Professional Standards For Indonesian Language Teaching


Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Professional Standards For Indonesian Language Teaching

  1. 1. Professional Standards for Indonesian Language Teaching: conception, practice and reflection Andrea Corston and Anne-Marie Morgan ASILE Conference Sydney 14 July 2009
  2. 2. Abstract <ul><li>What teachers should know, be able to do, and how they conduct themselves is a complex matter posed by education authorities, the general public and teachers themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation outlines how the profession of language teachers in Australia has attempted to address this question over the past five years </li></ul><ul><li>We trace the development of recent thinking and activity in developing standards for the profession and teachers of Indonesian in particular </li></ul>
  3. 3. Abstract <ul><li>Commence with exploration of the development of the statement, Standards for the Accomplished Teaching of Languages and Cultures , and process for developing Indonesian specific annotations </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by considerations in writing and implementing the Professional Standards Project involving MLTA and UniSA partners and teachers of languages across the country </li></ul><ul><li>Final aspect examines examples of teachers’ investigations and reflections on an aspect of their practice </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to critical dialogue about the nature of such initiatives and their relationship to teachers’ work and expectations of the wider community </li></ul>
  4. 4. Overview <ul><li>Part One </li></ul><ul><li>Development of The Standards and Indonesian specific annotations </li></ul><ul><li>Part Two </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Standards Project </li></ul><ul><li>Part Three </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers’ investigations and reflection on practice </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Part One </li></ul><ul><li>Development of The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><li>Developed within context of international move towards developing professional standards for guiding teachers’ professional practice </li></ul><ul><li>Australian climate of government and education authorities’ interests in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improving the educational performance of educational systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the improvement of teachers’ practices in the classroom (Sachs 2003) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><li>Some key questions being debated, nationally and internationally: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should standards be understood/used as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>regulatory frameworks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to judge individuals in relation to an external benchmark </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for registration and accreditation purposes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>as representing minimum or maximum performance levels, aspirational performance levels or targets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>as guidelines for good practice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>as codes of ethics to guide the profession? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should standards be developed/controlled by external authorities, or by the profession? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What, specifically, should teacher standards for teachers of language address: that is, what should languages teachers know and be able to do? (Sachs 2003; Liddicoat 2006a) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><li>Before 2005, development of standards in Australia reflected agenda of accountability and quality assurance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>implied assumption that introducing standards would automatically bring (lacking) quality to the profession (Liddicoat 2006a) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conceived as being for quality ‘control’ and quality ‘improvement’, to regulate teaching and to control teachers (Sachs 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Quality control’ view of standards missed recognition of existing quality and the complexity of teaching practice (Liddicoat 2006a) </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><li>Arguments for (language) teacher standards to come from the profession (Ingvarson 1998; Sachs 2003; ACE 2003; Scarino, Papademetre & Dellit 2004; Liddicoat 2006a) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>call for ‘profession defined teaching standards that provide direction and milestones for professional development over the long term of a career of teaching’; and ‘an infrastructure for professional learning whose primary purpose is to enable teachers to gain the knowledge and skills embodied in teaching standards’ (Ingvarson 1998, p.1009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>standards should articulate ‘quality as it is perceived, as it exists, and as it is recognised within the profession’ (Liddicoat 2006a, p.5) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><li>Australian College of Educators (ACE) (2003) argued that teaching standards could only be meaningful and practicable if they come from the profession </li></ul><ul><li>teachers of languages, as a professional group, and individually, have a deep interest in quality outcomes to ensure continuity of work and a high standing within educational communities </li></ul><ul><li>teachers of languages have had to pursue these objectives within the context of a discipline constantly fighting for recognition and curriculum space within the so-called ‘crowded curriculum’ and are therefore acutely aware of need for quality and relevance </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><li>Report on languages teaching in South Australian schools released 2004 (Scarino, Papademetre & Dellit 2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proposed single overarching standard for languages teaching that captured the holistic work of teachers, and attempted to represent teaching as deeply ethical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>argued for standards for language teach ing (rather than for teach ers and as a way of evaluating teachers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>include dimensions addressing the pedagogical, theoretical, personal and practical work of teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crucially, these should include program conditions </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><li>Scarino, Papademetre and Dellit (2004) report influential in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conceptualisation of the AFMLTA Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generating funding support from the Australian Government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two national projects, funded by Australian Government, undertaken to develop work on standards as part of NALSAS program (late 1990s-2002) and National Statement and Plan for Languages Learning 2005-2008 (MCEETYA 2005) </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><li>First project (2005): development of standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by Australian Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations (AFMLTA) of Professional Standards for accomplished teaching of languages and cultures (the