SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 29
Download to read offline
Nano-Engineering Materials for
High-Efficiency Solar Thermal Energy Harvesting and Conversion
Invited Talk at 1st Asia-Pacific Thermofluid Science & Engineering Conference
Taipei, Taiwan, November 01, 2019
Liping Wang, Ph.D.
Associate Professor in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Director of Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Laboratory
School for Engineering of Matter, Transport & Energy
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ USA
http://faculty.engineering.asu.edu/lpwang
Email: liping.wang@asu.edu
2
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
Outline
1. Motivation and Background
2. Optical and Radiative Properties of Selective Metamaterials and Metafilms
3. Solar Thermal Measurement with Metafilm Absorbers
4. Theoretical Analysis of Metafilm Enhanced Solar Thermophotovoltaic
(STPV) Energy Conversion
5. STPV Experimental Setup (ongoing)
6. Summary and Acknowledgements
3
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
Advantages:
Low cost, large-area
implementation
Increase solar absorption,
reduce self re-emission
Challenges:
Unity absorptance in visible and near
infrared, zero emittance in mid-infrared
Requirements:
An ideal solar absorber
Solar-thermal system
• Solana CSP plant, Gila Bend, AZ
• Largest parabolic trough system
• 280 MW capacity
Background
4
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Baxter et al., Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 559 (2009)
Solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV)
Advantages:
• Potential to reach a higher
efficiency than solar cells
• Waste heat recovery
Challenges:
• Wavelength-selectivity
• High-temperature stability
• High-efficiency TPV cell
Convert broadband solar radiation to narrow-band thermal radiation
Solution: Spectral control of thermal radiation with nano-engineered materials
5
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
Recent STPV work
Nam et al., Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells
122, 287 296 (2014)
• Used 2D photonic
crystals (PhCs) as
absorber and
emitter
• Predicted 10%
efficiency at 130
suns
• Used carbon nanotube
solar absorber and
Si/SiO2 1D layered PhC
as selective emitter
• Measured efficiency of
3.2% at 480 suns
Lenert et al., Nat. Nanotech. 9, 126-130 (2014) Bierman et al., Nature Energy 1, 16068 (2016)
• Used tandem optical filter on InGaAsSb cell
• Measured efficiency of 6.8% at 58 suns
Wang et al., Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
98, 788 798 (2016)
• Used film-coupled
metamaterials as
absorber and
emitter
• Predicted 12.6%
efficiency at 200
suns
6
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
Controlling radiative properties with metamaterials
• Thermal stability rarely studied
• Low cost and large area highly desired
Khodasevych et al., Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 852-881 (2015)
Film-coupled nanocubes
Moreau et al., Nature 492, 86-89 (2012)
Photonic crystals
Stelmakh et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 123903 (2013)
Multilayer structures
Wäckelgård et al., Solar Energy Mater.
& Solar Cells 133, 180-193 (2015)
Trapezoid grating
Aydin et al., Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011)
7
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
In collaboration with Prof. Arnan Mi chell g o a RMIT AUS
Characterization:
L= 600 nm
w1 = 200 nm
w2 = 360 nm
h = 170 nm
t = 50 nm
Tungsten: 200nm
Wang et al., Solar Energy Mater. & Solar Cells 137, 235-242 (2015)
Selective metamaterial absorber - sample fabrication
8
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
Room Temperature
Wang et al., Solar Energy Mater. & Solar Cells 137, 235-242 (2015)
Selective metamaterial - optical characterizations
Elevated Temperatures
9
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
Room temperature FTIR
Wang et al., Solar Energy Mater. & Solar Cells 174, 445-452 (2018)
