Flora and Fauna of Cyprus Eco Map


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Flora and Fauna of Cyprus Eco Map

  1. 1. FLORA AND FAUNA OF CYPRUS<br />Saint George’s Lyceum<br />Larnaca Cyprus<br />
  2. 2. General information<br />Cyprus is the third largest island of the Mediterranean, after Sicily and Sardinia and covers an area of 9251 square kilometers. It is situated at the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean basin and has a northern latitude 34° 33' to 35° 41' and eastern longitude 32° 17' to 34° 35'. <br />Two mountain ranges cross the island running from west to east; these are the Pentadactylos (northern) and Troodos (southern) mountain ranges, which are separated by the Mesaoria plain<br />The varied geomorphology of Cyprus and the intense fluctuations of temperature and rainfall in different areas resulted in the creation of many different habitat types. Moreover, the location of Cyprus in the crossroads of three continents makes the island an important migration route. These factors along with the long history of the island resulted in the formation of a rich and unique biodiversity, which is compared to the richest areas of Europe, in biodiversity terms.<br />
  3. 3. Cyprus Flora <br />Cyprus hosts a great variety of different habitat types. This variation in habitats reflects a variation in environmental conditions, which can meet the specific needs of a large number of plant species. So far, more than 1900 species have been identified in Cyprus, out of which 143 are endemic to the island.<br />
  4. 4. Most of the endemic plants of Cyprusare located in the two mountain ranges of the island. Hence, 94 endemic plants of Cyprus are found in Troodos mountain range and 56 in Pentadactylos range.<br />Many of the plant species of Cyprus, mainly the endemics, are considered rare since they form small and few populations. The survival of many of these species is under immediate threat due to external, anthropogenic pressures. During the past years, these pressures have been intensified, mainly due to changes in agriculture (extensive use of pesticides and fertilizers), rapid increase of tourism activities, expansion of the mountainous road network, urbanization of large natural areas and development of various activities within natural areas (military activities, quarrying, golf courses etc.).<br />
  5. 5. According to the "Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus", which evaluates the conservation status of the Cyprus flora based to the criteria set by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 23 species are characterized as Regionally Extinct, 46 as Critically Endangered, 64 as Endangered, 128 as Vulnerable, 45 as Data Deficient and 15 Near Threatened.<br />Five of the Cyprus' Flora species are included in the IUCN edition " The Top 50 Plants of the Mediterranean Islands" which presents fifty of the most threatened plant species of the Mediterranean islands.. <br />
  6. 6. Endemic plants of Cyprus <br />TulipaCypria<br />Crocus Cyprius<br />Cyclamen Cyprium<br />
  7. 7. PapaverrhoeasCyprius<br />AcinosTroody<br />BoseaCypria<br />Alyssum Akamasicum<br />
  8. 8. Rosa Chionistrae<br />CephalorrynchusCyprius<br />OnosmaFruticosa<br />CarlinaPygmaea<br />
  9. 9. OrobancheCypria<br />QuercusAlnifolia<br />CedrusBrevifolia<br />
  10. 10. Cyprus Fauna<br />Cyprus is characterised by its rich and diverse fauna, which includes, among others, 39 species of mammals, 381 species birds, 24 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, 200 species of fish and more than 5000 insect species.<br />
  11. 11. Mammals<br />From the 39 mammal species that have been recorded in Cyprus, 22 are bats, 13 are terrestrial mammals, 3 are mammals and one is a seal. The largest mammal is the endemic mouflon (Ovisgmeliniophion) [a wild sheep species].<br />
  12. 12. AlnifVulpes (Linnaeus 1758)<br />Ovisgmeliniophions <br />EquusAsinuss <br />Ovisgmeliniophions <br />
  13. 13. Hemiechinusauritus<br />dorotheae<br />Lepuscapensiscyprius<br />Mus musculus<br />Acomysnesiotes<br />Miniopterusschreibersii<br />Delphinusdelphis<br />
  14. 14. Birds<br />Cyprus is one of the most important bird migratory routes in Europe because of its geographical position. It is also considered as an area with rich avifauna and an important bird area in Europe with high endemism. So far, the number of bird species recorded in Cyprus is 381. Of those, 53 are permanent residents while the remaining 328 are migrants.<br />
  15. 15. Alectorischukar<br />Francolinusfrancolinus<br />Porzanaporzana<br />Streptopeliaturtur<br />
  16. 16. Upupaepops<br />Meropsapiaster<br />Accipitergentilis<br />Alcedoatthis<br />
  17. 17. Phoenicopterusruberroseus<br />Asiootus<br />Lusciniasvecica<br />Erithacusrubecula<br />
  18. 18. Reptiles<br />There are also 24 reptile species living in Cyprus, of which 10 are snakes (one endemic species and two endemic subspecies), 10 are lizards and 4 are turtles (2 sea turtles and 2 marine turtles). Three of the snakes found in Cyprus are poisonous but only one can be harmful to man (Macroviperalebetina). Three frog species are included in the amphibians.<br />
  19. 19. Trachylepisvittata<br />LacertalaevistroodicaWerner, 1936<br />Laudakiastellio<br />Chalcidesocellatus<br />Cyrtopodionkotschyi<br />
  20. 20. Telescopusfallax<br />Natrixnatrixcypriaca<br />Coluberjugularis Linnaeus <br />Macroviperalebetina<br />Carettacaretta<br />
  21. 21. Insects<br /> According to Fauna Europaea, the number of insects presently known from Cyprus is approximately 5000. One of the most important group of insects, are butterflies, which belong to the order of Lepidoptera. There are 52 butterfly species in Cyprus, 9 of which are endemic. Many other insect species are endemic to the island.<br />
  22. 22. Glaucopsychepaphos<br />Maniolacypricola<br />Zerynthiacerisyicypria<br />Cigaritisacamascypriaca<br />
  23. 23. Eurydemaornata<br />Chrysisjudaica<br />Megacephalaeuphraticaeuphratica<br />Helladiahumeralis<br />Julodisarmeniacacypria<br />Trachydermaphilistina<br />