Standards) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extensive consultation, review and evaluation process within profession and including other key stakeholders (principals, parents, community, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>funded by DEST with NALSAS funding </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><ul><li>Standards are ‘aspirational’: focus on a developmental understanding of the nature of professional practice rather than prescriptive or regulatory ‘benchmarks’ for assessing teacher performance (Liddicoat 2006a) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on the nature of professional practice, ‘ownership’ by the profession, developed by and with teachers, rather than to and for them (Liddicoat 2006a) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aligned with recommendations from the Australian College of Educators (2003) and other reports (e.g. Scarino, Papademetre & Dellit 2004) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><ul><li>Indonesian annotations developed at same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>additional suggestions as to how the Standards might specifically apply in the teaching of Indonesian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>follow format and dimensions of Standards, with specific Indonesian language use and cultural and sociocultural dimensions that pertain to Indonesia and teaching Indonesian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Indonesian language specific annotations model later followed, in second project, for 6 other languages: Chinese, Japanese, Italian, German, French, Spanish) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><li>The Standards describe accomplished teachers of languages and cultures, primarily as a single, holistic standard that recognises teachers’ ongoing experience and developing understandings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being an accomplished teacher of languages and cultures means being a person who knows, uses and teaches language and culture in an ethical and reflective way. It involves a continuous engagement with and commitment to learning, both as a teacher and life-long learner. It means more than teaching knowledge of languages and cultures and includes teaching learners to value, respect and engage with languages and cultures in their own lives and to interact with others across linguistic and cultural borders. It means creating a culture of learning which approaches language, culture and learning with respect, empathy, commitment, enthusiasm and personal responsibility (AFMLTA 2005) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><li>Overarching standard elaborated through 8 ‘dimensions’ </li></ul><ul><li>dimensions emphasise languages teachers’ engagement with the intellectual nature of their work and their work conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>educational theory and practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>language and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>language pedagogy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ethics and responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>professional relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>active engagement with wider contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>advocacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personal characteristics (AFMLTA 2005) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><li>Each dimension outlines key points, and poses reflective questions for teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Act as generative resource for action and self reflection </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prompts different way of thinking about what we do and about our practice holistically, and ourselves as active and engaged members of various communities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Significant as promotes ongoing engagement and reflection opportunity for teachers, in keeping with aspirational aims </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective question provide a de facto professional learning agenda for teachers </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><li>Crucially, the Standards provide Program standards </li></ul><ul><li>Program standards describe conditions for accomplished teaching and learning program </li></ul><ul><li>Act as advocacy document, as well as articulating the kinds of considerations schools and other institutions should be considering </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><li>Recognition that ‘quality teaching is the collective responsibility of teachers, school leaders and the school community’, and because ‘as a profession we need to indicate what we believe to be the most appropriate contexts for quality teaching to be realised’ (Liddicoat 2006a, p. 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Program conditions can also be understood in relation to State and Nature of Languages Education in Australia report (Liddicoat et al 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>program conditions are significant factors in teacher attrition rates, the devaluing of languages in schools and the ineffectiveness of programs where insufficient time, space and consistency are provided for languages teachers and languages programs </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Standards and Indonesian language-specific annotations <ul><li>Use for advocacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Description of program standards and language teaching and teacher needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to advocate for/promote improved program conditions with principals, school councils, parents, government, education authorities, curriculum councils, key teachers and funding bodies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provide a point of dialogue to begin this discussion that might otherwise be difficult to initiate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>support ongoing school, system and government planning on working towards sustainable program conditions that will enable better outcomes for students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use questions to prompt principals or school administrators to consider the place of languages learning and its significance for students in the contemporary climate and in the future, e.g. ‘How does the school demonstrate that it values the learning of languages and cultures?’ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Part Two </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Standards Project </li></ul>
  23. 23. Professional Standards Project <ul><li>Second project: development and implementation of professional learning program ( Professional Standards Project ) </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: 2007-2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: 2009-2010 </li></ul>
  24. 24. Professional Standards Project <ul><ul><li>AFMLTA funded to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>develop a professional learning program to enhance the use of the Standards in developing teachers’ professional practice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>create annotations in further 6 languages: Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese and Spanish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Centre for Languages and Cultures Education (RCLCE, now RCLC) at UniSA engaged to develop professional learning materials and annotations </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Professional Standards Project <ul><ul><li>In Phase 1 of the project (2007-2008) materials were used in a nationwide training program for over 1000 teachers of languages from all school sectors (public, private, Catholic and community) across all school year levels (K to Year 12) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>project still rolling out with jurisdictions continuing to re-run professional learning programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teachers also conducted classroom-based investigations using the Standards </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Professional Standards Project <ul><li>Professional learning materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 streams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stream A: familiarisation and consideration of the use of Standards in professional practice </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stream B: considers pedagogical and theoretical aspects in greater depth, addressing current and continuing issues for languages teachers and languages programs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Professional Standards Project <ul><ul><li>10 modules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stream A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Getting to know the Standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using the Standards in professional practice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stream B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning, learners and their life worlds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying language specific needs: working with language specific annotations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resources for languages learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language learning and language awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher talk and classroom interaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing language learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing relationships and wider connections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the interrelationship of the intracultural with the intercultural (Scarino et al 2008) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Professional Standards Project <ul><li>Phase 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Due to success of first professional learning project, DEEWR, through MCEETYA Languages Education Working Party, provided additional funding for a new Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Some funds remaining from first PL project- also included </li></ul><ul><li>Run over 2009-2010 </li></ul>
  29. 29. Professional Standards Project <ul><li>Stream A modules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivered to further 400 teachers throughout Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reprint of full manual for these participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administered and implemented by AFMLTA </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Professional Standards Project <ul><li>Development of further 4 modules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RCLC to develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment with Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tentative titles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situating assessing in languages education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ways of assessing languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judging and evaluating assessment of languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment as inquiry in languages education </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Professional Standards Project <ul><li>‘ Train the trainer’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainers to conduct and use in implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AFMLTA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MLTAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2010 </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Professional Standards Project <ul><li>All materials on website </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 existing professional learning modules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher investigations from first phase </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Part Three </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher investigations and personal reflections </li></ul>
  34. 35. References <ul><li>Australian College of Educators 2003 National statement from the teaching profession on teacher standards, quality and professionalism Australian College of Educators, Canberra. </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Federation of Modern Language Teachers Association 2005 Professional standards for accomplished teaching of languages and cultures Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra. </li></ul><ul><li>Dearing, R, & King, L 2006 The Languages Review: Consultation Report . London: Report to Department for Education and Skills. ,retrieved 19 May 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Ingvarson, L 1998 Teaching standards: foundations for professional development reform, in A. Hargreaves, A. Lieberman, M. Fullam & D. Hopkins (eds) International handbook of educational change Kluwer Publishers, Dordrecht. </li></ul><ul><li>  Liddicoat, A 2006a ‘Developing professional standards for accomplished language teachers’, Babel Vol.40, no.3, pp.4-6. </li></ul><ul><li>Liddicoat, A 2006b ‘A review of the literature: professional knowledge and standards for language teaching’ Babel Vol. 40, no.3, pp.7-22. </li></ul><ul><li>  Liddicoat, A, Scarino, S, Curnow, T, Kohler, M, Scrimgeour, A & Morgan, A 2007 ‘An investigation of the state and nature of languages in Australian schools’ Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra. </li></ul><ul><li>Lo Bianco, J. (1995). Consolidating Gains, Recovering Ground: Languages in South Australia. Canberra: NLLIA </li></ul>
  35. 36. References <ul><li>Mahony, P & Hextall, I 2000 Reconstruction teaching: standards, performance and accountability Routledge, London. </li></ul><ul><li>  Ministerial Council for Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs 2005 National Statement and Plan for Languages Education in Australian Schools 2005-2008 South Australian Department of Education and Children’s Services, Adelaide. </li></ul><ul><li>Rudd, K & Smith, S 2007 ‘New directions for our schools: establishing a national curriculum to improve our childrens’ educational outcomes’ Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra. </li></ul><ul><li>  Sachs, J 2003 ‘Teacher professional standards: controlling or developing teaching?’ Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice Vol.9, no.2, pp.175-186. </li></ul><ul><li>  Scarino, A, Liddicoat, A, Carr, J, Crichton, J, Crozet, C, Kohler, M, Loechel, K, Mercurio, N, Morgan, A, Papademetre, L & Scrimgeour, A 2007 Intercultural language teaching and learning in practice project: professional learning programme Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra. </li></ul><ul><li>  Scarino, A, Liddicoat, A, Crichton, J, Curnow, T, Kohler, M, Loechel, K, Mercurio, N, Morgan, A, Papademetre, L & Scrimgeour, A 2008 Professional standards project: professional learning program Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra. </li></ul><ul><li>Scarino, A, Papademetre, L & Dellit, J 2004 Standards in teaching languages and cultures Research Centre for Languages and Cultures Education, University of South Australia, Adelaide. </li></ul>