Essential nutrients


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Essential nutrients

  1. 1. • a food or other substance that provides energy or building material for the survival and growth
  2. 2. Carbohydrates are one of the three main nutrients essential for good health. Foods that contain carbohydrates supplies three things – sugar, starches and fiber. Foods that contain sugar and starch supply us with the main sources of energy. Foods that contain fiber aids the body get rid of waste products. However, they tend to occupy a large portion of the day’s diet. Heavy intake of carbohydrates tend to limit the consumption of other food.
  3. 3. 1. Sugar – that is used for morning beverages, comes from sugar cane or sugar beets. Sugar is digestible and it gives energy. 2. Starch – is found in flour, bread, potatoes, root vegetables, rice, beans, peas and yams. It is important source of energy. The body digests many starches slowly, which means that it is able to supply long lasting energy and stamina. When it is digested by the body, it turns into a form of sugar called glucose.
  4. 4. 3. Fiber- is found in plant food and is made up of the parts of the plant the human digestive system. Fiber aids other kinds of foods and waste material to pass quickly through the digestive system. It slows down the taking in or absorption of sugar into the blood. It also helps to lower cholesterol levels.
  5. 5. Are concentrated sources of energy. They contain over twice the energy value of carbohydrates. Its inclusion in the diet enhances palatability and delays the onset of hunger. It also transports vitamin A, D, E and K.
  6. 6. • Saturated Fats – are found primarily in meats and whole fat dairy products. • Polyunsaturated Fats come primarily from vegetable sources • Monounsaturated Fats – found inlarge amounts of plant oils such as olive and penut oil
  7. 7. • Build, repair and maintain body tissues. They are important constituents of body cells. They form the hormones that regulate the body processes and anti-bodies that fight infections, protein supply heat and energy where there is shortage of fats and carbohydrates. • Protein is made up of amino acids. There are twenty two such acids, eight of which are considered essential because they cannot be manufactured by the body they come from food.
  8. 8. • Food proteins that contain all eight amino acids are called complete. Animals are good sources of protein. Also important though incomplete are protein from plant sources. In mix diet animal and plant protein supplement each other.
  9. 9. • Are organic substances for growth and maintenance of life. They must be provide in the diet. They occur in small in the body and act as catalyst or substances that hasten chemical reactions in the body processes. They carried in the blood streams to all parts of the body.
  10. 10. Vitamin A • Is essential for normal eye functioning, resistance to infections, normal growth and healthy skin. Good sources include whole milk, butter, cheese, fish oil, green or yellow parts of vegetables.
  11. 11. Vitamin B Complex • namely thiamine, niacin and riboflavin are water soluble. They are rapidly lost by the body in urine, feces and perspiration. • Thiamin prevents beri – beri, helps convert carbohydrates into energy, maintains good digestion and assimilation of food. • Niacin plays an important role in cell respiration, carbohydrates oxidation and good digestion, • Riboflavin aids in protein utilization and affects the normal growth especially the hair and skin.
  12. 12. Vitamin C • Is essential for the health of the teeth, gums and blood vessels. It is important in the formation of collagen protein that helps support the skin, bones and tendons. Good food sources are green leafy vegetables, fresh fruits especially citrus fruits must be provided everyday in our meals.
  13. 13. Vitamin D • is necessary for strong bones and teeth and provided by the action of sunlight on the skin. It is sometimes called the sunshine vitamin. Good sources are liver, fish liver oil and fortified milk.
  14. 14. Vitamin E • like vitamin A and K, it is fat soluble. It helps in the formation of the blood cells, muscles and tissues and prevents the abnormal breakdown of body fats. Good food sources are whole grain cereals, whole wheat bread, wheat germ and vegetable oil.
  15. 15. Vitamin K • Is necessary for blood clotting and is manufactured in intestinal tract by microorganisms. Good food sources are green leafy vegetables.
  16. 16. • Are inorganic compounds necessary in different metabolic processes. They are important components of soft and hard tissues.
  17. 17. Calcium and Phosphorus • Are essential for the formation of good bones and teeth. Good food sources are milk, cheese, green leafy vegetables, small fishes and nuts.
  18. 18. Iron • Is responsible for the formation of red blood cells. It is the major component of hemoglobin, the substance that carries oxygen in the blood. Iron deficiency leads to anemia. Good sources are enriched bread and flour, unpolished rice, eggs, green leafy vegetables, meat especially internal organs and fish.
  19. 19. Iodine • Affects the function of the thyroid glands. Deficiency causes simple goiter. Chief sources are seafoods, marine plants and iodized salt. Sodium •Is present in common table salt. It is essential for the normal functioning of body fluids and tissues.
  20. 20. Potassium • is needed for healthy nerves and muscles and is found in meat, fish, milk, vegetables Copper • is essential in iron utilization
  21. 21. • Is an essential part of body tissues and comprises 2/3 of the body weight. It is not considered as food, yet no one can live more than a few days without it. It is lost in sweating and body excretions through intestinal tract and kidneys and should be replenished everyday. A loss of 10% of fluid from the body is a serious menace to health. As a rule 6 -8 gasses of water or juices a day are needed to maintain water balance in the body. Without water, food cannot be properly digested, absorbed or carried to the different parts of the body as needed.