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The parthenon


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E-Twinning 2015

Published in: Education
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The parthenon

  1. 1. The Parthenon The Parthenon, dedicated by the Athenians to Athena Parthenos, the patron of their city, is the most magnificent creation of Athenian democracy at the height of its power. It is also the finest monument on the Acropolis in terms of both conception and execution. Built between 447 and 438 BC, as part of the greater Periklean building project, this so-called Periklean Parthenon (Parthenon III) replaced an earlier marble temple (Parthenon II), begun after the victory at the battle of Marathon at approximately 490 BC and destroyed by the Persians in 480 BC. This temple had replaced the very first Parthenon (Parthenon I) of c. 570 BC. The Periklean Parthenon was designed by architects Iktinos and Kallikrates, while the sculptor Pheidias supervised the entire building program and conceived the temple's sculptural decoration and chryselephantine statue of Athena.
  2. 2. History of Parthenon The Parthenon remained unchanged until the fifth century AD, when it was converted into a church dedicated first to Saint Sophia and later to the Panagia (Virgin Mary). Under Turkish rule it became a mosque. In 1687, during the siege of the Acropolis by Morozini, the Parthenon was bombarded and largely destroyed. Further serious damage was caused in the early nineteenth century by Lord Elgin, who looted much of the temple's sculptural decoration and sold it to the British Museum. Conservation and restoration of the Parthenon took place in 1896-1900 and again in 1922-1933. A vast conservation and restoration program of the monuments of the Acropolis, including the Parthenon, is currently under way since 1975 by the Service of Restoration of the Monuments of the Acropolis in collaboration with the First Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, under the supervision of the Committee for the Conservation of the Monuments of the Acropolis.
  3. 3. Frankish Tower The Frankish Tower was a medieval tower built on the Acropolis of Athens by the Franks as part of the palace of the Dukes of Athens. It was demolished by the Greek authorities in 1874. Construction of the tower is usually ascribed to the Acciaioli family, who ruled the Duchy of Athens between 1388 and its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1458, since it was them who converted the Propylaea complex into a palace. The Catalans were able to control the territory of Athens for nearly eighty years, but in 1388 the Catalans were themselves defeated by the Florentine family of Acciaiuoli that had already secured acquisitions in the Peloponnese. Upon his death in 1394, Nerio Acciaiuoli bequeathed the Duchy to the Latin Church of the Virgin (Santa Maria di Atene) and named Venice the executor of his will. Seizing the moment, the Venetians construed this testamentary power as justification for seizing the Acropolis in 1397. However, the principal Venetian enemy Antonio I Acciaiuoli (the illegitimate son of Nerio) ousted the Venetians in 1402, serving as Duke of the Duchy of Athens initially as a tribute to the Venitians and thereafter to the Turks during the period from 1402 to 1435. In 1456 the Turks seized the Acropolis and two years later (in 1458) they converted the Acropolis into a mosque, thereby ending Latin rule over this territory.