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School Composting Options<br />Athena Lee Bradley  athena@nerc.org<br />802-254-3636<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc...
Acknowledgements<br />The Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. (NERC) was awarded a United States Department of Agriculture R...
Disclaimer<br />This material is based upon work supported under a grant by the Utilities Programs, United States Departme...
How to Use this Presentation<br />This presentation provides detailed information about how to establish a food waste dive...
Background<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />
NERC Resources for Schools<br />This presentation is designed as a supplement to a companion document—NERC’s School Compos...
Why Compost?<br />Each student generates 2+ pounds compostable waste each school day<br />60-85% of school waste could be ...
Why Compost, cont.<br />Decomposition of organic material in landfills contributes to methane gas production (“climate cha...
What is Compost?<br />Value-added product: converts waste material to easy-to-handle, useful product<br />Soil-like materi...
Benefits of Compost in Soil<br />Improves Physical Properties: Increases water retention; improves soil aeration & structu...
Getting Started<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />
Start-Up<br />Step 1<br />Form a committee<br />Be sure there is administrative support for effort<br />Include cafeteria ...
Start-Up, cont.<br />Step 2<br />Decide if school will compost material on-site or ship food waste to a commercial compost...
Look online or in the phone book under composting
	Contact your state environmental agency
Before deciding to compost at the school, confer with your state environmental agency & local Board of Health to learn abo...
Start-Up, cont.<br />Step 3<br />Decide student group(s) responsible for compost tasks<br /><ul><li>Environmental Club?
Representative class or group from each grade level?
Project-Based Learning?
Life Skills? </li></ul>Will classes or student groups rotate responsibilities or work together?<br />Northeast Recycling C...
Start-Up, cont.<br />Step 4: Formulate a budget<br />If composting off-site, hauling charges & container rental charges mu...
Start-Up, cont.<br />Enthusiasm = Success! <br /><ul><li>Students, staff, teachers, & administration </li></ul>Set a goal ...
Dedication & Planning!<br />Composting requires ongoing dedication & attention to ensure success<br />Phase-in composting ...
 One grade at a time</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />
Waste Sort<br />Conduct a cafeteria waste sort<br /><ul><li>Compostable: vegetables, fruits, bread
Recyclables
Trash: plastics, meat, dairy</li></ul>Estimated weights/volumes for each lunch session<br /><ul><li>Calculations will help...
How Composting Happens<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />
Compost System<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />Recycled Organics University, w...
Its Like Baking a Cake…<br />One part food scraps<br />Two parts leaves<br />Moisture<br />Aeration<br />Containment & cov...
Basic Compost Recipe<br />Nitrogen ("green") nutrients: "Wet" green materials such as kitchen preparation waste, cafeteria...
Recipe, cont.<br />Add a little soil: Soil or finished compost provides microorganisms necessary in composting process<br ...
The Process<br />Decomposers: bacteria, fungi,  actinomycetes<br />Heat is released by microorganisms during aerobic metab...
As temperature rises, mesophilic organisms begin to die off & thermophilic organisms begin to thrive</li></ul>Northeast Re...
Do Not Compost<br />Meat, Cheese, Creamy Sauces<br />Small amounts of cheese & meats are okay, such as on pizza.<br />Nort...
on-site <br />School Composting<br />Site Set-up<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />
Location<br />Find a convenient outdoor location that can be a permanent site<br />Before deciding on a compost area, disc...
Location, cont.<br />Nearby vehicle access is helpful <br />Do not pile next to a wood fence or building<br />Slightly slo...
Location, cont.<br />Soil or grass is best surface<br />School garden area is ideal <br />Water should be accessible<br />...
Begin Gathering Materials<br />Begin gathering leaves, straw, & other carbon (“brown”) sources<br /><ul><li>Distribute a m...
Designate a drop-off location
Decide how materials will get from the drop-off location to the compost area</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  ©...
Gathering Materials, cont.<br />Set-up compost area in preparation of storing the carbon materials<br /><ul><li>Consider b...