Selective metafilms – fabrication and optical properties
As-Fabricated 4-inch Sample
SEM image
10
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
High-temp FTIR coupled with fiber optics
Wang et al., Solar Energy Mater. & Solar Cells 137, 235-242 (2015)
11
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
In-situ high-temperature
FTIR characterization in air
Wang et al., Solar Energy Mater. & Solar Cells 174, 445-452 (2018)
Thermal cycling test
in vacuum
Selective metafilms – thermal effect
• No change in optical and radiative
properties up to 600 C heating in air
• Excellent thermal stability after multiple
heating/cooling cycles 700 C in vacuum
12
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
Solar thermal experimental setup
Inside
vacuum chamber
Outside
vacuum chamber
Optical
Viewport
Alshehri et al., under review (available at Sneak Peek)
13
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
• Vacuum pressure < 4×10-4 Torr
• Metafilm selective absorber deposited on Si wafer
• Black absorber with broadband unity emittance/absorptance
• Up to 50 suns for 1×1 cm2 samples
Solar thermal experimental results
Alshehri et al., under review (available at Sneak Peek)
14
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
Solar thermal efficiency
𝜂
𝑄 d
𝑄
𝑇 𝑇
𝑅 d 𝑇 𝑄
where 𝑅 d 𝑇 is fitted as a function
𝑇 from the black absorber sample
Experimental ST efficiency:
Theoretical ST efficiency:
𝜂
𝑄 𝑄 𝑄
𝑄
Alshehri et al., under review (available at Sneak Peek)
15
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
Solar thermal efficiency projection
𝜂
𝑄 d,
𝑄
𝑄 𝑄 𝑄 d,
𝑄
Projected ST efficiency for practical application:
Alshehri et al., under review (available at Sneak Peek)
16
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Alshehri et al., under review (available at Sneak Peek)
Solar thermal efficiency with metafilm on SS foil
17
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
STPV schematic
Ni et al., Solar Energy 191, 623-628 (2019)
Major assumptions:
• Same cross-sectional areas among absorber, emitter, and TPV cell
• TPV cell: InGaAsSb (Ebg = 2.5 mm)
• Thermal emission from sidewalls neglected
• View factor between emitter and cell = 1
18
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
solar absorber, Ta
TPV emitter, Te
Concentrated
solar irradiation, Hin
Energy Balance on the absorber/emitter:
in reflected re-emit emitter loss
absorber
H H H H H
in ,
H G CF
where
re-emit ( , ),
a a
H f T
emitter ( , )
e e
H f T
reflected in
(1 )
a
H H
Therefore:
Concentration (CF) Ta = Te
Correlated
Hreflected Hre-emit
loss loss,side loss,bottom
H H H
Hloss,side
Hloss,bottom
Hemitter
Total solar-to-electricity efficiency:
Pe
in
e
STPV
P
H
STPV system energy analysis
Wang et al., Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 98, 788 798 (2016)
19
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
STPV theoretical analysis
0 20 40 60 80 100
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
Ideal absorber/emitter
Metafilm absorber/emitter
Black absorber/emitter
Absorber
temperature
(K)
Concentration factor
0 20 40 60 80 100
0
5
10
15
20
Ideal absorber/emitter
Metafilm absorber/emitter
Black absorber/emitter
STPV
system
efficiency
(%)
Concentration factor
Effect of Solar Concentration
STPV efficiency from 0 to 100 suns
• Black absorber/emitter: 0.1% ~ 3.2%
• Metafilm absorber/emitter: 0.7% ~ 7.9%
• Ideal absorber/emitter: 12.5% ~ 19.9%
Ni et al., Solar Energy 191, 623-628 (2019)
20
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
Structure thickness (nm) SiO2 Si3N4 W SiO2 W
Original absorber/emitter
(Wang et al., 2018)
73 50 10 11 200
Optimized absorber 29 41 9 24 200
Optimized emitter 91 100 12 100 200
Efficiency enhanced by metafilm optimization
Original metafilm
structure
Optimized metafilm
structure
STPV efficiency improved
from 7.1% to 10.2%
at 50 suns
Ni et al., Solar Energy 191, 623-628 (2019)
21
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
Efficiency enhanced by cavity reflector
0 2 4 6 8 10
1200
1250
1300
1350
1400 Rr=1
Rr=0.99
