Notation is a system of signs by means of
which music is written down.
Serves mainly to indicate two properties of
tone which ate pitch and duration.
Notation of pitch
is a letter sign placed on the staff in order
to indicate the pitch of the notes.
The clef signs used in musical notations
are the G clef, C clef, and F clef.
For ordinary purposes the notes are
arranged on two staffs. The C at the
beginning is located between the two
One has to know not only where a
note is but also how long a time it is
Duration of silence between notes is
indicated by rest.
Every kind of note has a
corresponding kind of rest to indicate
that nothing shall be sounded.
Sometimes note values are divided by
three’s of two’s.
Indicated by the sign 3.
Is a series of regular pulses, as in the
ticking of a clock.
If we are to think of them as being grouped
in two’s, three’s, or fours, we are in this
way measuring the pulses.
This indicated the time signatures which
show the number of beats to a measure.
Measures are indicated by means of
vertical lines or bars down through the
The time signature of a
composition appears on the staff
or staffs at the beginning of the
It consists of two numbers:
The upper number indicates the
number of beats to a measure.
The lower number indicates the kind
of note that will receive one beat.
Above a note gives extra stress to the note
It means play the note louder.
Indicates a gradual increase in loudness.
Also called Diminuendo mark, gradually
decreases the loudness.
Means the holding of a note or chord
longer than its normal value.
A curved line above or below or more
Connected, no silence between
The group of flats or sharps appearing at
the beginning of a piece.
Each sharp or flat, appearing on the line of
the staff, means that the tone is to be
raised or lowered by a half tone throughout
the entire composition unless it is
temporarily cancelled for duration of the
measure by the use of a natural sign
appearing immediately before a note.
Every key signature may indicate
either a major or a minor key.
A chart of key signatures and the
keys, major or minor, can be seen in
Music is an art whose basic material is
Musical sounds have no meanings beyond
themselves and therefore may be said to
deal with pure sound.
The performers who make it possible for
the listener to hear or understand the
It is a sound produced by
regular vibrations of air.
Refer s to the highness or lowness of tonal
Is determined by the length of time the
vibration is sustained.
Intensity of volume
Tone may vary in their degree of
loudness and softness.
The fundamental to musical rhythm
and it provides the basis for a
separate musical element.
Enables one to distinguish one
sound from another, one instrument
In western music, pitch spectrum is limited
to a total 12 different pitches.
Is a series of consecutive tones
Element for a music into which one should
have a clear insight for a better
understanding of it.
Considered the most basic element.
It is a way of measuring durations on
fixed regular pattern, so that the
listener becomes aware of a basic
pulse or beat.
Italian word which means time.
Allegro – fast
Vivace - lively
Andante- moderate slow
Adagio- slower than andante
Lento – slow
Largo- very slow
Make the most direct appeal.
Consists of a series of pitches and
Length and range.
Many melodies are neither extremely short
nor usually long.
The length of the melody is relative to the
number of measure which composes it.
The range of the melody is the pitch distance
from its lowest to its highest tone.
The relative highness or lowness of the
aggregate tones of a melody.
Upwards and downwards.
Melody may moves rapidly or
gradually, ascending or descending.
Refers to the intervals between the tones
as a melody moves from one tone to the
Melody is the element of music that arouses interest.
It is what listener can easily identify.
It is the musical idea around which a composition is
This melodic idea or basic tune of the composition is
The theme is of paramount importance to composition,
and it provides one of the most important approaches
to intelligent listening.
The ability to recognize one or more themes, when the
recur in a composition, is clear indication that you are
moving toward full appreciation.
Simultaneous sounding of two or more
- is two or more notes or tones sounded at
the same time and conceived as entity.
Triad- the most common chord in our music
is a certain combination of three tones.
- Chords not only are constructed
in a variety ways, but also
progress from one to another
according to many different
- The scheme by which chords
Consonance – certain combinations
of tones produce a quality of repose
Dissonance – certain other
combinations of tones produce a
quality of unrest or tension.
- Music which two or more keys are
combines simultaneously in a single
- Is used to bring out the different
levels or planes of the harmony.
- Displaced tonality.
-It is music that rejects the framework of key.
The volume or loudness of the music
This may refer to contrast among
sections of a piece, the mix within a
piece, or the overall presentation
Fortissimo- very loud
Pianissimo- very soft
Mezzo forte- moderately loud
Mezzo piano- moderately soft
To the direction of dynamics:
Crescendo- becoming louder
Diminuendo- becoming soft
sforzando(accent on a single
note or chord).
The number of terms embraces both tempo
Andante- fairly slow and majestic
- Implies a stately pace and full sonority
Morendo- dying away indicates that the
music is to become slower and softer.
- Requires a light tone and brisk movement.
Conbrio- (with vigor) suggests an energetic
pace and vibrant sonority.
- Refers to the rate of speed, the
pace of the music.
- It determines the speed of the
beats in the measure, their
duration in actual time.
Most frequently encountered are the following:
Very slow: Largo (broad)
Adagio (gently, leisurely, slowly)
Moderate: Andante (going at a walking pace)
Andantino (a little andante, somewhat faster than
Moderato (moderate speed)
Fairly fast: Allegretto (a little lively- not as fast as allegro)
Fast: Allegro (happy, cheerful, lively)Very fast: Allegro multo
Vivace (vivacious, lively)
Presto (very quick)
Prestissimo (as quick as possible)
Accelerando- gradual increase
Ritardando- gradual decrease.
Timbre: The characteristics of the sound itself
We often use terms from the visual arts to describe musical timbre
Timbres often hold strong associations in our minds
The sound of solo or section
instruments is also an aspect of timbre
Certain composers were so good at
creating and combining tone colors, we
say their “instrument” was the orchestra
Refers to the melodic and harmonic
relationship of musical factors.
The consistency of musical sounds
Monophonic texture means only one
line of music sounding alone
Homophonic means one line leads
and the others support it
Multiple independent lines happening
together is called polyphonic texture
Is created for special effects in which
harmonic sounds obscure or partly
exclude the melodic content of a
Occurs in contemporary and modern
Is an attribute of texture which is based
more on harmonic than melodic
Refer to the quality of richness or thinness of
Number of parts
Refers to the number of voices involved.
Spacing of tones
Refers to the musical intervals between
Refers to whether the tones are high,
medium, or slow
Refers to the tone quality or qualities of the
mediums which will play the music.