A Geographer’s Impressions
David Lyons / Century College / Winter 2014
Purpos
e
Peru represents a part of the world whose
environments and ways life I have been covering in
classes for 20 years...
Peru’s Size and Location
Peru lies on the west coast of South
America, bounded by Ecuador and
Columbia in the north, Brazi...
My Trip
Colca Canyon
Isle
Tequila
GPS Breadcrumb Trail of our Trip
Compiled by Jim Walsh
Peru’s Physical Geography
The physical geography and type of environment
found in any given place is determined by six
cli...
Latitude: Peru is entirely within the
tropics
• Two seasons – rainy and dry, high sun is rainy season
• Lying the southern...
Elevation – much of Peru lies at high altitudes
Altiplano – the world’s second largest plateau
Ocean Currents – the Humboldt Current controls Peru’s Pacifi
coast
• This cold west coast current sweeps
up from Antarctic...
Landform Barriers and Prevailing
Winds
• Easterly Trade Winds Blow across Peru and over the Andes Mountains
• Result is wi...
Position Relative to
Oceans
Interestingly, this climate control, which so dominates
Minnesota – e.g. our continental syste...
Peru has three major physical regions
Peru’s west coast is a desert – except during El Ninos
Andes Mountains – complex geologically and
environmentally
The Andes stretch the entire South American continent,
reaching over 20,000 feet of elevation in places
The Andes are a yo...
Any Questions?
Photo by Jim Walsh
Stratified and faulted
ash deposits
Photo by Jim Walsh
Venting Volcano
Photo by Jim Walsh
El Misti - “Goat Mountain” / classic stratovolcano / 19,000 feet / last erupted 1985
Cloud Forest – moist
trade winds lifted up
Andean slopes
Photo by Amy Hadiaris
Eastern Peru lies in the Amazon Rainforest
Three Drainage Regimes and
Divides
Western Peru
drains to the
Pacific and
eastern Peru
into the
Atlantic via
the Amazon
Th...
The People of
Peru
Gringo
Quechua
Ethnic Composition
• 45% Indigenous Amerindian
• Largest groups Quechua and Aymara
• Distribution – most concentrated in
A...
Andean People of Peru
Andean People of Peru
Andean People of Peru
Andean People of
Peru
Andean People of Peru
Basic Demographics of Peru
• Population: 30.5 million
• Life Expectancy: 74 years
• Birth Rate: 2.6 births / woman
• Infan...
Peru – Pre-Inca History
Peru has been occupied by humans for over 14,000 years
and agricultural societies since 7000 BCE
M...
Peru History – the
Inca
The largest empire in pre-Columbian America / Rose in 13th Century and conquered by Spanish in 157...
History: The Spanish and
Catholicism
Madonna and Child in hotel lobby – less
concern about separation of church and
state ...
History: The Spanish and Catholicism
The Spanish used pre-existing Inca foundations to build upon
The Spanish, Catholicism and Acculturation of Andean Peop
“Guinea Pig Last Supper” in Cusco Cathedral
Andean belief
system...
My first, and
Last, Guinea Pig
Supper
Peru Gained its
Independence from the
Spanish in 1821
The Battle of Ayacucho
Bolivar did not embrace the same ideals as th...
The Trajectory of History Since
Independence• After Independence, Spanish Peruvians would dominate the country politically...
Recent
History
• 1970s-1990s: A communist insurgency terrorized
Andean Peru
• “The Shining Path” promised action to addres...
Politics in
Peru
• Three Independent Branches
• Five year Presidency
• Unicameral 130 Seat Congress
• Multi-party System
•...
2014 is an election year
Peruvian
Economy
Primary Sector
• Mining
• Andean region is mineral rich
• Major exporter of metals to China and US
• Fish...
GDP per capita in PPP 2012
Source: World Economic Outlook 2012
My Observations: a bee-hive of activity, construction
everywhere, a hard-working and practical people, palpable
optimism, ...
Small shops and niche
producers everywhere
Specialization on products made from used tires
Peru Construction
Techniques:
clay bricks, hand-trowelled
cement, and lots of rebar
A Country Under Construction: Add-on as
finances allow and use lots of rebar
Local Markets in Peru – Vibrant and
Colorful
• Peru, like most less developed countries, has a large informal
economy
• Peru, like most less developed countries, has a large informal
economy
Countless varieties of dried potatoes
Juliaca Markets
• Peru, like most less developed countries,
has a large informal economy
Small local shops predominate but
supermarkets and chain stores are becoming
more common
A
cappuccino
and a
Starbucks
can be
found
Much of Peru’s highlands is dedicated to
grazing
The Alpaca Whisperer
Vicuña
The World’s Finest Natural Fiber
Photo by Amy Hadiaris
A Picture is Worth ….. 1
Sol
Peru: Recently poor and rapidly
changing
•
Development has been uneven geographically and
societally
Lima, a Modern City with Colonial
Roots
Dominates Peru politically,
economically, demographically
Getting Around Lima
Slum Sprawl of Self-Constructed Housing Marks Lima’s
Outskirts
• Lima’s newest migrants are insecure of land tenure, but h...
Photo by Amy Hadiaris
Many recent urban residents are migrants from rural
areas
Push and Pull factors include agricultural modernization, Politi...
Rapid Urban Growth and resulting
Congestion
Getting Around in the City
Eating in Peru
Photo by Amy Hadiaris
Chef Gaston Credited with making Quinoa cool
again
Peru – a Land of Weavers and Knitters
A Rural Co-
op of
Women
Who Spin
and Knit
Wilbur Quispe: Keeping
Traditional Weaving
Techniques Alive
Wilbur Quispe: Keeping Traditional Weaving Techniques
Alive
• Yarn is hand spun and
natural dyes are used
One son has dedicated
himself to the craft full time
The Men Knit on Isle
Tequila
And the Women
Weave
Visiting a Farm and Simple Way of Life
Practicing a Diverse Mixed Farming System
Family Members
Photo by Amy Hadiaris
All the
Trappings of
Modern Life
Raised Beds System for Cropping and Pasturing
Monastery of Santa
Catalina in Arequipa
Where the Sisters had servants, private bedrooms and
kitchens – the Vatican finall...
Monastery of Santa Catalina
Photo by Amy Hadiaris
Peru at 16,000
Feet
Peru at 16,000
Feet
Photo by Amy Hadiaris
High Altitude Bathroom Facilities
Lake Titicaca – World’s
Highest Navigable Lake
• Elevation 12,500 feet / Area 3,200 miles2 / largest lake in South America
Photo by Jim Walsh
The quiet life on an island in Lake
Photo by Jim Walsh
The City of Puno on Lake Titicaca
The Paradise of Colca
Canyon
Colca Canyon
Photo by Jim Walsh
Colca Canyon
Colca Canyon: nice day for a
Left: remnants of indigenous
settlement destroyed by Spanish.
The Canyon’s scattered
settlements deemed ungovernable
Right...
Our Group and Our
Digs in Colca
Canyon
Andean
Condors
Photo by Jim Walsh
A Simple Food
Kitchen in Yanque
The City of Cusco, once the Inca capitol, now major tourist
center
Photo by Amy Hadiaris
Cusco Main Square
Spanish built complex of Catholicism atop the razed Inca “Temple of Sun”
Inca Terraces
Inca Granaries destroyed by
Spanish
Inca Engineering – Still
Works!
Ollantaytamb
o
The Inca in Peru
Ollantaytambo
Chinchero
Pisaq along Inca
Trail
Machu
Inca Trail
Fancy
Sundial
Inca
Drawbridge
Our Group
Melanie – our trip leader
Siverio – our Peruvian guide
Jose and Raul
Our knowledgeable
guide and trusty
driver
Photo by Jim Walsh
Puerto Maldonado Airport and its two
gates
My Trip to the Jungle
Bellying up in Puerto Maldonado
Heading into the Jungle along the Madre de
Rios
Would OSHA approve?
Jungle
Accommodatio
ns
My Trip to the Jungle
A Strange World
Hiking to Sandoval Lake – five hours in mud
Our Fearless Guide Valeria
Me Tarzan!
Our Fearless Guide Falls Out of the Canoe
Epiphytes – “Air Plants”
Limiting Factors? What
are limiting factors?
