creation of a Massive Multiplayer Online Roleplaying Game (MMORGP) Simulations of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and modern discoveries Classical Studies 100 students at UBC pilot group Designing models in Maya Integrate them in the MMORPG Goal - to provide simulations for studies in context
  13. 13. Hypostyle Hall at Karnak by Tony Seymour [3]
  14. 14. Student work from the Classical Studies 100 pilot group [3] Ancient Spaces – The Parthenon
  15. 15. SL Featured Examples <ul><li>Mars Expedition Challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space simulation and trivia game </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operation Relief Worker Rescue Challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Game simulation kit – Hostage rescue game </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created by educators at Air University </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>CTU examples –highlights from 16 classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging media & social games </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Left: A simulation of a launch from the Omega, the prototype for Orion’s launch in Second Life. In the Mars Expedition Challenge, the simulation participants are inside the rocket, flying to rendezvous with the deep space explorer.
  17. 17. Inside the rocket (l) ; the rocket stages (above) After leaving the pre-briefing room, the flight crew launches the Orion rocket and flies to the Red Lion Deep Space Explorer Participants review three strategies for deep space exploration
  18. 18. Inside the Red Lion Deep Space Explorer –Mars Expedition Simulation
  19. 19. <ul><li>Human Spaceflight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will we leave the close proximity of low-Earth orbit (LEO), where astronauts have circled since 1972, and explore the solar system, charting a path for the expansion into space? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will we ensure the greatest benefit to the nation? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore three strategies for human spaceflight beyond LEO </li></ul></ul>The Expedition Challenge
  20. 20. <ul><li>Participants review three strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mars First </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon First </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible Path </li></ul></ul>On Board The Red Lion Deep Space Explorer
  21. 21. Inside the Red Lion Deep Space Explorer A Mars Expedition Challenge Simulation in Second Life Immersive
  22. 22. The Huffman Prairie Red Lion Starship in an asteroid field
  23. 23. A comet soars past as we exit the asteroid field Environmental effects are configurable during the simulation
  24. 24. Mars First -- landing on Mars Option: after a brief test of the equipment and procedures on the Moon Making decisions in context
  25. 25. Mars Exploration - Problem Dimensions <ul><li>Needs: for near-future </li></ul><ul><li>deep space exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy-lift launchers </li></ul><ul><li>Twice as many launches </li></ul><ul><li>Ares launcher adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Human safety studies </li></ul><ul><li>Life support </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: Mars is rich the resources used in life support and propellants </li></ul>What will need to be developed for deep space travel?
  26. 26. Assessment instruments: survey & an Expedition Challenge Trivia Game Designed for asynchronous or synchronous use The observation deck on Mars space station
  27. 27. Selecting a Strategy - Strategy 2 Moon First – lunar surface exploration Develop the capability to explore Mars
  28. 28. Moon Exploration – Needs and Benefits What needs to be developed to live on the Moon? <ul><li>Needs: for lunar strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Lunar landing and </li></ul><ul><li>ascent systems </li></ul><ul><li>Colony of habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Human safety studies </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific studies </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Develop operational skills </li></ul><ul><li>and technology for launches, landing, & work </li></ul><ul><li>on a planetary surface </li></ul><ul><li>Prospect for resources </li></ul>
  29. 29. Followed by lunar and/or Mars surface exploration Flexible path to inner solar system locations L unar orbit, Lagrange points, near-Earth objects and the moons of Mars Selecting a Strategy – Strategy 3
  30. 30. Flexible Path - Problem Dimensions Given our decreasing budget for space travel, which strategy is Congress less likely to fund by 2014? <ul><li>Deep space exploration with </li></ul><ul><li>near-Earth research </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy-lift launch tests between Earth-Moon </li></ul><ul><li>Develop & test strategies for human safety, colonization, resource mining </li></ul><ul><li>Operational skills </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluates capabilities and risks while reducing costs </li></ul>Inside the Red Lion Deep Space Explorer
  31. 31. One day, we will travel into deep space. If the budget increases, the Moon first or the Flexible Path may be chosen. The Future
