The Special Needs Classroom and Interactive Whiteboards


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This is a slightly updated version of a presentation from the 2010 S.U.C.C.E.S.S. Conference, a regional event sponsored by Kenmore Middle School in Arlington, Virginia. The focus of the conference was on SMARTBoards. This presentation provides information that pertains to other types of interactive whiteboards, as well as touch-screen displays that are used in educational settings.

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  • Lynn Marentette, School Psychologist, and Kelly Cross (Mabolo), Speech/Language Therapist, work at Wolfe School in Union County, N.C. This is an updated version of a presentation that was given at the 2010 S.U.C.C.E.S.S. Conference, held at Kenmore Middle School in Arlington, Virginia.
  • Wolfe School serves students with significant special needs, including those who have severe autism. Wolfe School is part of the Union County Public Schools.
  • These are just a few examples.
  • Sometimes verbal ability does not equal cognitive ability. Our students cannot communicate what they know through verbal means or by pointing/showing. We need to carefully adapt materials and teach students to use what they can (eye gaze, body movements) to communicate through pictures/symbols/written words. Anne Donnellan's ideas are discussed further in the article, “Outing the Prejudice: Making the Least Dangerous Assumption”, by Zach Rossetti and Carol Tashie:
  • Sometimes verbal ability does not equal cognitive ability. Our students cannot communicate what they know through verbal means or by pointing/showing. We need to carefully adapt materials and teach students to use what they can (eye gaze, body movements) to communicate through pictures/symbols/written words. Anne Donnellan's ideas are discussed further in the article, “Outing the Prejudice: Making the Least Dangerous Assumption”, by Zach Rossetti and Carol Tashie:
  • In the past, computers have been used to provide students with opportunities for independent work or leisure activities after completing more traditional assignments, and in the case of students in some self-contained classrooms, folder tasks or other activities that focus on teaching skills out of context. Technologies such as large touch-screens and IWBs can support opportunities for learning meaningful concepts and content in a social context, integrating the teaching of communication and interpersonal skills at the same time.
  • This chart outlines various ways that the use of technology can support the needs of children.
  • Universal Design for Learning requires students to have multi-modal input and output opportunities across activities and devices. Update:Bruce, D., DiSesare, DM, Kaczorowski, T., Hashey, A., Boyed, E.H., and Mixon, T. And Sullivan, M. Multimodal Composing in Special Education: A Review of the Literature – Journal of special Education Technology (JSET) Volume 28, No. 2
  • Until recently, teachers and related services professionals had to use a wide range of hands-on materials. Assembling all of the materials before a group session in a classroom can get complicated, and there is sometimes more “wait time” required for the students, who might become disengaged.This is typically the amount of materials the speech therapist needs to teach a group lesson in a classroom.
  • At Wolfe School, students use voice output technology, picture symbols, and photographs to communicate wants and needs. They also use photographs or picture symbols to make response choices to questions during learning activities. Many of the students require the use of visual aids to help with routines and transitioning. We are developing ways to incorporate use of voice output with the Smartboard. Traditional communication systems are OK for student-teacher and 1-1 interactions, but don’t work so well during group activities. It is especially challenging to accommodate a group of 6 students who use different communication supports!
