American Colonies Theme 7


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American Colonies Theme 7

  1. 1. American Colonies: Prelude to Revolutions HIST 140 Theme 7 Summer 2011 By: Le Thi My Ho
  2. 2. 13 The “Glorious Revolutions” <ul><li>Hoping that England’s King James would recognize Parliament’s power and to accept a Protestant successor, the Protestant sent the Dutch Prince of Orange , William, to England </li></ul><ul><li>1688 Dutch faced a renewed war with powerful France under King Louis XIV , so William boldly invaded England as a preemptive strike to capture that realm for Dutch Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>William’s Dutch regiments occupied London, and Parliament transferred the throne to William and Mary , as joint sovereigns </li></ul><ul><li>The revolution was fundamentally a coup spearheaded by a foreign army and navy of the united English people </li></ul>
  3. 3. 13 Revolutions <ul><li>Dominion of New England colonies: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, New York, and East and West Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolving the Dominion, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Plymouth revived their separate governments under their old charters, restoring elected regimes </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant Associators promised to “vindicate and assert the Sovereign Dominion and right of King William and Queen Mary to this Province; to defend the Protestant Religion among us and to protect and shelter the Inhabitants from all manner of violence, oppression and destruction that is plotted and designed against them” </li></ul>
  4. 4. 14 The Atlantic News <ul><li>The increased volume and predictability of shipping improved the flow of transtlantic information, eroding the colonial sense of isolation </li></ul><ul><li>1690 – William Byrd of Virginia declared “We are here at the end of the World, and Europe may bee turned topsy turvy ere wee can hear a word of it” </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists felt informed about European events at the same time that those events bore a greater importance to them as they became embroiled in the imperial wars </li></ul><ul><li>By 1739, British America had 13 newspapers in 7 seaports of 7 colonies : Bridgetown ( Barbados ), Kingston ( Jamaica ), Charles Town ( SC ), Williamsburg ( VA ), Philadelphia ( PA ), New Yordk ( NY ), and Boston ( MA ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. 14 The Atlantic Trade <ul><li>The empire developed a multilateral trading system that used bills of exchange drawn on London merchant firms to balance regional credits and debits </li></ul><ul><li>A long-term trend toward increased debt owed by the mainland colonists, as their voracious demands as consumers exceeded even their considerable means as producers and formidable ingenuity as traders </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation Acts locked the Chesapeake and the West Indies into shipping their tobacco and sugar directly to England </li></ul><ul><li>The southern European trade and the growing importance of wheat exports shifted prosperity within the colonies, as New England stagnated while the middle colonies boomed </li></ul><ul><li>The growing economy endowed free colonists with a higher standard of living than their counterparts in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>The wealth of colonial regions varied directly and positively with the number of slaves </li></ul>
  6. 6. 15 Awakenings Establishments <ul><li>Most colonies’ founders believed that public morality, political harmony, and social order required religious uniformity </li></ul><ul><li>Establishments varied from colony to colony, so did religious dissent </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks to compact settlement by towns and laws mandating churches, few inhabitants lived more than 6 miles from a meetinghouse </li></ul><ul><li>As an established church dependent upon taxation , the church needed to be inclusive to justify town support and to provide universal moral instruction and supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Almost every denominational cluster of settlers sought its own local church to preserve its distinct identity </li></ul>
  7. 7. 17 The Great Plains of Texas <ul><li>The early 18 th Century – French traders ascended the Great Plains rivers to trade with the village peoples, offering guns and ammunition for buffalo hides and slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Overmatched in a trade war for Indian favor, the Spanish instead tried to expand their traditional combination of Franciscan missions and military presidios eastward into the contested border zone </li></ul><ul><li>1716 – the Spanish built new missions in the hill country of east Texas, where the Caddo were settled horticulturalists, the people deemed most appropriate for conversion </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish had compounded their exposed frontier by adding a 2 nd cluster of weak and unprofitable settlements in Texas </li></ul>