  32. 32. Expedition Game – How to Play <ul><li>Everyone can play - Type your answer in the local chat log </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your answer must match the exact spelling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No capital letters are required; it is ok to use caps </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your correct answers are noted in the chat log </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Click the viewer to continue to the next question </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>To win the game </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the last slide & your scores are posted in the chat log </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enjoy the Expedition Challenge Game! </li></ul>Second Life trivia game, played at the end of the Mars Expedition Strategy Challenge
  33. 33. Virtual World Simulations <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>Immersive environment </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive & engaging </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase or create </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power of creation & control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible & adaptable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Includes scenes, animations, gestures, sounds, scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Educational community </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware & bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Skills for effective use </li></ul><ul><li>Integration & design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment & rubrics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning effective simulations for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Finding good contacts </li></ul>
  34. 34. Chart Copyright © 2007 by the Virtual Environments Info Group [7] <ul><li>V irtual World Choices </li></ul><ul><li>In April 2008 - over 100 </li></ul><ul><li>youth-oriented virtual worlds </li></ul><ul><li>were active or in development </li></ul><ul><li>In Aug 2008 - it grew </li></ul><ul><li>to over 150 virtual worlds [6] </li></ul><ul><li>In Jan 2009 - over 200 </li></ul><ul><li>virtual worlds </li></ul><ul><li>59 have micro transactions </li></ul><ul><li>57 require subscriptions </li></ul><ul><li>46 use advertising </li></ul><ul><li>From Virtual Worlds Management by Show Initiative [6] </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  35. 35. Bransford - Simulation Assessing Cooperative Work in a MUVE Live research presentation, review videos of the experiments and participate [7]
  36. 36. Gartner Forecast Gartner Says 80 Percent of Active Internet Users Will Have A &quot;Second Life&quot; in the Virtual World by the End of 2011 [12] (Gartner 2007) Are you ready? Next: game simulations
  37. 37. Educational Game Features <ul><li>Immersive games - interactive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical & virtual environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roleplaying scenarios - roles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Object behavior - interaction and assessment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Success strategy – problem-solving, scores, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participant behavior - interaction with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual or 2+ players </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single or collaborative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Team(s) or individuals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Global Learning Forum - serious game simulation
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Participants in the Game Simulation Test Game simulation -- briefing room
  42. 42. Hostage rescue: armed and dangerous
  43. 43. Operation Codename: Anaconda Communications: MNF Command Authority, Colonel Stone Ops Intel: One of the hostages, pictured on the right, is an internationally known physician associated with the World Relief Organization. She and a small team of relief workers went to the isolated island of Ayab following a typhoon to provide medical assistance and evacuation of island inhabitants before another expected typhoon hits the island in the next 48 hours. The escaped interpreter reported the physician was wounded in the leg and the other remaining hostage was shot dead on the attempted escape. Slide courtesy of Dr. Andrew Stricker Dr. Algernon Loire OPERATION PRE-BRIEF
  44. 44. Operation Codename: Anaconda Communications: MNF Command Authority, Colonel Stone Ops Intel: The island of Ayab has an abandoned WWII era u-boat base located on a lagoon inlet from the south bay. The island is hilly and rocky with sparse vegetation. It is believed the insurgents have fortified the u-boat base. Satellite photos suggest the presence of underground tunnels. Slide courtesy of Dr. Andrew Stricker South lagoon and U-boat base location OPERATION PRE-BRIEF
  45. 45. Operation Codename: Anaconda Communications: MNF Command Authority, Colonel Stone OPERATION PRE-BRIEF Map by Dr. Andrew Stricker, 2008 COA: The team will be inserted on the southeast side of the lagoon entrance under the cover of darkness. Using zodiac crafts the team will proceed to the lower u-boat docking area and recon the warehouse. An exit defense zone will also be established for the extraction. Via intercepted cell phone calls, MNF intel reports the hostages are likely located in the underground u-boat quarters. Extraction of the hostages should proceed back to the defense zone for zodiac evac. Be prepared to adapt COA depending on situational factors. Mission duration NTE 2 hrs.
  46. 46.
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
  49. 49. Game Simulation Kit in Second Life – Lyr Lobo avoids the landmines
  50. 50. After the alpha test - under fire!