Rr=0.98
Rr=0.97
Rr=0.9
Rr=0.5
Rr=0.1
Absorber
temperature
(K)
Hr/Lr
0 2 4 6 8 10
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Rr=1
Rr=0.99
Rr=0.98
Rr=0.97
Rr=0.9
Rr=0.5
Rr=0.1
STPV
efficiency
(%)
Hr/Lr
Thermal emission loss from top of absorber:
abs,top abs,envir abs,reflector
q q q
20
b abs b envir
abs,envir 0.3
abs
abs abs-envir
( ) ( )
1 ( ) 1
( )
E T E T
q d
F
20
b abs b reflector
abs,reflector 0.3
abs abs r
abs abs-reflector r r
( ) ( )
=
1 ( ) 1
( ) (1 )
E T E T
q d
A R
F A R
STPV efficiency improved from 10.2% to 17.4% with ideal cavity at 50 suns
Assumption:
• Lr = Labs
• 50 suns
Cavity
Reflector
Absorber
Environment
where
Ni et al., Solar Energy 191, 623-628 (2019)
22
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
Current status:
• Metafilm absorber/emitter fabricated and characterized
• Doped Si used as absorber/emitter for setup test
• TPV cell prepared and characterized
STPV experimental setup (ongoing)
Future work:
• Validate STPV system experiment with doped Si
• Conduct STPV experiment with metafilm
• Validate with theoretical analysis
• Perform uncertainty analysis
23
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
STPV experimental setup (ongoing)
Spectral Absorptance
External Quantum Efficiency
TPV cell characterization
GaSb Cell
10 mm
TPV cell: GaSb cell from JX Crystals
24
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
Metamaterial Absorber Metafilm Absorber
Solar Thermal Test STPV System Analysis
Wang and Wang, Opt. Express 21, A1078 (2013)
Wang et al., SOLMAT 137, 235-242 (2015) Wang et al., SOLMAT, 174, 445-452 (2018)
Alshehri et al., under review (available on Sneak Peek) Ni et al., Solar Energy 191, 623-628 (2019)
Summary
0 2 4 6 8 10
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Rr=1
Rr=0.99
Rr=0.98
Rr=0.97
Rr=0.9
Rr=0.5
Rr=0.1
STPV
efficiency
(%)
Hr/Lr
Wang et al., IJHMT 98, 788 798 (2016)
25
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
• ASU META (m t ) Group
Key Players
• Dr. Qing Ni (currently postdoc since 2017, Ph.D. in 2017 at Univ. Sci. Tech. China)
• Dr. Hassan Alshehri (currently assistant professor at King Saud Univ., Ph.D. 2018-2014)
• Dr. Hao Wang (currently postdoc at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Ph.D. 2016-2012)
• Ryan McBurney (FURI undergraduate researcher, B.E. 2019-2015)
• Funding Sponsors
Acknowledgements
26
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
2.2 Metafilm Solar Absorber
Comparison with Commercial Coatings
Disclaimer All da a ere meas red a Wang s lab
27
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
2.2 Metafilm Solar Absorber
Comparison with Commercial Coatings
Solar Absorptance Infrared Emittance
• Comparable solar absorptance >96%
• Significantly reduced infrared emittance by 5% ~ 15%
Disclaimer All da a ere meas red a Wang s lab
28
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
4 m
in AM1.5
0.3 m
= ( )
q G Cd
4 m
ref abs AM1.5
0.3 m
= [1 ( )] ( )
q G Cd
20
b emit b envir
emit,envir 0.3
emit
emit emit-cell
( ) ( )
=
1 ( ) 1
( ) 1
E T E T
q d
F
Energy balance equation for absorber-emitter pair:
Total solar-to-electricity efficiency:
STPV system energy analysis
in ref abs,envir emit,cell emit,envir
=
q q q q q
20
abs,envir abs b abs b envir
0.3
= ( ) ( ) ( )
q E T E T d
20 20
b emit b cell
emit,cell emit,cell,
0.3 0.
emit cell
emit emit-cell cell
( ) ( )
1 ( ) 1 ( )
1
( ) ( )
E T E T
q q d d
F
e sc oc
STPV
in in
P J V FF
q q
Major assumptions:
• Same cross-sectional areas among absorber,
emitter, and TPV cell
• TPV cell: InGaAsSb (Ebg = 2.5 mm)
• Thermal emission from sidewalls is neglected
• View factor between emitter and cell is one
29
Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group
Theoretical limit with ideal TPV cell
• An ideal cell has 100% IQE above the bandgap (i.e., 2.3 m)
• The STPV efficiency limit is about 42% for 20x~200x concentration
• MM enhanced STPV with ideal cells reaches ~25% comparable to SQ limit
• Further enhancement relies on both improvement in absorber/emitter and cell