Use a tarp, scrap sheet metal, or corrugated plastic to cover materials
It is best not to keep leaves in plastic bags
Leaves are bulky- plan for proper storage to prevent unsightliness</li></ul>Mowing over leaves to reduce volume is prefera...
Gathering Materials, cont.<br />Other sources of carbon: <br /><ul><li>Animal bedding
Old straw
Shredded paper. Newspaper is best.
Sawdust</li></ul>Grass & leaves generated on campus? <br /><ul><li>Can these be brought to the compost area?</li></ul>Okay...
Pile or Windrow<br />At least 3 feet x 3 feet x 3 feet <br />Start with a layer of carbon materials on bottom<br /><ul><li...
Compost Bins<br />If bins are to be constructed:<br /><ul><li>Who will make the bins?
How will materials be obtained? </li></ul>Solicit sponsorship<br /><ul><li>Donating materials or compost bins in exchange ...
Carpenters Union to construct bins</li></ul>Tarp to cover bins (or pile) in the winter & during heavy rains <br />Northeas...
Bins, continued<br />Wood, pallets, or concrete blocks<br /><ul><li>Nine pallets will make a 3-bin set
Landscape timbers can also be used</li></ul>3-5 feet high<br /><ul><li>Enough capacity to hold ~4 cubic yards of material ...
Widths can range from 5-8 feet</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />
Bins, continued<br />Layer materials; always cover food with soil & leaves/bulking materials<br />Water materials as added...
Bins, continued<br />When the second bin is full, begin filling the third bin<br />When third bin is full, harvest materia...
Compost Bins<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />
Hubbardston Center School, MA<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Karen DiF...
Mansfield Middle School, Connecticut<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Vi...
Mansfield Middle School, Connecticut<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Vi...
Sample Compost Bin - Purchase<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />
Food Scrap <br />Collection System<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />
Monitoring & Collection Tasks<br />Assign project tasks & train students & teachers in ongoing composting tasks <br />Deve...
Collecting & Transporting Materials<br />Determine how food waste will be collected in kitchen & in cafeteria<br /><ul><li...
Food Scrap Collection Bins<br />Five-gallon buckets with lids<br /><ul><li>Often these are available at no cost from resta...
Cafeteria Monitors<br />Ensure that only compostable food waste & napkins (soiled paper) end-up in compost collection tubs...
Collection Set-Up<br />Provide collection bins in kitchen for prep waste<br />Place cafeteria collection bins in one area<...
Manchester Essex Regional <br />School District<br />E<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc....
Manchester Essex Regional <br />School District<br />Kitchen<br />Cafeteria<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © Sept...
Mansfield Middle School, CT Food Collection Barrel<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<...
Mansfield Middle School Sort Line<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virgi...
Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia Walton, Mansfield, CT<br />
Hubbardston Center School Sort Line, Massachusetts <br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org...
Moving Collected Materials<br />Buckets or bins can be placed on a wagon or flat-bed wheeled garden cart for transport<br ...
Lined with bags for removal </li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />
Taking Food Scraps to the Bins<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia...
In the Snow…<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Karen DiFranza, Hands To E...
Emptying Collected Materials<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia W...
Covering the Food Scraps<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia Walto...
Closing the Bin<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia Walton, Mansfi...
Making Compost<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />
Compost System Maintenance<br />Regularly review tasks with participants<br /><ul><li>Acceptable materials, collection log...
Proper method of aerating the compost
Use of compost thermometer</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />
Turning or Mixing Materials<br />Turning = Air = Faster Composting<br /><ul><li>1-2x per week will make compost in 1-6 mon...
Equipment<br />Shovels &/or pitch forks <br />Small bobcat or tractor with bucket, if available<br />An aerating tool<br /...
Turning the Compost<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia Walton, Ma...
Turning By Hand<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Karen DiFranza, Hands T...
Aeration Systems<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />
Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.  © September 2011  www.nerc.org<br />
Mansfield Middle School – What Worked Best<br /> Teacher compost duty<br /> Town staff support<br /> Counterweighted lids<...