Wildlife Seen through a
Pocket Camera
Extreme Riverbank Erosion and Oxisols Exposed
Harvest of Tropical Hardwood Awaiting Export
My Jungle
Cohort
David lyons peru
David lyons peru
David lyons peru
David lyons peru
David lyons peru
David lyons peru
David lyons peru
David lyons peru
David lyons peru
David lyons peru
David lyons peru
David lyons peru
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

David lyons peru

683 views

Published on

Fun and Academics mixed in this trip summary

Published in: Education, Travel, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

David lyons peru

  1. 1. A Geographer’s Impressions David Lyons / Century College / Winter 2014
  2. 2. Purpos e Peru represents a part of the world whose environments and ways life I have been covering in classes for 20 years. Now I finally have the opportunitiy to observe and explore these worlds first-hand! It’s given me the confidence to embark on more adventures
  3. 3. Peru’s Size and Location Peru lies on the west coast of South America, bounded by Ecuador and Columbia in the north, Brazil and Bolivia to the east, and Chile to its south. Peru covers about 500,000 square miles. To compare, Alaska covers about 615,000 square miles and Texas about 270,000 square miles
  4. 4. My Trip Colca Canyon Isle Tequila
  5. 5. GPS Breadcrumb Trail of our Trip Compiled by Jim Walsh
  6. 6. Peru’s Physical Geography The physical geography and type of environment found in any given place is determined by six climate controls. Peru is influenced by all six
  7. 7. Latitude: Peru is entirely within the tropics • Two seasons – rainy and dry, high sun is rainy season • Lying the southern hemisphere, its seasons are opposite of ours • Its longitude, and thus its daily time, matches that of the US East Coast
  8. 8. Elevation – much of Peru lies at high altitudes Altiplano – the world’s second largest plateau
  9. 9. Ocean Currents – the Humboldt Current controls Peru’s Pacifi coast • This cold west coast current sweeps up from Antarctica • Suppresses the atmosphere / Upwelling supports a productive marine ecosystem
  10. 10. Landform Barriers and Prevailing Winds • Easterly Trade Winds Blow across Peru and over the Andes Mountains • Result is windward rainforests and leeward dry zones rain shadowOrographic Uplift
  11. 11. Position Relative to Oceans Interestingly, this climate control, which so dominates Minnesota – e.g. our continental system, is the least important control for Peru
  12. 12. Peru has three major physical regions Peru’s west coast is a desert – except during El Ninos
  13. 13. Andes Mountains – complex geologically and environmentally
  14. 14. The Andes stretch the entire South American continent, reaching over 20,000 feet of elevation in places The Andes are a young and active range, the product of subduction
  15. 15. Any Questions? Photo by Jim Walsh
  16. 16. Stratified and faulted ash deposits Photo by Jim Walsh
  17. 17. Venting Volcano Photo by Jim Walsh
  18. 18. El Misti - “Goat Mountain” / classic stratovolcano / 19,000 feet / last erupted 1985
  19. 19. Cloud Forest – moist trade winds lifted up Andean slopes
  20. 20. Photo by Amy Hadiaris
  21. 21. Eastern Peru lies in the Amazon Rainforest
  22. 22. Three Drainage Regimes and Divides Western Peru drains to the Pacific and eastern Peru into the Atlantic via the Amazon The Altiplano of Peru and Bolivia has interior drainage into Lake Titicaca
  23. 23. The People of Peru Gringo Quechua
  24. 24. Ethnic Composition • 45% Indigenous Amerindian • Largest groups Quechua and Aymara • Distribution – most concentrated in Andean region 37% Mestizo and 15% European Largest concentration in Lima Peru has also had significant migrations from China (mid-19th Century), Italy (early 20th Century), and Japan (after WWII)
  25. 25. Andean People of Peru
  26. 26. Andean People of Peru
  27. 27. Andean People of Peru
  28. 28. Andean People of Peru
  29. 29. Andean People of Peru
  30. 30. Basic Demographics of Peru • Population: 30.5 million • Life Expectancy: 74 years • Birth Rate: 2.6 births / woman • Infant Mortality: 17 / 1000 • Rate of Natural Increase: 1.5% • A “Stage 3” Country
  31. 31. Peru – Pre-Inca History Peru has been occupied by humans for over 14,000 years and agricultural societies since 7000 BCE Moche Temple in Lima circa 200 A.D.
  32. 32. Peru History – the Inca The largest empire in pre-Columbian America / Rose in 13th Century and conquered by Spanish in 1572 / A Highlands empire
  33. 33. History: The Spanish and Catholicism Madonna and Child in hotel lobby – less concern about separation of church and state than U.S.