More Related Content

Similar to 20191101 Wang Invited Talk at APTSE (Thermal Energy Harvesting and Conversion)

Dye-sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells | Peter Holliman, University of Bangor
Dye-sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells | Peter Holliman, University of BangorDye-sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells | Peter Holliman, University of Bangor
Dye-sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells | Peter Holliman, University of Bangorcdtpv
 
Steam Generation by using Solar Dish Collector
Steam Generation by using Solar Dish CollectorSteam Generation by using Solar Dish Collector
Steam Generation by using Solar Dish CollectorIRJET Journal
 
Thesis Presentation Template[Conflict 1]
Thesis Presentation Template[Conflict 1]Thesis Presentation Template[Conflict 1]
Thesis Presentation Template[Conflict 1]Sumeet Changla
 
Nx calrics2019 yano-presentation
Nx calrics2019 yano-presentationNx calrics2019 yano-presentation
Nx calrics2019 yano-presentationShinichiro Yano
 
Thermophysical properties of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes and its effect on e...
Thermophysical properties of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes and its effect on e...Thermophysical properties of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes and its effect on e...
Thermophysical properties of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes and its effect on e...Sabiha Akter Monny
 
Soft x-ray nanoanalytical tools for thin film organic electronics
Soft x-ray nanoanalytical tools for thin film organic electronicsSoft x-ray nanoanalytical tools for thin film organic electronics
Soft x-ray nanoanalytical tools for thin film organic electronicsTrinity College Dublin
 
Booze And Wuki Final Presentation
Booze And Wuki Final PresentationBooze And Wuki Final Presentation
Booze And Wuki Final Presentationguestb926be
 
Conference An experimental study on evacuated tube solar collector using nano...
Conference An experimental study on evacuated tube solar collector using nano...Conference An experimental study on evacuated tube solar collector using nano...
Conference An experimental study on evacuated tube solar collector using nano...Sabiha Akter Monny
 
An Alternative Energy Technology to Nigeria’s Energy Problem
An Alternative Energy Technology to Nigeria’s Energy ProblemAn Alternative Energy Technology to Nigeria’s Energy Problem
An Alternative Energy Technology to Nigeria’s Energy ProblemNigeria Alternative Energy Expo
 
Observing ultra-high energy cosmic rays with prototypes of the Fluorescence d...
Observing ultra-high energy cosmic rays with prototypes of the Fluorescence d...Observing ultra-high energy cosmic rays with prototypes of the Fluorescence d...
Observing ultra-high energy cosmic rays with prototypes of the Fluorescence d...Toshihiro FUJII
 
Investigation of heat transfer enhancement for a model 21 Feb 2021.pptx
Investigation of heat transfer enhancement for a model 21 Feb 2021.pptxInvestigation of heat transfer enhancement for a model 21 Feb 2021.pptx
Investigation of heat transfer enhancement for a model 21 Feb 2021.pptxMahmoudShakier2
 
heat transfer enhancement for Central solar tower
heat transfer enhancement for Central solar towerheat transfer enhancement for Central solar tower
heat transfer enhancement for Central solar towerMahmoudShakier2
 
Energy and exergy efficiency of a flat plate solar collector using pH treated...
Energy and exergy efficiency of a flat plate solar collector using pH treated...Energy and exergy efficiency of a flat plate solar collector using pH treated...
Energy and exergy efficiency of a flat plate solar collector using pH treated...Sabiha Akter Monny
 
FAST実験7:新型大気蛍光望遠鏡による極高エネルギー宇宙線観測報告
FAST実験7:新型大気蛍光望遠鏡による極高エネルギー宇宙線観測報告FAST実験7:新型大気蛍光望遠鏡による極高エネルギー宇宙線観測報告
FAST実験7:新型大気蛍光望遠鏡による極高エネルギー宇宙線観測報告Toshihiro FUJII
 
SURVEY ON CLOUD-BASED HEALTH MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS
SURVEY ON CLOUD-BASED HEALTH MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONSSURVEY ON CLOUD-BASED HEALTH MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS
SURVEY ON CLOUD-BASED HEALTH MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONSJournal For Research
 
DESIGN, OPTIMIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR THERMAL HEAT RECEIVER SYSTEM WI...
DESIGN, OPTIMIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR THERMAL HEAT RECEIVER SYSTEM WI...DESIGN, OPTIMIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR THERMAL HEAT RECEIVER SYSTEM WI...
DESIGN, OPTIMIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR THERMAL HEAT RECEIVER SYSTEM WI...Journal For Research
 
A Conceptual Design for a Large Ground Array of Fluorescence Detectors
A Conceptual Design for a Large Ground Array of Fluorescence DetectorsA Conceptual Design for a Large Ground Array of Fluorescence Detectors
A Conceptual Design for a Large Ground Array of Fluorescence DetectorsToshihiro FUJII
 

Similar to 20191101 Wang Invited Talk at APTSE (Thermal Energy Harvesting and Conversion) (20)

Dye-sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells | Peter Holliman, University of Bangor
Dye-sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells | Peter Holliman, University of BangorDye-sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells | Peter Holliman, University of Bangor
Dye-sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells | Peter Holliman, University of Bangor
 
Steam Generation by using Solar Dish Collector
Steam Generation by using Solar Dish CollectorSteam Generation by using Solar Dish Collector
Steam Generation by using Solar Dish Collector
 
Thesis Presentation Template[Conflict 1]
Thesis Presentation Template[Conflict 1]Thesis Presentation Template[Conflict 1]
Thesis Presentation Template[Conflict 1]
 
GOMD_2016_mayurtalk
GOMD_2016_mayurtalkGOMD_2016_mayurtalk
GOMD_2016_mayurtalk
 
Nx calrics2019 yano-presentation
Nx calrics2019 yano-presentationNx calrics2019 yano-presentation
Nx calrics2019 yano-presentation
 
Thermophysical properties of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes and its effect on e...
Thermophysical properties of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes and its effect on e...Thermophysical properties of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes and its effect on e...
Thermophysical properties of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes and its effect on e...
 
NC 2004
NC 2004NC 2004
NC 2004
 
Soft x-ray nanoanalytical tools for thin film organic electronics
Soft x-ray nanoanalytical tools for thin film organic electronicsSoft x-ray nanoanalytical tools for thin film organic electronics
Soft x-ray nanoanalytical tools for thin film organic electronics
 
Booze And Wuki Final Presentation
Booze And Wuki Final PresentationBooze And Wuki Final Presentation
Booze And Wuki Final Presentation
 
Conference An experimental study on evacuated tube solar collector using nano...
Conference An experimental study on evacuated tube solar collector using nano...Conference An experimental study on evacuated tube solar collector using nano...
Conference An experimental study on evacuated tube solar collector using nano...
 
An Alternative Energy Technology to Nigeria’s Energy Problem
An Alternative Energy Technology to Nigeria’s Energy ProblemAn Alternative Energy Technology to Nigeria’s Energy Problem
An Alternative Energy Technology to Nigeria’s Energy Problem
 
Observing ultra-high energy cosmic rays with prototypes of the Fluorescence d...
Observing ultra-high energy cosmic rays with prototypes of the Fluorescence d...Observing ultra-high energy cosmic rays with prototypes of the Fluorescence d...
Observing ultra-high energy cosmic rays with prototypes of the Fluorescence d...
 
Highly efficient organic devices.
Highly efficient organic devices.Highly efficient organic devices.
Highly efficient organic devices.
 
Investigation of heat transfer enhancement for a model 21 Feb 2021.pptx
Investigation of heat transfer enhancement for a model 21 Feb 2021.pptxInvestigation of heat transfer enhancement for a model 21 Feb 2021.pptx
Investigation of heat transfer enhancement for a model 21 Feb 2021.pptx
 
heat transfer enhancement for Central solar tower
heat transfer enhancement for Central solar towerheat transfer enhancement for Central solar tower
heat transfer enhancement for Central solar tower
 
Energy and exergy efficiency of a flat plate solar collector using pH treated...
Energy and exergy efficiency of a flat plate solar collector using pH treated...Energy and exergy efficiency of a flat plate solar collector using pH treated...
Energy and exergy efficiency of a flat plate solar collector using pH treated...
 
FAST実験7:新型大気蛍光望遠鏡による極高エネルギー宇宙線観測報告
FAST実験7:新型大気蛍光望遠鏡による極高エネルギー宇宙線観測報告FAST実験7:新型大気蛍光望遠鏡による極高エネルギー宇宙線観測報告
FAST実験7:新型大気蛍光望遠鏡による極高エネルギー宇宙線観測報告
 
SURVEY ON CLOUD-BASED HEALTH MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS
SURVEY ON CLOUD-BASED HEALTH MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONSSURVEY ON CLOUD-BASED HEALTH MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS
SURVEY ON CLOUD-BASED HEALTH MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS
 
DESIGN, OPTIMIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR THERMAL HEAT RECEIVER SYSTEM WI...
DESIGN, OPTIMIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR THERMAL HEAT RECEIVER SYSTEM WI...DESIGN, OPTIMIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR THERMAL HEAT RECEIVER SYSTEM WI...
DESIGN, OPTIMIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR THERMAL HEAT RECEIVER SYSTEM WI...
 
A Conceptual Design for a Large Ground Array of Fluorescence Detectors
A Conceptual Design for a Large Ground Array of Fluorescence DetectorsA Conceptual Design for a Large Ground Array of Fluorescence Detectors
A Conceptual Design for a Large Ground Array of Fluorescence Detectors
 

Recently uploaded

Main Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating SystemMain Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating SystemRashmi Bhat
 
complete construction, environmental and economics information of biomass com...
complete construction, environmental and economics information of biomass com...complete construction, environmental and economics information of biomass com...
complete construction, environmental and economics information of biomass com...asadnawaz62
 
Risk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdf
Risk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdfRisk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdf
Risk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdfROCENODodongVILLACER
 
Industrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES
Industrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIESIndustrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES
Industrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIESNarmatha D
 
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionUS Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionMebane Rash
 
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documents
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documentsVishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documents
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documentsSachinPawar510423
 
Concrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptx
Concrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptxConcrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptx
Concrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptxKartikeyaDwivedi3
 
Class 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm System
Class 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm SystemClass 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm System
Class 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm Systemirfanmechengr
 
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor CatchersTechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catcherssdickerson1
 
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxEnergy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxsiddharthjain2303
 
Introduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptx
Introduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptxIntroduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptx
Introduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptxk795866
 
Solving The Right Triangles PowerPoint 2.ppt
Solving The Right Triangles PowerPoint 2.pptSolving The Right Triangles PowerPoint 2.ppt
Solving The Right Triangles PowerPoint 2.pptJasonTagapanGulla
 
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECH
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECHIntroduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECH
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECHC Sai Kiran
 
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...Amil Baba Dawood bangali
 
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptx
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptxInternet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptx
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptxVelmuruganTECE
 
Past, Present and Future of Generative AI
Past, Present and Future of Generative AIPast, Present and Future of Generative AI
Past, Present and Future of Generative AIabhishek36461
 
Research Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdfResearch Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdfCaalaaAbdulkerim
 
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingSystem Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingBootNeck1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Main Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating SystemMain Memory Management in Operating System
Main Memory Management in Operating System
 
complete construction, environmental and economics information of biomass com...
complete construction, environmental and economics information of biomass com...complete construction, environmental and economics information of biomass com...
complete construction, environmental and economics information of biomass com...
 
Risk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdf
Risk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdfRisk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdf
Risk Assessment For Installation of Drainage Pipes.pdf
 
Industrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES
Industrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIESIndustrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES
Industrial Safety Unit-I SAFETY TERMINOLOGIES
 
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionUS Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
 
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documents
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documentsVishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documents
Vishratwadi & Ghorpadi Bridge Tender documents
 
Concrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptx
Concrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptxConcrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptx
Concrete Mix Design - IS 10262-2019 - .pptx
 
Class 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm System
Class 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm SystemClass 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm System
Class 1 | NFPA 72 | Overview Fire Alarm System
 
Design and analysis of solar grass cutter.pdf
Design and analysis of solar grass cutter.pdfDesign and analysis of solar grass cutter.pdf
Design and analysis of solar grass cutter.pdf
 
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor CatchersTechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
TechTAC® CFD Report Summary: A Comparison of Two Types of Tubing Anchor Catchers
 
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxEnergy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
 
🔝9953056974🔝!!-YOUNG call girls in Rajendra Nagar Escort rvice Shot 2000 nigh...
🔝9953056974🔝!!-YOUNG call girls in Rajendra Nagar Escort rvice Shot 2000 nigh...🔝9953056974🔝!!-YOUNG call girls in Rajendra Nagar Escort rvice Shot 2000 nigh...
🔝9953056974🔝!!-YOUNG call girls in Rajendra Nagar Escort rvice Shot 2000 nigh...
 
Introduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptx
Introduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptxIntroduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptx
Introduction-To-Agricultural-Surveillance-Rover.pptx
 
Solving The Right Triangles PowerPoint 2.ppt
Solving The Right Triangles PowerPoint 2.pptSolving The Right Triangles PowerPoint 2.ppt
Solving The Right Triangles PowerPoint 2.ppt
 
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECH
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECHIntroduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECH
Introduction to Machine Learning Unit-3 for II MECH
 
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uae Dubai Abu Dhabi ...
 
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptx
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptxInternet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptx
Internet of things -Arshdeep Bahga .pptx
 
Past, Present and Future of Generative AI
Past, Present and Future of Generative AIPast, Present and Future of Generative AI
Past, Present and Future of Generative AI
 
Research Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdfResearch Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdf
 
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingSystem Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
 

20191101 Wang Invited Talk at APTSE (Thermal Energy Harvesting and Conversion)

  • 1. Nano-Engineering Materials for High-Efficiency Solar Thermal Energy Harvesting and Conversion Invited Talk at 1st Asia-Pacific Thermofluid Science & Engineering Conference Taipei, Taiwan, November 01, 2019 Liping Wang, Ph.D. Associate Professor in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Director of Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Laboratory School for Engineering of Matter, Transport & Energy Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ USA http://faculty.engineering.asu.edu/lpwang Email: liping.wang@asu.edu
  • 2. 2 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Outline 1. Motivation and Background 2. Optical and Radiative Properties of Selective Metamaterials and Metafilms 3. Solar Thermal Measurement with Metafilm Absorbers 4. Theoretical Analysis of Metafilm Enhanced Solar Thermophotovoltaic (STPV) Energy Conversion 5. STPV Experimental Setup (ongoing) 6. Summary and Acknowledgements
  • 3. 3 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Advantages: Low cost, large-area implementation Increase solar absorption, reduce self re-emission Challenges: Unity absorptance in visible and near infrared, zero emittance in mid-infrared Requirements: An ideal solar absorber Solar-thermal system • Solana CSP plant, Gila Bend, AZ • Largest parabolic trough system • 280 MW capacity Background
  • 4. 4 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Baxter et al., Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 559 (2009) Solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) Advantages: • Potential to reach a higher efficiency than solar cells • Waste heat recovery Challenges: • Wavelength-selectivity • High-temperature stability • High-efficiency TPV cell Convert broadband solar radiation to narrow-band thermal radiation Solution: Spectral control of thermal radiation with nano-engineered materials
  • 5. 5 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Recent STPV work Nam et al., Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 122, 287 296 (2014) • Used 2D photonic crystals (PhCs) as absorber and emitter • Predicted 10% efficiency at 130 suns • Used carbon nanotube solar absorber and Si/SiO2 1D layered PhC as selective emitter • Measured efficiency of 3.2% at 480 suns Lenert et al., Nat. Nanotech. 9, 126-130 (2014) Bierman et al., Nature Energy 1, 16068 (2016) • Used tandem optical filter on InGaAsSb cell • Measured efficiency of 6.8% at 58 suns Wang et al., Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 98, 788 798 (2016) • Used film-coupled metamaterials as absorber and emitter • Predicted 12.6% efficiency at 200 suns
  • 6. 6 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Controlling radiative properties with metamaterials • Thermal stability rarely studied • Low cost and large area highly desired Khodasevych et al., Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 852-881 (2015) Film-coupled nanocubes Moreau et al., Nature 492, 86-89 (2012) Photonic crystals Stelmakh et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 123903 (2013) Multilayer structures Wäckelgård et al., Solar Energy Mater. & Solar Cells 133, 180-193 (2015) Trapezoid grating Aydin et al., Nat. Commun. 2, 517 (2011)
  • 7. 7 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group In collaboration with Prof. Arnan Mi chell g o a RMIT AUS Characterization: L= 600 nm w1 = 200 nm w2 = 360 nm h = 170 nm t = 50 nm Tungsten: 200nm Wang et al., Solar Energy Mater. & Solar Cells 137, 235-242 (2015) Selective metamaterial absorber - sample fabrication
  • 8. 8 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Room Temperature Wang et al., Solar Energy Mater. & Solar Cells 137, 235-242 (2015) Selective metamaterial - optical characterizations Elevated Temperatures
  • 9. 9 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Room temperature FTIR Wang et al., Solar Energy Mater. & Solar Cells 174, 445-452 (2018) Selective metafilms – fabrication and optical properties As-Fabricated 4-inch Sample SEM image
  • 10. 10 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group High-temp FTIR coupled with fiber optics Wang et al., Solar Energy Mater. & Solar Cells 137, 235-242 (2015)
  • 11. 11 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group In-situ high-temperature FTIR characterization in air Wang et al., Solar Energy Mater. & Solar Cells 174, 445-452 (2018) Thermal cycling test in vacuum Selective metafilms – thermal effect • No change in optical and radiative properties up to 600 C heating in air • Excellent thermal stability after multiple heating/cooling cycles 700 C in vacuum
  • 12. 12 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Solar thermal experimental setup Inside vacuum chamber Outside vacuum chamber Optical Viewport Alshehri et al., under review (available at Sneak Peek)