Mansfield Middle School Results – 5 year period<br /> 43.27 tons composted<br /> $3,030 in avoided trash fees<br /> 40-45%...
Manchester Essex Regional <br />School District, Massachusetts<br />	Reduced trash by ~95% in dining hall & ~85% in kitche...
Edible School Yard<br />© Manchester Essex Regional School District, Massachusetts<br />E<br />Northeast Recycling Council...
Troubleshooting<br />Preventive help against critters/flies:<br />Always cover food with leaves & finished compost/soil<br...
Troubleshooting, cont.<br />Bears:<br />Enclose bins in fence<br />Keep bins away from school buildings<br />Build heavy-d...
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School composting options

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School composting options

  1. 1. School Composting Options<br />Athena Lee Bradley athena@nerc.org<br />802-254-3636<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.<br />www.nerc.org<br />
  2. 2. Acknowledgements<br />The Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. (NERC) was awarded a United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utility Services Solid Waste Management Grant in 2009 to provide direct technical assistance & training in waste reduction, recycling, & composting to rural schools in Connecticut, New York, & Delaware. Eight schools participated in NERC’s Waste Reduction & Recycling (WR&R) project over the course of two years. <br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  3. 3. Disclaimer<br />This material is based upon work supported under a grant by the Utilities Programs, United States Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, & conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are solely the responsibility of the authors & do not necessarily represent the official view of the Utilities Programs. <br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  4. 4. How to Use this Presentation<br />This presentation provides detailed information about how to establish a food waste diversion & composting program in schools. There are notes with substantive information associated with many of the slides. <br />Be sure to look at this presentation in “notes view” mode.<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  5. 5. Background<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  6. 6. NERC Resources for Schools<br />This presentation is designed as a supplement to a companion document—NERC’s School Composting Options http://www.nerc.org/documents/composting_school_food_paper.pdf<br />Several school waste reduction, recycling, & recycling documents were developed by NERC as a result of this project. <br />Presentations & Tip Sheets are available for download at http://www.nerc.org/documents/index.html#SchoolWaste. <br />These documents include detailed information & resources to support school source reduction, reuse, recycling, & composting efforts.<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  7. 7. Why Compost?<br />Each student generates 2+ pounds compostable waste each school day<br />60-85% of school waste could be recycled or composted <br />Can significantly reduce waste stream & disposal costs<br />Offers hands-on learning that can be integrated into school curriculum— science, math, & more <br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  8. 8. Why Compost, cont.<br />Decomposition of organic material in landfills contributes to methane gas production (“climate change gases”) in landfills<br />Compost is a valuable soil amendment that provides nutrients to plants, soil stability, erosion control, & more<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  9. 9. What is Compost?<br />Value-added product: converts waste material to easy-to-handle, useful product<br />Soil-like material, rich in organic matter & organisms<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  10. 10. Benefits of Compost in Soil<br />Improves Physical Properties: Increases water retention; improves soil aeration & structural stability; resistance to water & wind erosion; root penetration; soil temperature stabilization<br />Enhances Chemical Properties: Increases macro- & micro-nutrient content; availability of beneficial minerals; pH stability; converts nutrients to a more stable form, reducing fertilizer requirements<br />Improves Biological Properties: Increases activity of beneficial micro-organisms; promotes root development; can increase agricultural crop yields; suppresses certain plant diseases; acts as biofilter, bonding heavy metals<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  11. 11. Getting Started<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  12. 12. Start-Up<br />Step 1<br />Form a committee<br />Be sure there is administrative support for effort<br />Include cafeteria & custodial staff<br /><ul><li>Custodial involvement in composting? </li></ul>Designate a coordinator<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  13. 13. Start-Up, cont.<br />Step 2<br />Decide if school will compost material on-site or ship food waste to a commercial compost facility<br />To find a commercial compost facility:<br /><ul><li>Ask your current trash hauler
  14. 14. Look online or in the phone book under composting
  15. 15. Contact your state environmental agency
  16. 16. Before deciding to compost at the school, confer with your state environmental agency & local Board of Health to learn about regulatory & permitting requirements</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  17. 17. Start-Up, cont.<br />Step 3<br />Decide student group(s) responsible for compost tasks<br /><ul><li>Environmental Club?
  18. 18. Representative class or group from each grade level?
  19. 19. Project-Based Learning?
  20. 20. Life Skills? </li></ul>Will classes or student groups rotate responsibilities or work together?<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  21. 21. Start-Up, cont.<br />Step 4: Formulate a budget<br />If composting off-site, hauling charges & container rental charges must be determined<br />on-site composting will require an initial investment in compost bins<br />Labor costs will vary depending upon the compost system & availability of students to assist<br />Collection buckets, shovels, & other supplies will also be needed<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  22. 22. Start-Up, cont.<br />Enthusiasm = Success! <br /><ul><li>Students, staff, teachers, & administration </li></ul>Set a goal for the project<br /><ul><li>Such as, diversion of food wastes all lunch periods by end-of-school year</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  23. 23. Dedication & Planning!<br />Composting requires ongoing dedication & attention to ensure success<br />Phase-in composting over the course of a year<br /><ul><li> One lunch session at a time
  24. 24. One grade at a time</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  25. 25. Waste Sort<br />Conduct a cafeteria waste sort<br /><ul><li>Compostable: vegetables, fruits, bread
  26. 26. Recyclables
  27. 27. Trash: plastics, meat, dairy</li></ul>Estimated weights/volumes for each lunch session<br /><ul><li>Calculations will help determine number of compost bins needed</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  28. 28. How Composting Happens<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  29. 29. Compost System<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Recycled Organics University, www.recycledorganics.com<br />
  30. 30. Its Like Baking a Cake…<br />One part food scraps<br />Two parts leaves<br />Moisture<br />Aeration<br />Containment & cover<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  31. 31. Basic Compost Recipe<br />Nitrogen ("green") nutrients: "Wet" green materials such as kitchen preparation waste, cafeteria lunch wastes (vegetable & fruit scraps, coffee grounds, napkins, etc.), fresh grass clippings, manure, & fertilizers<br />Carbon ("brown") nutrients: "Dry" woody, “bulking” materials such as fallen leaves, dry grass, brush clippings, hay or straw, dry weeds, wood ash, sawdust, newspaper, & coffee filters<br />Create a "nutrient stew": Approximately 1/3 high-nitrogen containing material & 2/3 high-carbon containing material (by volume)<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  32. 32. Recipe, cont.<br />Add a little soil: Soil or finished compost provides microorganisms necessary in composting process<br />Moisture: School food scraps are usually wet. If not, add water or leave materials uncovered during rain. Materials should be moist like a damp sponge<br />Air: Microorganisms need lots of air to work & decompose the materials <br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  33. 33. The Process<br />Decomposers: bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes<br />Heat is released by microorganisms during aerobic metabolism of an organic substrate (e.g. glucose)<br />Temperature influences microbial population<br /><ul><li>Initial stage: Mesophilic bacteria
  34. 34. As temperature rises, mesophilic organisms begin to die off & thermophilic organisms begin to thrive</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  35. 35. Do Not Compost<br />Meat, Cheese, Creamy Sauces<br />Small amounts of cheese & meats are okay, such as on pizza.<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  36. 36. on-site <br />School Composting<br />Site Set-up<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  37. 37. Location<br />Find a convenient outdoor location that can be a permanent site<br />Before deciding on a compost area, discuss it with:<br /><ul><li>School officials, Board of Health, state environmental agency, custodians, food service staff, other teachers (especially physical education) & neighbors</li></ul>Area: 10 ft. wide x 10 ft. in length <br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  38. 38. Location, cont.<br />Nearby vehicle access is helpful <br />Do not pile next to a wood fence or building<br />Slightly sloped to allow drainage<br /><ul><li>If necessary, drainage holes or channels can be dug around the compost bin or pile</li></ul>Avoid setting up near pine trees<br /><ul><li>Needles are too acidic</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  39. 39. Location, cont.<br />Soil or grass is best surface<br />School garden area is ideal <br />Water should be accessible<br /><ul><li>A bucket is okay; watering hose is best</li></ul>Some sun is preferable<br />Away from buildings, streams<br />Close proximity to the cafeteria<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  40. 40. Begin Gathering Materials<br />Begin gathering leaves, straw, & other carbon (“brown”) sources<br /><ul><li>Distribute a message to teachers, parents, & community asking for sources to be brought to the school
  41. 41. Designate a drop-off location
  42. 42. Decide how materials will get from the drop-off location to the compost area</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  43. 43. Gathering Materials, cont.<br />Set-up compost area in preparation of storing the carbon materials<br /><ul><li>Consider building an inexpensive chicken wire fenced area for storage
  44. 44. Use a tarp, scrap sheet metal, or corrugated plastic to cover materials
  45. 45. It is best not to keep leaves in plastic bags
  46. 46. Leaves are bulky- plan for proper storage to prevent unsightliness</li></ul>Mowing over leaves to reduce volume is preferable<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  47. 47. Gathering Materials, cont.<br />Other sources of carbon: <br /><ul><li>Animal bedding
  48. 48. Old straw
  49. 49. Shredded paper. Newspaper is best.
  50. 50. Sawdust</li></ul>Grass & leaves generated on campus? <br /><ul><li>Can these be brought to the compost area?</li></ul>Okay to mix carbon materials<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  51. 51. Pile or Windrow<br />At least 3 feet x 3 feet x 3 feet <br />Start with a layer of carbon materials on bottom<br /><ul><li>Wood chips or sawdust, straw, or leaves</li></ul>Perforated pipe on the bottom <br />Layer materials; always cover food with soil & leaves/bulking materials <br />Water as necessary <br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  52. 52. Compost Bins<br />If bins are to be constructed:<br /><ul><li>Who will make the bins?
  53. 53. How will materials be obtained? </li></ul>Solicit sponsorship<br /><ul><li>Donating materials or compost bins in exchange for signage & promotion
  54. 54. Carpenters Union to construct bins</li></ul>Tarp to cover bins (or pile) in the winter & during heavy rains <br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  55. 55. Bins, continued<br />Wood, pallets, or concrete blocks<br /><ul><li>Nine pallets will make a 3-bin set
  56. 56. Landscape timbers can also be used</li></ul>3-5 feet high<br /><ul><li>Enough capacity to hold ~4 cubic yards of material (16 wheelbarrows worth)
  57. 57. Widths can range from 5-8 feet</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  58. 58. Bins, continued<br />Layer materials; always cover food with soil & leaves/bulking materials<br />Water materials as added, if necessary<br />Fill the first bin until full<br />When the first bin is full, begin filling the second bin<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  59. 59. Bins, continued<br />When the second bin is full, begin filling the third bin<br />When third bin is full, harvest materials in first bin<br /><ul><li>Cover with tarp until fully composted</li></ul>Stir/mix materials regularly to aerate<br />Add additional bins if necessary <br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  60. 60. Compost Bins<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  61. 61. Hubbardston Center School, MA<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Karen DiFranza, Hands To Earth<br />
  62. 62. Mansfield Middle School, Connecticut<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia Walton, Mansfield, CT<br />
  63. 63. Mansfield Middle School, Connecticut<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia Walton, Mansfield, CT<br />
  64. 64. Sample Compost Bin - Purchase<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  65. 65. Food Scrap <br />Collection System<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  66. 66. Monitoring & Collection Tasks<br />Assign project tasks & train students & teachers in ongoing composting tasks <br />Develop a schedule of tasks & assign teachers/students to complete each task <br /><ul><li>Ensures that everything gets done without overburdening anyone</li></ul>Rotate tasks so that experiences can be shared & to avoid project “burn out”<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  67. 67. Collecting & Transporting Materials<br />Determine how food waste will be collected in kitchen & in cafeteria<br /><ul><li>Students, custodial staff, teacher, &/or parent?</li></ul>Food waste is heavy<br /><ul><li>Smaller containers work best, especially if students are transporting</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  68. 68. Food Scrap Collection Bins<br />Five-gallon buckets with lids<br /><ul><li>Often these are available at no cost from restaurants or stores, or through a Materials Exchange</li></ul>Curbside bins or small trashcans<br />Carts (Toters) on wheels<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  69. 69. Cafeteria Monitors<br />Ensure that only compostable food waste & napkins (soiled paper) end-up in compost collection tubs<br />Assist students sorting compostable scraps into collection bin<br />Help students learn what is acceptable & not acceptable for composting <br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  70. 70. Collection Set-Up<br />Provide collection bins in kitchen for prep waste<br />Place cafeteria collection bins in one area<br /><ul><li>Near where students normally bus tables & place trays for washing </li></ul>Label each bin with a clear sign <br />Monitor collection for at least first couple of months<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  71. 71. Manchester Essex Regional <br />School District<br />E<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Compost Collection in the Hallways<br />© Manchester Essex Regional School District, Massachusetts<br />
