Britain in the 16th and 17th century

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Britain in the 16th and 17th century

  1. 1. Britain in the XVI and XVII century The Tudors and the Stuarts
  2. 2. The reign of the Tudors <ul><li>The War of the Roses </li></ul><ul><li>The Bubonic plague (the Black Death) </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing importance of trade </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing power of barons </li></ul><ul><li>The Anglican church was established </li></ul><ul><li>English naval power increased </li></ul>
  3. 3. Henry VIII <ul><li>1509 - 1547 </li></ul>Catherine of Aragon m. 1509 - 1533 Divorced Anne Boleyn m. 1533 - 1536 Executed Jane Seymour m. 1536 - 1537 Died Anne of Cleves m. 1540 Jan. - July Divorced Kathryn Howard m. 1540 - 1542 Executed Katherine Parr m. 1543 - 1547 Widowed If a lion knew his strength, it were hard for any man to hold him. - Sir Thomas More of Henry VIII
  4. 4. Mary I (1553-1558) <ul><li>Brought back the Roman Catholic church and the heresy legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Several unsuccessful plots – the rebels were hung; Elizabeth imprisoned in the Tower </li></ul><ul><li>Executions continue: supporters of Protestantism burnt at the stake </li></ul>
  5. 5. Elizabeth I (1558-1603) <ul><li>The “Golden Age” </li></ul><ul><li>1557 - Mary Queen of Scots executed </li></ul><ul><li>1558 - The Spanish Armada attacks England but is finally defeated by Sir Francis Drake </li></ul>
  6. 6. Tudor buildings <ul><li>Cotswold limestone houses </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hampton Court Palace
  8. 8. Globe Theatre <ul><li>The Globe Theatre was a theatre in London associated with William Shakespeare. It was built in 1599 by Shakespeare's playing company, the Lord Chamberlain's Men, and was destroyed by fire on 29 June 1613. A second Globe Theatre was built on the same site by June 1614 and closed in 1642 . </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Stuarts <ul><li>1603 - James I becomes a king </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland and England are united under one crown </li></ul><ul><li>5 th Nov 1695 – The Gunpowder plot – Guy Fawkes is burnt alive – Bonfire night </li></ul>
  10. 10. Charles I (1625-1649) <ul><li>Raises taxes without the consent of the House of Commons </li></ul><ul><li>Puritan movement becomes stronger – the “Pilgrim Fathers” leave for America (1620) </li></ul><ul><li>1642 - The Civil War breaks out - the Royalists (the Cavaliers) vs the Parliamentarians (the Roundheads) </li></ul><ul><li>1649 – Charles I is executed </li></ul>
  11. 11. Commonwealth of England (1649-1660) <ul><li>Oliver Cromwell becomes a Lord Protector </li></ul><ul><li>Military government </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance in Ireland is crushed – the British Isles are united under a single crown </li></ul><ul><li>Puritanism prevails – theatres and other forms of amusement are abolished </li></ul>
  12. 12. Charles II – the Restoration (1660-1685) <ul><li>The rigid laws of the Protectorate are relaxed; greater religious freedom granted </li></ul><ul><li>1665 – The Great Plague in London and the south of England </li></ul><ul><li>1666 – The Great Fire of London </li></ul><ul><li>First moves towards a cabinet style of government – the Tories and the Whigs </li></ul>
  13. 13. St. Paul’s Cathedral <ul><li>Architect: Christopher Wren </li></ul>
  14. 14. James II (1685-1688) <ul><li>Tries to re-establish Catholicism; </li></ul><ul><li>Believes in absolute monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Tories and Whigs ally against him </li></ul><ul><li>1688 – the Glorious Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>James II exiles in France </li></ul>
  15. 15. William and Mary of Orange (1689-1602) <ul><li>The Bill of Rights was passed, which limited the rights of the monarch and prohibited Catholics from ruling </li></ul><ul><li>The Bank of England was established </li></ul>
  16. 16. Queen Anne (1702-1714) <ul><li>1707 – the Act of Union brought together Scotland and England to form Great Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>The Union Jack was adopted as the new national flag, incorporating the crosses of St.George (England) and St.Andrew (Scotland). </li></ul><ul><li>England gained new territories : Newfoundland, Acadia, St.Kitts, Minorca, and Gibraltar. </li></ul><ul><li>Anne outlived all her 17 children, which marked the end of the Stuart dynasty. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Thanks for your attention! </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>

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