  • “The Partnership for 21st Century Skills is a national  organization that advocates for 21st century readiness for every student. As the United States continues to compete in a global  economy that demands innovation, P21 and its members provide tools and resources to help the U.S. education system keep up by fusing the three Rs and four Cs (critical thinking and problem solving, communication, collaboration, and creativity and innovation). While leading districts and schools are already doing this, P21 advocates for local, state and federal policies that support this approach for every school .” is information from a report written by Ellen LeRoy, a teacher at Wolfe School:Computer Assisted Instruction through the use of SMART Board Technology A recent advent in the field of educational technology is the SMART Board, which was first introduced in 1991 and has slowly made its way into the classroom as more and more funding becomes available for such technology tools (Company history, 2010). The SMART Board is a large, interactive electronic whiteboard. Images from the computer are projected on the SMART Board which functions as an interactive touch screen. The user is able to manipulate the electronic material on the SMART Board through touch, which facilitates actions that would normally be accomplished by a mouse click, scroll, or keyboard usage (SMART board 600i interactive whiteboard system, 2010). The user is also able to pick up one of the SMART Board pens and write (using the pen or a finger) in digital ink over background applications, websites, videos or any other document that is displayed on the board. Handwritten images are easily translated into text and can be saved for future review. Furthermore, educators can download software commonly used with SMART Boards (such as Notebook software) directly onto any personal computer, which enables them to create and prepare lessons at home if needed. Additionally, students can review lessons and do work at home in a similar fashion (Starkman, 2006). SMART Board technology allows educators to exceed the space limits of a traditional chalkboard or dry erase board, which requires frequent writing, erasing, and re-writing (Hwang, Chen, & Hsu, 2006). Hwang et al. (2006) demonstrated the board’s unique abilities to help students with metacognition in solving mathematical problems. As the students worked problems on the board, they were asked to give oral explanations of what they were doing as they solved the problem. The SMART Board allowed teachers to not only record the problem and solution, but also to attach the digital recording of the student’s voice to a specific math problem. Furthermore, as part of their research, Hwang et al. (2004) surveyed students regarding opinions of SMART Boards. Results indicated that students have a strong desire to use SMART Boards and demonstrate their work. When using the SMART Board, pages can be saved for future review. Furthermore, the board alleviates many of the physical constraints of a traditional chalkboard. The board easily glides vertically through a height adjustable wall mount, allowing accessibility to individuals in wheelchairs. Furthermore, individuals with fine-motor disabilities can access the interactive technology by touching the board with their hands, other body parts, or through switch accessibility (SMART board 600i interactive whiteboard system, 2010). Benefits of SMART Board Technology in the Classroom SMART Board technology is becoming more and more available in classrooms throughout the United States (Company history, 2010). Before SMART Boards became as prolific as they are today, most computer-assisted instruction (CAI) was facilitated through the use of traditional small screen computers in 1:1 teacher/student settings (Campbell & Mechling, 2009). However, with the introduction of the SMART Board, there are increasing opportunities for small group CAI instruction (Mechling et al., 2007). A major benefit of small group instruction is observational learning. In such environments, students learn not only by direct engagement with learning material, but also through observation of their peers’ engagement with learning tasks (Campbell & Mechling, 2009). Many teachers praise SMART Boards for the positive effects they have had in their classrooms. The technology allows them greater opportunity to combine teacher modeling and student involvement (Solvie, 2007). Solvie (2007) also describes how SMART Board technology allowed her students more opportunities for social interaction, collaboration, and strategic planning. In a similar article, Starkman (2006) reports that, “teachers, seeing their students more engaged than ever, are clamoring for more [SMART Boards]” (p 36). Furthermore, he states that according to teachers, it is not about the boards themselves, but the learning that is happening as a result (Starkman, 2006). Mackall (2004) explains how SMART Board technology has enhanced the learning experience for deaf, hard-of-hearing (DHH) students. The TecEds (Technology in Education Can Empower Deaf Students) project was created through the National Deaf Education Center in Washington, DC. The project staff were searching for ways that instructors could 1) project computer images on a large screen, 2) manipulate computer programs, and 3) still be in the front of the classroom and visible to students who rely on communication through sign language. Using a typical projector, the instructor would still need to be seated at the computer – usually to the side or back – in order to operate and transition a computer program or the Internet with a traditional mouse. However, the SMART Board interactive whiteboard allowed instructors to project computer-based information (i.e. Internet sites, software programs, presentations, etc.) and control the computer while still facing students and remaining in full view. Furthermore, the instructors found the ability to use the SMART Board pens to write over computer projections very beneficial to DHH students who rely heavily on visual cues (Mackall, 2004). Since the implementation of the TecEds project, increasing numbers of teachers have begun to use SMART Board technology in their classrooms. As a result, classes are reportedly more productive and students are more efficiently and smoothly learning conceptual information through effective visual presentation. In addition, students feel more confident in their ability to present assignments to their classmates (Mackall, 2004). -Ellen LeRoy
  • Note: 2013: Teachers at Wolfe School are now experimenting with touch tablets, newer touch screen computers with large monitors, and interactive whiteboards, and they integrate traditional hands-on materials with interactive digital activities throughout the day.For an overview of some hands-on folder and work tasks, see the Autism-Work Tasks Pinterest board:
  • At Wolfe School, we have found that the advantages of using interactive whiteboards are similar to those outlined in the chart. Although we have SMARTBoards, there are other brands of interactive whiteboards that are similar to those from SMART Technologies. At Wolfe School, we continue to use a blend of traditional and digital materials/content. One difference that the teachers have observed is that it supports activities that help students with social awareness, social interaction, and communication skills. The large displays provide a good way to appeal to the visual learning preferences of many of the students, and assist with memory skills as well.
  • Technology can be useful in helping students develop a sense of self, through the use of pictures, digital video, music, and narration that can be shared with others. In the past, many students with communication difficulties (i.e. severe autism) had few opportunities to learn how to interact in group settings – socially or academically. Many were provided 1-1 activities with a special teacher, and were also provided a range of hands-on educational folder tasks that they completed independently.Learning social skills and coping skills is difficult for many of the students at Wolfe. The interactive whiteboard provides a great opportunity to use techniques such as digital social stories, video modeling, story creation and story telling for our students in group situations. Students who normally would have no interest watching – or learning from their peers, now do so. At Wolfe School, students have created content that is used for hands-on “Positive Behavior/Positive Attitude” social story books. The digital content is also accessed through the IWB.
  • RDI is one a many approaches to intervening with students who have autism spectrum disorders. This method was originally developed for use by parents with their children and lends itself to a variety of school situations and activities. Digital technology can support and reinforce these efforts through positive video modeling, digital social stories, and displayed on the IWB.(If there is time planned for small group activities, participants can be grouped for a short discussion, and then share with the larger group.)
  • A list of interactive, content-rich websites will be updated and included in the next version of this presentation.
  • These are just a few examples of interactive websites. The Zac Browser is free, designed for children with autism spectrum disorders.
  • A good resource for technology and special needs is the SEN Teacher. Information regarding the BBC Cbeebies games can be found at
  • The recipe is from Unique Learning Systems:
  • Photos and videos from field trip were used on Smartboard to generate expressive language (bus,go,shop) from the students. They can also be used to prepare students for upcoming field trips, what to expect.
  • In closing, there are a number of barriers to implementing the use of interactive technologies and resources in the schools.
  • Large interactive whiteboards are great for touch interaction.Update: Some of the above pictures were from the GestureSEN wiki. The wiki is a forum for people who work with interactive technologies and students with complex special needs. Some are using the Kinect, Leap Motion, and other tools to create new experiences for their students. At Wolfe School, some of the teachers created a “fake Facebook” activity to support social interaction and communication. For more information about the use of Facebook in education, see:
  • This is a partial list of resources. Check back for updates!
  • The assessment of students with multiple, complex needs requires a collaborative team approach and the use of a wide range of alternative materials, digital technologies, and resources.
  • The Special Needs Classroom and Interactive Whiteboards

    1. 1. Interactive Whiteboards and the Special Needs Classroom Workshop Title: SMART Technology and the Special Needs Classroom S.U.C.C.E.S.S. Conference 08/18/2010 Kelly Cross, M.S. CCC-SLP Lynn Marentette, M.A., Sp.A. Union County Schools, N.C.
    2. 2. WOLFE SCHOOL
    3. 3. Our Students Range in age from 8 to 22  Present with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Downs Syndrome, Cerebral Palsy, Vision Impairments, Hearing Impairment  School focus is on increasing the functional independence of our students while preparing them to work and live in the community  Academic curriculum follows the extensions of the N.C. Course of Study, (now the Common Core) 
    4. 4. Educational Challenges in the Special Needs Classroom      Adapting curriculum to be accessible to students with a range of cognitive abilities Creating interactive and engaging lessons for students that appear to lack interest in educational activities Supporting social interaction skills among students who have severe communication difficulties (i.e. autism spectrum disorders) Providing computer access to students with severe physical disabilities Incorporating interactive, accessible digital content into learning activities
    5. 5. Guiding Frameworks and Practices      The Least Dangerous Assumption Universal Design for Learning Multi-modal input and output opportunities and the use of assistive technologies Support engaged learning Support evidence-based interventions ◦ Digital social stories ◦ Picture schedules ◦ Video modeling ◦ Visual communication strategies ◦ Student creation/participation
    6. 6. Guiding Framework: The Least Dangerous Assumption Presuming competence in a child that cannot communicate what they know  Assume intentionality in communication  Provide the appropriate assistive technology and teach the student how to use the technology  See strengths and develop possibilities through careful observation of students interacting across settings and situations  (Anne Donnellan, 1984)
    7. 7. Guiding Framework: The Least Dangerous Assumption “We should assume that in poor performance is due to instructional inadequacy rather than to student deficits.” --Anne Donnelan
    8. 8. Guiding Framework: Universal Design for Learning Universal Design for Learning calls for ... Multiple means of representation, to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge, Multiple means of action and expression, to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know, Multiple means of engagement, to tap into learners' interests, offer appropriate challenges, and increase motivation.
    9. 9. NEEDS OF STUDENTS BENEFITS OF TECHNOLOGY Many students with special needs, including those with autism spectrum disorders, are visual thinkers who think in pictures or visual montages rather than language. Technology makes visual images accessible; computer graphics, photographs, and video are interesting and engaging for students with autism. (This is especially true for content accessed via the SMARTBoard.) Nonverbal students associate words Internet resources provide a rich with pictures when pictures and words source of visual content to use to are presented together. support reading and literacy Students with special needs, including autism, may not learn in the same way, and often need multi-modal input /output. (Students who do not talk can learn to read.) Voice output software helps with auditory reinforcement, and digital graphic content helps students visualize concepts Many students with special needs, including autism, have fine motor difficulties that make writing and typing difficult. Touch screens, including IWB’s, can reduce frustration and provide a more natural means of interacting with content. ( Adapted from Assistive Technology for Children with Autism, Written by Susan Stokes under a contract with CESA 7
    10. 10. NEEDS OF STUDENTS BENEFITS OF TECHNOLOGY Some nonverbal children and adults are mono-channel and cannot process visual and auditory input at the same time. Their immature nervous system is not able to process simultaneous visual and auditory input and so they should be given either a visual task or an auditory task. Enables students to gradually increase their ability or save their work to proceed step by step and can even alternate between visual and auditory input. Some children and adults have sound sensitivity and are able to respond best with low whisper sounds. Provides a means to give a student input using quiet sounds through headphones that also block out other noises. Some students who are non-verbal may not realize that speech is used to communicate. Language learning can be facilitated if language exercises promote communication. Technology helps students produce words and phrases, and can help students make the connection between ideas and communication- the “cause and effect of using appropriate speech”. Students with special needs often have multiple barriers to communication. Technology provides more options for communication using preferred sensory skills/output (e.g. using symbols and pictures, video, email, etc...). ( Adapted from Assistive Technology for Children with Autism, Written by Susan Stokes under a contract with CESA 7 and funded by a discretionary grant from the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction.)
    11. 11. - -CAST
    12. 12. Guiding Practice: Provide Multi-modal Input and Output Opportunities  Students are provided a way to make choices during activities that pair visual and spoken input.  Students are provided hands-on materials, such as pictures or objects that relate to what they can see on the IWB.  Students can share through gesturing, choice boards, communication devices, manipulation of hands-on materials, interacting with the IWB activities, speaking, typing, or writing.
    13. 13. Multi-Modal Materials and Technology: Bridging Past and Present
    14. 14. An Assortment of Devices and Inputs
    15. 15. Traditional Communication Supports Students will need to be prepared for the next wave of technology supports!
    16. 16. Guiding Practice: Support Engaged Learning   Levels of interactivity made possible by Web 2.0 technologies provide access to a range of software tools that work well on interactive whiteboards, consistent with 21st Century Skills. Ellen LeRoy, a teacher at Wolfe School, focused her graduate research project on the benefits of SmartBoard technology with students in her classroom ◦ “The results of this study support the research that was included in the literature review. Results are similar the those presented by Mechling et al. (2009), who found that, while both flash cards and SMART Boards are effective teaching tools, students were able to read a great percentage of target vocabulary when the words were presented using SMART Board technology. I also noticed that my students were more interested, engaged, and excited about learning when working on the SMART Board. Mechling et al. (2009), Mechling et al. (2007) and Campbell & Mechling (2009) reported similar observations.”
    17. 17. Traditional “hands-on” activities are not always as engaging as we’d hoped... Most don’t support group interaction or learning skills. Photo Credit: Autism-Work Task Board
    18. 18. Interactive Web Activities in the Classroom Moving and interacting, with peers nearby, is more fun than sitting at an individual desk, doing folder tasks! Group activities, such as Book Club, incorporate picture grids, real books, adapted text, and interactive whiteboard activities.
    19. 19. Typing, writing, and searching activities are more engaging on the interactive whiteboard!
    20. 20. Engaging Groups of Students with Interactive Whiteboard Activities Without SMARTboard With SMARTBOARD Frequent redirection to deal with distractibility and attention Attention focused on screen, supports joint attention Teacher has to control materials/manipulatives while managing students Digital content is ready and on the screen, facilitating transitions Bored, disengaged, grumpy Excited, engaged, motivated Photographs and picture symbols Provide meaningful videos, video modeling Verbal prompting require for students to use vocabulary Interactive games and videos generate language Manipulatives are small, do not command attention Large display helps students make connections with hands-on materials. -SMART Technologies
    21. 21. Guiding Practice: Support Evidence-Based Interventions Interventions such as social skills/coping skills activities and video modeling are effective with students with autism and other disorders. However, the interventions should be tailored to guide each student, according to their needs. Even students who have very limited cognitive abilities are capable of learning more about themselves through activities that address some of the following topics: Who am I? (Strengths, skills, preferences, barriers, interests, etc.) How do I feel? How do I think? How do I communicate my feelings, thoughts, and opinions to others What new ways of communication can I learn? What are the coping strategies I can use when I feel upset or uncomfortable? (Understanding cause-effect, situational or personal triggers, relaxation/calming activities, etc.) What is my relationship to the physical world? (Objects, places, nature) What is my relationship to the social world? (Family, community, peers, educators, workers) What ways can I share my sense of self with others? How can I respond to what others share with me?
    22. 22. EXAMPLE: Evidence-Based Intervention: Relationship Development Interventions (RDI) are likely to be enhanced through the use of digital content and interactive whiteboards. Think about ways that digital photography or video could be used to support the “six objectives of RDI”. For older students, many of these relationships skills can be supported during content-area lessons and throughout the day. Emotional Referencing: The ability to use an emotional feedback system to learn from the subjective experiences of others. Social Coordination: The ability to observe and continually regulate one's behavior in order to participate in spontaneous relationships involving collaboration and exchange of emotions. Declarative Language: Using language and non-verbal communication to express curiosity, invite others to interact, share perceptions and feelings and coordinate your actions with others. Flexible thinking: The ability to rapidly adapt, change strategies and alter plans based upon changing circumstances. Relational Information Processing: The ability to obtain meaning based upon the larger context; Solving problems that have no "right-and- wrong" solutions. Foresight and Hindsight: The ability to reflect on past experiences and anticipate potential future scenarios in a productive manner. - Autism Speaks: Note: For related research articles, search the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
    23. 23. Next Steps: Exploring Digital Content and Activities It is important to have a thoughtful, flexible approach to developing activities that incorporate the IWB. Here are a few activities that have worked well using the IWBs at Wolfe School: What sort of activities?  Use of digital social stories to prepare students for community outings and community-based job training experiences and also to review and share experiences with peers.  Picture sequences or video clips to support transitions through routines throughout the day and to prepare for changes in routines.  Teach and reinforce safety concepts and skills: fire, playground, bus, kitchen, personal, and community  Presentations for student-led IEPs, a great opportunity for students to share their “sense of self”.  Use of digitally resources that contain “graphically dynamic interfaces” – there are many websites and applications that support natural user interaction and navigation/exploration of content across subject areas, including art and music.  Web-based interactive games and applications for learning and social
    24. 24. Next Step: Exploring Effective Digital Content and Activities Content and activities should correspond to your school district’s curriculum objectives IEP goals and objectives, and student interests. What sort of content?  Activities and social interactions in a variety of settings, taken from the student’s point of view. ◦ Pictures of family events, outings, and vacations ◦ Pictures of pets, favorite park in the neighborhood, favorite pastimes, etc.  Familiar items and objects within meaningful scenes, such as materials that teachers put up on walls, computers displaying familiar software or home pages of favorite educational websites.  Familiar places in the community, such as the supermarket, post office, neighborhood parks, main roads, restaurants.  Local scenery, including farms, farm animals, ponds, lakes, gardens, and parks  Points of interest, such as historical sites, science centers, museums, amusement parks,  Modes of transportation- busses, light rail, cars – within context.
    25. 25. Touch-Friendly Websites for Students with Special Needs National Gallery of Art: NGA Kids Do2Learn Zac Browser
    26. 26. Switch-Accessible Websites for Students with Special Needs Karen Ogen’s Interactive Sites For Education Beth Waite’s Pinterest Board: Online Switch Games BBC: CBBC Switch Games
    27. 27. Games and Virtual Worlds, Therapeutic Games, and Applications that Support Communication and Collaboration
    28. 28. Guiding Practice: Prepare to incorporate “DIY” digital content into a wide range of activities Put yourself behind the eyes of the student. In the classroom/school, what does the student notice? What does the student avoid? Enjoy? What educational content, application, or activity is engaging for the student? At home, what does the student like to do? What do they notice? What are their routines? Favorite possessions? – Parents can provide photos and video content. What sort of things might the student notice while sitting in the back seat of a car while their parent does errands around town? What might the student see during a drive to the main highway or visit to a relative the next town over? What might the student notice-or need to notice- while shopping in a store? At a restaurant? Put yourself “in the skin” of the student. What sort of sensory input is the student getting in various scenarios? What might they hear? Feel? What sort of situations might trigger worry, confusion, agitation, etc.? What sort of things are interesting, engaging, amusing, calming, entertaining?
    29. 29. Digital Content Creation Tips • Think like a movie director or someone who creates TV commercials. • Use story-boarding techniques when planning digital activities. • Use story-boarding activities with your students, created and displayed on the IWB. • Target several shutterbugs who are willing to take pictures and video clips, and designate a central digital storage space where content can be uploaded and accessed by teachers. • Think about the sequence of pictures or videos that apply to your lesson or activity. • Make sure you plan for lighting, camera angles, and important details. • Explore creative content development tools provided by your technology department and learn how to use them. Some of these are several touch-tablet apps. Here are a few (updated): PhotoStory SMART Notebook, Pic Collage, Telegami, Voci, YouTube, PowerPoint (learn all of the interactive, multimodal features)
    30. 30. Example: Steps to perform a work task
    31. 31. Example: Create or select video clips that focus on your student’s interests. Consider using calming music. Sea Life Medley, Ext. Version with Music Cool Deer Encounter! Monet’s Gardens, Set to Music Fish in an Aquarium with Relaxing, Upbeat Music
    32. 32. Example: Photo Globe using Google Earth How-to:
    33. 33. Benefits:   Personalized learning Can be expanded for use for a variety of activities: ◦ Recording field trip experiences, special events ◦ “All About Me” activities to support social communication skills  Incorporate photos of pets, family members, favorite activities, favorite foods.  Incorporate pictures of student engaged in helping/positive behaviors.  Introduction to a new thematic unit
    34. 34. It doesn’t have to be fancy.
    35. 35. Barriers        Some education administrators are not familiar with the use of technology in special education. Special educators may not be aware of technology resources that may benefit their students. Conversely, regular education technology consultants may not have an understanding of the specific needs of special educations. Traditional instructional technology has not been adopted well in some classrooms Content of applications marketed to the schools has been at the level of the “electronic workbook”. Many on-line educational applications lack quality, depth. Research: Transfer of learning, generalization of behaviors is important, but doesn’t always happen Accessibility continues to be a problem within the physical world.
    36. 36. Updated Resources* *Coming soon!
    37. 37. UPDATED RESOURCES  Chris Betcher and Mal Lee: “The Interactive Whiteboard Revolution: Teaching with IWBs”  Bernie Trilling and Charles Fadel: “21st Century Skills: Learning for Life in Our Times”  Hope Technology School: HP Touching Hope Technology School (Updated Link)!prettyPhoto  SMART resources in Special Education (Updated Link)  Anne M. Donnellan, David A. Hill, and Martha R. Leary: Rethinking Autism: Implication of Sensory and Movement Differences, Disability Studies Quarterly, Vol 1 (1) 2010  National Center on Universal Design for Learning  CAST- Center for Assistive and Special Technologies  Unique Learning Systems  IntelliTools and Unique Learning:  Teaching Learners with Multiple Special Needs  Gesture SEN:  Susan Stokes, Assistive Technology for Children with Autism  Bruce, D., DiSesare, DM, Kaczorowski, T., Hashey, A., Boyed, E.H., and Mixon, T. And Sullivan, M. Multimodal Composing in Special Education: A Review of the Literature – Journal of special Education Technology (JSET) Volume 28, No. 2  Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Springer
    38. 38. Resources: Alternative Assessment Tools for Students with Complex Disabilities A COLLABORATIVE TEAM APPROACH         Karen Ericson, Director, Center for Literacy and Disability Studies, UNC School of Medicine, Department of Allied Health Sciences Diane M. Browder, UNC Charlotte “Evidence-Based Practices for Students with Severe Disabilities” Project Converge 2013 Update: Training materials for teachers of learners with severe, profound, and complex learning difficulties: Engaging in learning: key approaches ◦ Using the Engagement Profile and Scale Don Johnson: MEville to WEville ◦ Start to Finish Literacy Starters Write from the Start with Alternative Pencil: Alphabet Eye Gaze pdf NC Augmentative Communication Association North Carolina Assistive Technology Association
    39. 39. Questions?