  72. 72. Manchester Essex Regional <br />School District<br />Kitchen<br />Cafeteria<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />© Manchester Essex Regional School District, Massachusetts<br />
  73. 73. Mansfield Middle School, CT Food Collection Barrel<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia Walton, Mansfield, CT<br />
  74. 74. Mansfield Middle School Sort Line<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia Walton, Mansfield, CT<br />
  75. 75. Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia Walton, Mansfield, CT<br />
  76. 76. Hubbardston Center School Sort Line, Massachusetts <br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Karen DiFranza, Hands To Earth<br />
  77. 77. Moving Collected Materials<br />Buckets or bins can be placed on a wagon or flat-bed wheeled garden cart for transport<br />Collection carts on wheels<br /><ul><li>Tilted for emptying
  78. 78. Lined with bags for removal </li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  79. 79. Taking Food Scraps to the Bins<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia Walton, Mansfield, CT<br />
  80. 80. In the Snow…<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Karen DiFranza, Hands To Earth<br />
  81. 81. Emptying Collected Materials<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia Walton, Mansfield, CT<br />
  82. 82. Covering the Food Scraps<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia Walton, Mansfield, CT<br />
  83. 83. Closing the Bin<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia Walton, Mansfield, CT<br />
  84. 84. Making Compost<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  85. 85. Compost System Maintenance<br />Regularly review tasks with participants<br /><ul><li>Acceptable materials, collection logistics, maintenance, etc. </li></ul>Review proper attire, proper hygiene (e.g., gloves, washing hands), proper lifting<br />Review how to safely handle shovels/other tools<br /><ul><li>Proper way to hold & use shovels to load & mix materials
  86. 86. Proper method of aerating the compost
  87. 87. Use of compost thermometer</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  88. 88. Turning or Mixing Materials<br />Turning = Air = Faster Composting<br /><ul><li>1-2x per week will make compost in 1-6 months, depending on compost ingredients & outside temperature</li></ul>Piles that are not turned will take up to 18 months to be ready<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  89. 89. Equipment<br />Shovels &/or pitch forks <br />Small bobcat or tractor with bucket, if available<br />An aerating tool<br /><ul><li>Metal rod, pipe, rake, or sturdy wood stick</li></ul>Compost thermometer<br /><ul><li>To study the biology of composting process </li></ul>Bathroom scale<br /><ul><li>Measure results</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  90. 90. Turning the Compost<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Virginia Walton, Mansfield, CT<br />
  91. 91. Turning By Hand<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Photo: Karen DiFranza, Hands To Earth<br />
  92. 92. Aeration Systems<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  93. 93. Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  94. 94. Mansfield Middle School – What Worked Best<br /> Teacher compost duty<br /> Town staff support<br /> Counterweighted lids<br /> Bins sized to fit tractor<br /> Special education class participation<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  95. 95. Mansfield Middle School Results – 5 year period<br /> 43.27 tons composted<br /> $3,030 in avoided trash fees<br /> 40-45% diversion (recycling & composting)<br /> 2,200 students participated<br />~22 cubic yards finished compost<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  96. 96. Manchester Essex Regional <br />School District, Massachusetts<br /> Reduced trash by ~95% in dining hall & ~85% in kitchen<br />S<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  97. 97. Edible School Yard<br />© Manchester Essex Regional School District, Massachusetts<br />E<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  98. 98. Troubleshooting<br />Preventive help against critters/flies:<br />Always cover food with leaves & finished compost/soil<br /><ul><li>Cover with thin layer of agricultural lime if fruit flies or rodents are a problem</li></ul>Chicken wire on bottom & sides of bins<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  99. 