  51. 51. Nanotechnology Laboratory
  52. 52. DNA strand at the Pencil Factory Lyr and robot Slonny #5 (on right) Lyr and student test accessibility projects in 2008 Data Visualization and Usability Evaluations
  53. 53. CS 820 Fall 2009 students learn to use & prototype in Second Life CTU Learning Simulations and Games
  54. 54. CTU Student SL Projects 2007 Duck shoot Ferris wheel – rotation & State machine problem Duck shoot prototype in the background Created in 1-2 weeks
  55. 55. Systems Engineering Methods class (above) Monorail and a rollercoaster Software Requirements Engineering class (right) Roleplay of customer & design team meetings The software design migrated from a monorail to a rollercoaster 1st day in class
  56. 56. Monorail rises 300 meters to the game platform SW Design Specification SL Game Prototype Capture the flag game Traps, treasure, scores Played the game & refined it the last week Software Design Undergraduate class project
  57. 57. Traps in the Game Maze
  58. 58.
  59. 59.
  60. 60. 8th Grade Immersive Literature Roleplay and conflict, an immersive literature experience for teens on the Teen Grid Suffern Middle School students at Ramapo portrayed the roles from the book, Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck. Imagine living the scenes from literature and history rather than memorizing them. A juror hollers “Boo!” when Curley takes the stand [11]
  61. 61. SL Research Links <ul><li>Second Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Life Grid – Business & Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Life Education Support Faire 2009 statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research in Second Life presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence in SL </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Getting Started in Second Life – info & tutorials </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. SL Research Links 2 <ul><li>National Public Radio’s Science Friday in SL </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NOAA’s Traffic Analysis in Second Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best Practices in Second Life – video (joined in progress) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Annotated Bibliography of SL Educational Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Edumuve + the Blended Realities paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autoscript – easy to use script generator </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. SL Research Links 3 <ul><li>Second Life as a Virtual Learning Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An Educational Tour of Second Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A View from Second Life’s Trenches: Are you a Pioneer or a Settler? </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leveraging the Affordances, Minimizing the Barriers of Virtual Worlds </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LearnScope in Second Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NMC Campus Observer </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. SL Research Links 4 <ul><li>Beyond Course Management Tools: Second Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using Second Life, Educause Seminars in Academic Computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual worlds in Online Education: Are You Ready to Teach in Second Life? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What Can We Learn from World of Warcraft & Second Life? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SL Podcast by Bayne, Walker and Calongne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TCC Preconference Wiki -- SL from a Flash drive tips </li></ul><ul><ul><li> / </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. SL Research Links 5 <ul><li>Who’s on Second? Educational Podcasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Life Development -- VITAL Lab </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suffern Middle School in Second Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Life Library 2.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Life Education Wiki </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LSL Wiki -- programming tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. SL Research Links 6 <ul><li>Timeline - History of Second Life Wiki </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UberNoggin: Big Brains - Big Ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Worlds </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reuters -- Doors to open on Google Virtual world(s)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SL and Google Earth are Transforming the Idea of Architectural Collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. SL Research Links 7 - News <ul><li>Reuters in Second life </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The SL Newspaper </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Life Herald </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metaverse Messenger </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SLNN </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Worlds Notes </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. SL Research Links 8 <ul><li>SL A Virtual Universe for Real Engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Just Virtual </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seifert Surface – Math Research in Second Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eric McLuhan in Second Life - Playing Media Ecology </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Howard Rheingold on Virtual Communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Presentation References <ul><li>[1] Medical Augmented Reality, Bruce Sterling. Wired video </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[2] NESIM/VESIM Nursing Simulation Walkthrough videos, Parts I-III </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[3] Educational Informatics Supporting Authentic Learning Experiences . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Informatics to Support Innovations Across Virtual and Real-World Learning Environments by N. Lorenzi, Vanderbilt University. November 19, 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[4] Ancient Spaces – Antiquity Comes Alive </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[5 ] Mars Expedition Challenge, a Space Simulation in Second Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By A. Stricker, M. McCrocklin, J. Holm and C. Calongne </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[6] Virtual Worlds Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Presentation References 2 <ul><li>[7] Virtual Worlds Comparison Chart </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[8] John Bransford – Cooperative work in MUVEs </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LIFE Center </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[9] GameTech: Teaching in an Avatar World by C. Calongne </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[10] Evaluating a Game Simulation Kit by C. Calongne </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[11] Of Mice and Men Trial – Closing Arguments and Jury Deliberation </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[12] Gartner Analysts – Virtual World Prediction </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Speaker Information <ul><li>Teaching in Second Life – Emerging Media & Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contact Information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyr Lobo in Second Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twitter: lyrlobo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skype: Lyr Lobo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul>