• a food or other substance that provides
energy or building material for the survival
Carbohydrates are one of the three main
nutrients essential for good health. Foods that
contain carbohydrates supplies three things –
sugar, starches and fiber. Foods that contain
sugar and starch supply us with the main sources
of energy. Foods that contain fiber aids the body
get rid of waste products. However, they tend to
occupy a large portion of the day’s diet. Heavy
intake of carbohydrates tend to limit the
consumption of other food.
1. Sugar – that is used for morning beverages,
comes from sugar cane or sugar beets. Sugar
is digestible and it gives energy.
2. Starch – is found in flour, bread, potatoes, root
vegetables, rice, beans, peas and yams. It is
important source of energy. The body digests
many starches slowly, which means that it is
able to supply long lasting energy and stamina.
When it is digested by the body, it turns into a
form of sugar called glucose.
3. Fiber- is found in plant food and is made up of
the parts of the plant the human digestive
system. Fiber aids other kinds of foods and
waste material to pass quickly through the
digestive system. It slows down the taking in or
absorption of sugar into the blood. It also helps
to lower cholesterol levels.
Are concentrated sources of energy. They contain
over twice the energy value of carbohydrates. Its
inclusion in the diet enhances palatability and delays
the onset of hunger. It also transports vitamin A, D, E
• Saturated Fats – are found primarily in meats
and whole fat dairy products.
• Polyunsaturated Fats come primarily from
• Monounsaturated Fats – found inlarge
amounts of plant oils such as olive and penut
• Build, repair and maintain body tissues. They are
important constituents of body cells. They form
the hormones that regulate the body processes
and anti-bodies that fight infections, protein
supply heat and energy where there is shortage
of fats and carbohydrates.
• Protein is made up of amino acids. There are
twenty two such acids, eight of which are
considered essential because they cannot be
manufactured by the body they come from food.
• Food proteins that contain all eight amino
acids are called complete. Animals are good
sources of protein. Also important though
incomplete are protein from plant sources. In
mix diet animal and plant protein supplement
• Are organic substances for growth and
maintenance of life. They must be provide in
the diet. They occur in small in the body and
act as catalyst or substances that hasten
chemical reactions in the body processes.
They carried in the blood streams to all parts
of the body.
• Is essential for normal eye functioning,
resistance to infections, normal growth and
healthy skin. Good sources include whole
milk, butter, cheese, fish oil, green or yellow
parts of vegetables.
Vitamin B Complex
• namely thiamine, niacin and riboflavin are water
soluble. They are rapidly lost by the body in
urine, feces and perspiration.
• Thiamin prevents beri – beri, helps convert
carbohydrates into energy, maintains good
digestion and assimilation of food.
• Niacin plays an important role in cell respiration,
carbohydrates oxidation and good digestion,
• Riboflavin aids in protein utilization and affects
the normal growth especially the hair and skin.
• Is essential for the health of the teeth, gums
and blood vessels. It is important in the
formation of collagen protein that helps
support the skin, bones and tendons. Good
food sources are green leafy vegetables, fresh
fruits especially citrus fruits must be provided
everyday in our meals.
• is necessary for strong bones and teeth and
provided by the action of sunlight on the skin.
It is sometimes called the sunshine vitamin.
Good sources are liver, fish liver oil and
• like vitamin A and K, it is fat soluble. It helps
in the formation of the blood cells, muscles
and tissues and prevents the abnormal
breakdown of body fats. Good food sources
are whole grain cereals, whole wheat bread,
wheat germ and vegetable oil.
• Is necessary for blood clotting and is
manufactured in intestinal tract by
microorganisms. Good food sources are green
• Are inorganic compounds necessary in
different metabolic processes. They are
important components of soft and hard
Calcium and Phosphorus
• Are essential for the formation of good bones
and teeth. Good food sources are milk,
cheese, green leafy vegetables, small fishes
• Is responsible for the formation of red blood
cells. It is the major component of
hemoglobin, the substance that carries oxygen
in the blood. Iron deficiency leads to anemia.
Good sources are enriched bread and flour,
unpolished rice, eggs, green leafy vegetables,
meat especially internal organs and fish.
• Affects the function of the thyroid glands.
Deficiency causes simple goiter. Chief sources
are seafoods, marine plants and iodized salt.
•Is present in common table salt. It is
essential for the normal functioning of body
fluids and tissues.
• is needed for healthy nerves and muscles and
is found in meat, fish, milk, vegetables
• is essential in iron utilization
• Is an essential part of body tissues and comprises
2/3 of the body weight. It is not considered as
food, yet no one can live more than a few days
without it. It is lost in sweating and body
excretions through intestinal tract and kidneys
and should be replenished everyday. A loss of
10% of fluid from the body is a serious menace to
health. As a rule 6 -8 gasses of water or juices a
day are needed to maintain water balance in the
body. Without water, food cannot be properly
digested, absorbed or carried to the different
parts of the body as needed.