  34. 34. History: The Spanish and Catholicism The Spanish used pre-existing Inca foundations to build upon
  35. 35. The Spanish, Catholicism and Acculturation of Andean Peop “Guinea Pig Last Supper” in Cusco Cathedral Andean belief systems - a hybrid of Catholicism and local Animism
  36. 36. My first, and Last, Guinea Pig Supper
  37. 37. Peru Gained its Independence from the Spanish in 1821 The Battle of Ayacucho Bolivar did not embrace the same ideals as the U.S. Founding Fathers. He saw as risky the constitution and democratic system of government of the recently independent United States. In South America, authoritarian governments would become the norm.
  38. 38. The Trajectory of History Since Independence• After Independence, Spanish Peruvians would dominate the country politically and economically • Unlike in the U.S., where land would be plotted and parceled by government for wide distribution to settlers willing to toil and improve it, in Peru the Spanish crown selectively awarded vast amounts of land – as well as the labor of the indigenous living upon it – to a few loyal Spaniards who would build lavish estates (Haciendas). Land would be hereditarily passed on. • Indigenous peoples “campesinos” were often enslaved and given access to meager plots of land for subsistence activities. • Land reform movements and the breaking up of the Hacienda system did not start until the 1960s. • Peru’s Quechua Andean regions remain relatively poorer and more traditional
  39. 39. Recent History • 1970s-1990s: A communist insurgency terrorized Andean Peru • “The Shining Path” promised action to address Peru’s inequities, initially gathering support from rural poor • 1980 initiated its “armed struggle” and morphed into one of the most brutal of all late 20th Century Maoist guerilla movements • Ultimately defeated by government forces under President Fujimori, Guzman captured in 1992 • Estimated 63,000 casualties (Shining Path credited for half) Abimael Guzman, philosophy professor turned Maoist group leader
  40. 40. Politics in Peru • Three Independent Branches • Five year Presidency • Unicameral 130 Seat Congress • Multi-party System • Mandatory Voting  President Ollanta Humala  Quechua with Military Background Alberto Fujimori – President 1990-2000, credited with modernizing Peru and defeating Shining Path, now serving 25 year prison term Alan Garcia Perez –ran economy into ground in 1980s (inflation 2 million%). Apologized and got re-elected in 2006
  41. 41. 2014 is an election year
  42. 42. Peruvian Economy Primary Sector • Mining • Andean region is mineral rich • Major exporter of metals to China and US • Fishing • World’s leading exporter of fish meal • Agriculture • Irrigated export sector Secondary • Construction boom • Emerging manufacturing economy Tertiary • Tourism • Services: micro-entrepreneurs Characteristics • World Bank Designation: “Upper Middle Income” • Aggregate GNP: $330 billion (47th) • GNP PPP Per Capita: $10,200 • Rapid growth: >6.5% annually • Export-led development strategy • Fiscally Sound • Income Equality: Gini = 48 (similar to US) • Peru has cut its poverty rate in half from 50% to 25% in recent decades
  43. 43. GDP per capita in PPP 2012 Source: World Economic Outlook 2012
  44. 44. My Observations: a bee-hive of activity, construction everywhere, a hard-working and practical people, palpable optimism, but also lots of marginal small businesses
  45. 45. Small shops and niche producers everywhere
  46. 46. Specialization on products made from used tires
  47. 47. Peru Construction Techniques: clay bricks, hand-trowelled cement, and lots of rebar
  48. 48. A Country Under Construction: Add-on as finances allow and use lots of rebar
  49. 49. Local Markets in Peru – Vibrant and Colorful • Peru, like most less developed countries, has a large informal economy
  50. 50. • Peru, like most less developed countries, has a large informal economy Countless varieties of dried potatoes
  51. 51. Juliaca Markets
  52. 52. • Peru, like most less developed countries, has a large informal economy
  53. 53. Small local shops predominate but supermarkets and chain stores are becoming more common
  54. 54. A cappuccino and a Starbucks can be found
  55. 55. Much of Peru’s highlands is dedicated to grazing