99. Troubleshooting, cont.<br />Bears:<br />Enclose bins in fence<br />Keep bins away from school buildings<br />Build heavy-duty wood bins with steel-framed lids/steel mesh (using pulley-system to lift lids)<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  100. 100. Troubleshooting, cont.<br />Pile Smells “putrid”/like rotten eggs or is too wet:<br />Turn pile & increase turning frequency until problem subsides<br />Increase carbon/brown sources, such as bedding<br />Cover to protect<br />Pile not heating up:<br />Add additional nitrogen—vegetable scraps<br />Turn pile & add water throughout pile<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  101. 101. You Do Not Have to Start Over!!<br />When in doubt, turn the pile<br />Check moisture content<br /><ul><li>If too wet, add carbon sources & mix
  102. 102. If too dry, add nitrogen sources & water, then mix</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  103. 103. How many Compost Bins?<br />Conversions for determining compost bin size:<br />50 pounds = 15 gallons<br />100 pounds = 30 gallons<br />200 pounds = 60 gallons<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  104. 104. So…<br />50 pounds of food waste per week = ~15 gallons<br />Add at least 2x the amount of brown "bulky” to calculate total gallons-per-week figure<br /><ul><li>15 gallons of food waste + 30 gallons of brown materials = 45 gallons
  105. 105. There are 7.5 gallons in one cubic foot. So,
  106. 106. 45 gallons divided by 7.5 = ~6 cubic feet</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  107. 107. So…<br />A constructed bin with 3' x 3' x 3' dimensions gives you 27 cubic feet of space<br />In ~4 weeks the bin will be filled <br />A new bin can then be started, or the composted materials can be removed from the original bin & set aside in a pile to finish composting<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  108. 108. Worm Composting or “Vermicomposting"<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  109. 109. Worm Composting<br />A process that uses worms to convert organic material into a dark rich soil amendment. <br />A worm composting bin in the classroom offers an exciting demonstration of ecology & recycling in action. <br />Larger outside bins can be built for composting cafeteria food scraps. <br />Schools may find it beneficial to do a combination of both regular on-site school composting & worm composting. <br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  110. 110. Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />Vermicompost Bin<br />Liberty Middle School, NY<br />
  111. 111. Parkside Elementary Sebastopol, CA<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />The Compost Club (www.compostclub.org )<br />
  112. 112. Vermiculture Bin System at Wright Charter School, CA<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />The Compost Club (compostclub.org)<br />
  113. 113. Home Sweet Wormy Home<br />7 - 14 gallon plastic bin (colored, not clear or see-through), with holes drilled ~ every 2” (using a 3/8” drill bit works best) around bin & lid, with a few on the bottom<br />Wooden box with holes around side & bottom (1.5’ H x 2’ D x 3’ W) <br />Enough shredded cardboard to fill the bin ~ half-way full, loose<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  114. 114. Home Sweet Wormy Home, cont.<br />Garden soil (not potting soil) or finished compost, ~1 cup per bin<br />A crushed egg shell<br />~¼ - ½ pound of worms or ~300 - 500 worms per bin<br />A three-pronged hand fork or trowel<br />A small water spray bottle (like kind used for plants)<br />Worms & bedding must be moist at all times<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  115. 115. Home Sweet Wormy Home, cont.<br />Soak cardboard, drain, & squeeze<br /><ul><li>The cardboard should be thoroughly moistened, like a damp sponge, but water should not pool in the bin </li></ul>Mix cardboard, soil, egg shell, & some water in the worm bin <br />Put the worms into their new home <br />Wait a few days to feed the worms <br /><ul><li>They will start eating the paper bedding & get used to their new home</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  116. 116. A Healthy Wormy Diet<br />Salad, veggies<br />Lettuce<br />Bread<br />Crackers<br />Coffee grounds<br />Tea bags<br />Shredded carrots<br />Pizza crust<br />Cheese<br />Egg shells<br />Cereal (no milk)<br />Popcorn<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  117. 117. Where to Get Worms<br />Check the Internet<br /><ul><li>http://www.redwormcomposting.com/
  118. 118. http://www.unclejimswormfarm.com/
  119. 119. Google “Compost worms” or Red Wigglers</li></ul>Check with Garden Stores<br />Bait supply stores<br /><ul><li>Make sure the worms are healthy & alive!</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  120. 120. Off-Site Composting<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  121. 121. Off-Site Food Scrap Diversion Options<br />Locate a livestock operation or compost facility<br /><ul><li>Check with local solid waste official
  122. 122. Check Internet or phone book for farm listings, farm organizations, farms that raise chickens or pigs, have digesters for energy production, or have on-site composting
  123. 123. Contact farm or operation to see if would be willing to accept food scraps from the school</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  124. 124. Off-Site Options, cont.<br />Determine exact materials that are acceptable by farmer or compost operation<br /><ul><li>A compost operation or digester can often accept soiled paper (such as napkins) & all food scraps, even meat
  125. 125. Livestock operations may only accept specific vegetable scraps</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  126. 126. Off-Site Options, cont.<br />Develop a collection plan (same as for on-site composting)<br />Determine how the materials will be stored before going to the farm or compost operation <br />Determine how materials will get from the school to the farm or compost operation <br /><ul><li>Is there a local hauler that collects organics?
  127. 127. Would the farmer be willing to collect the materials?
  128. 128. Is there a volunteer that would transport the materials?</li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  129. 129. Food Waste <br />Reduction<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  130. 130. Cafeteria Food Waste Reduction<br />Zero waste lunches<br />“Offer Versus Serve” <br /><ul><li>Allows students to decline food items they do not want
  131. 131. Acceptable under USDA national school lunch & breakfast programs</li></ul>Smart Food Handling Techniques<br /><ul><li>Better management to reduce overproduction& trim waste
  132. 132. Losses due to spoilage, overcooked items, contaminated items, & dropped items </li></ul>Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  133. 133. Resources<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  134. 134. Resources Available on NERC Website: Action Tip Sheetshttp://www.nerc.org/documents/index.html#SchoolWaste<br />Waste Assessments & Waste Audits <br />Waste Audit Sheets <br />School Waste Assessment Form<br />School Reuse Tips <br />Paper Use Reduction in Schools<br />School Cafeteria Waste Reduction<br />Rural School Recycling Success <br />School Composting Options <br />Fundraising with Recycling <br />Rural School Case Studies in Waste Reduction, Reuse, Recycling, & Composting <br />School Web Resources <br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  135. 135. Resources Available on NERC Website, cont'd<br />Presentations<br />Rural School Recycling Success<br />Composting at School<br />Sustainable Recycling for Schools <br />Implementing a Successful Green School Program <br />Hands to Earth: Educating for a Sustainable World <br />Manchester Essex (Massachusetts) Regional School District Composting <br />Mansfield Middle School (Connecticut) Composting <br />Case Studies<br />Academy of the Holy Family, Connecticut<br />Sayles School, Connecticut. <br />John M. Clayton Elementary School, Delaware<br />Pencader Charter High School, Delaware<br />Eldred School District, New York<br />Liberty School District, New York<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />
  136. 136. Other Resources<br />Tools to Reduce Waste in Schools http://www.epa.gov/wastes/education/toolkit.htm<br />Materials for Recycling www.ciwmb.ca.gov/gallery/wasteprev<br />Lesson Plans & Other Resourceswww.paperrecycles.org<br />Go Green School Initiative www.gogreeninitiative.org<br />Green School Resources http://www.dec.ny.gov/chemical/8803.html<br />The Green Team www.thegreenteam.org<br />Various School Resources www.kab.org<br />Northeast Recycling Council, Inc. © September 2011 www.nerc.org<br />

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