  56. 56. The Alpaca Whisperer
  57. 57. Vicuña The World’s Finest Natural Fiber Photo by Amy Hadiaris
  58. 58. A Picture is Worth ….. 1 Sol
  59. 59. Peru: Recently poor and rapidly changing
  60. 60. • Development has been uneven geographically and societally
  61. 61. Lima, a Modern City with Colonial Roots Dominates Peru politically, economically, demographically
  62. 62. Getting Around Lima
  63. 63. Slum Sprawl of Self-Constructed Housing Marks Lima’s Outskirts • Lima’s newest migrants are insecure of land tenure, but have been gaining political power
  64. 64. Photo by Amy Hadiaris
  65. 65. Many recent urban residents are migrants from rural areas Push and Pull factors include agricultural modernization, Political Instability, Globalization, the lure of the city
  66. 66. Rapid Urban Growth and resulting Congestion
  67. 67. Getting Around in the City
  68. 68. Eating in Peru
  69. 69. Photo by Amy Hadiaris
  70. 70. Chef Gaston Credited with making Quinoa cool again
  71. 71. Peru – a Land of Weavers and Knitters
  72. 72. A Rural Co- op of Women Who Spin and Knit
  73. 73. Wilbur Quispe: Keeping Traditional Weaving Techniques Alive
  74. 74. Wilbur Quispe: Keeping Traditional Weaving Techniques Alive • Yarn is hand spun and natural dyes are used
  75. 75. One son has dedicated himself to the craft full time
  76. 76. The Men Knit on Isle Tequila
  77. 77. And the Women Weave
  78. 78. Visiting a Farm and Simple Way of Life Practicing a Diverse Mixed Farming System
  79. 79. Family Members
  80. 80. Photo by Amy Hadiaris
  81. 81. All the Trappings of Modern Life
  82. 82. Raised Beds System for Cropping and Pasturing
  83. 83. Monastery of Santa Catalina in Arequipa Where the Sisters had servants, private bedrooms and kitchens – the Vatican finally cracked down 300 years later
  84. 84. Monastery of Santa Catalina
  85. 85. Photo by Amy Hadiaris
  86. 86. Peru at 16,000 Feet
  87. 87. Peru at 16,000 Feet
  88. 88. Photo by Amy Hadiaris
  89. 89. High Altitude Bathroom Facilities
  90. 90. Lake Titicaca – World’s Highest Navigable Lake • Elevation 12,500 feet / Area 3,200 miles2 / largest lake in South America
  91. 91. Photo by Jim Walsh
  92. 92. The quiet life on an island in Lake
  93. 93. Photo by Jim Walsh
  94. 94. The City of Puno on Lake Titicaca
  95. 95. The Paradise of Colca Canyon
  96. 96. Colca Canyon
  97. 97. Photo by Jim Walsh
  98. 98. Colca Canyon
  99. 99. Colca Canyon: nice day for a
  100. 100. Left: remnants of indigenous settlement destroyed by Spanish. The Canyon’s scattered settlements deemed ungovernable Right: Town of Chivay built by Spanish to concentrate and Christianize the Colca people
  101. 101. Our Group and Our Digs in Colca Canyon
  102. 102. Andean Condors
  103. 103. Photo by Jim Walsh
  104. 104. A Simple Food Kitchen in Yanque
  105. 105. The City of Cusco, once the Inca capitol, now major tourist center
  106. 106. Photo by Amy Hadiaris
  107. 107. Cusco Main Square
  108. 108. Spanish built complex of Catholicism atop the razed Inca “Temple of Sun”
  109. 109. Inca Terraces
  110. 110. Inca Granaries destroyed by Spanish
  111. 111. Inca Engineering – Still Works!
  112. 112. Ollantaytamb o
  113. 113. The Inca in Peru Ollantaytambo
  114. 114. Chinchero
  115. 115. Pisaq along Inca Trail
  116. 116. Machu
  117. 117. Inca Trail
  118. 118. Fancy Sundial
  119. 119. Inca Drawbridge
  120. 120. Our Group
  121. 121. Melanie – our trip leader Siverio – our Peruvian guide
  122. 122. Jose and Raul Our knowledgeable guide and trusty driver Photo by Jim Walsh
  123. 123. Puerto Maldonado Airport and its two gates
  124. 124. My Trip to the Jungle Bellying up in Puerto Maldonado
  125. 125. Heading into the Jungle along the Madre de Rios
  126. 126. Would OSHA approve?
  127. 127. Jungle Accommodatio ns
  128. 128. My Trip to the Jungle A Strange World
  129. 129. Hiking to Sandoval Lake – five hours in mud
  130. 130. Our Fearless Guide Valeria Me Tarzan!
  131. 131. Our Fearless Guide Falls Out of the Canoe
  132. 132. Epiphytes – “Air Plants” Limiting Factors? What are limiting factors?
  133. 133. Wildlife Seen through a Pocket Camera
  134. 134. Extreme Riverbank Erosion and Oxisols Exposed
  135. 135. Harvest of Tropical Hardwood Awaiting Export
  136. 136. My Jungle Cohort

×