  • 13. 13 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group • Vacuum pressure < 4×10-4 Torr • Metafilm selective absorber deposited on Si wafer • Black absorber with broadband unity emittance/absorptance • Up to 50 suns for 1×1 cm2 samples Solar thermal experimental results Alshehri et al., under review (available at Sneak Peek)
  • 14. 14 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Solar thermal efficiency 𝜂 𝑄 d 𝑄 𝑇 𝑇 𝑅 d 𝑇 𝑄 where 𝑅 d 𝑇 is fitted as a function 𝑇 from the black absorber sample Experimental ST efficiency: Theoretical ST efficiency: 𝜂 𝑄 𝑄 𝑄 𝑄 Alshehri et al., under review (available at Sneak Peek)
  • 15. 15 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Solar thermal efficiency projection 𝜂 𝑄 d, 𝑄 𝑄 𝑄 𝑄 d, 𝑄 Projected ST efficiency for practical application: Alshehri et al., under review (available at Sneak Peek)
  • 16. 16 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Alshehri et al., under review (available at Sneak Peek) Solar thermal efficiency with metafilm on SS foil
  • 17. 17 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group STPV schematic Ni et al., Solar Energy 191, 623-628 (2019) Major assumptions: • Same cross-sectional areas among absorber, emitter, and TPV cell • TPV cell: InGaAsSb (Ebg = 2.5 mm) • Thermal emission from sidewalls neglected • View factor between emitter and cell = 1
  • 18. 18 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group solar absorber, Ta TPV emitter, Te Concentrated solar irradiation, Hin Energy Balance on the absorber/emitter: in reflected re-emit emitter loss absorber H H H H H in , H G CF where re-emit ( , ), a a H f T emitter ( , ) e e H f T reflected in (1 ) a H H Therefore: Concentration (CF) Ta = Te Correlated Hreflected Hre-emit loss loss,side loss,bottom H H H Hloss,side Hloss,bottom Hemitter Total solar-to-electricity efficiency: Pe in e STPV P H STPV system energy analysis Wang et al., Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 98, 788 798 (2016)
  • 19. 19 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group STPV theoretical analysis 0 20 40 60 80 100 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Ideal absorber/emitter Metafilm absorber/emitter Black absorber/emitter Absorber temperature (K) Concentration factor 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 5 10 15 20 Ideal absorber/emitter Metafilm absorber/emitter Black absorber/emitter STPV system efficiency (%) Concentration factor Effect of Solar Concentration STPV efficiency from 0 to 100 suns • Black absorber/emitter: 0.1% ~ 3.2% • Metafilm absorber/emitter: 0.7% ~ 7.9% • Ideal absorber/emitter: 12.5% ~ 19.9% Ni et al., Solar Energy 191, 623-628 (2019)
  • 20. 20 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Structure thickness (nm) SiO2 Si3N4 W SiO2 W Original absorber/emitter (Wang et al., 2018) 73 50 10 11 200 Optimized absorber 29 41 9 24 200 Optimized emitter 91 100 12 100 200 Efficiency enhanced by metafilm optimization Original metafilm structure Optimized metafilm structure STPV efficiency improved from 7.1% to 10.2% at 50 suns Ni et al., Solar Energy 191, 623-628 (2019)
  • 21. 21 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Efficiency enhanced by cavity reflector 0 2 4 6 8 10 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 Rr=1 Rr=0.99 Rr=0.98 Rr=0.97 Rr=0.9 Rr=0.5 Rr=0.1 Absorber temperature (K) Hr/Lr 0 2 4 6 8 10 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Rr=1 Rr=0.99 Rr=0.98 Rr=0.97 Rr=0.9 Rr=0.5 Rr=0.1 STPV efficiency (%) Hr/Lr Thermal emission loss from top of absorber: abs,top abs,envir abs,reflector q q q 20 b abs b envir abs,envir 0.3 abs abs abs-envir ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) E T E T q d F 20 b abs b reflector abs,reflector 0.3 abs abs r abs abs-reflector r r ( ) ( ) = 1 ( ) 1 ( ) (1 ) E T E T q d A R F A R STPV efficiency improved from 10.2% to 17.4% with ideal cavity at 50 suns Assumption: • Lr = Labs • 50 suns Cavity Reflector Absorber Environment where Ni et al., Solar Energy 191, 623-628 (2019)
  • 22. 22 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Current status: • Metafilm absorber/emitter fabricated and characterized • Doped Si used as absorber/emitter for setup test • TPV cell prepared and characterized STPV experimental setup (ongoing) Future work: • Validate STPV system experiment with doped Si • Conduct STPV experiment with metafilm • Validate with theoretical analysis • Perform uncertainty analysis
  • 23. 23 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group STPV experimental setup (ongoing) Spectral Absorptance External Quantum Efficiency TPV cell characterization GaSb Cell 10 mm TPV cell: GaSb cell from JX Crystals
  • 24. 24 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Metamaterial Absorber Metafilm Absorber Solar Thermal Test STPV System Analysis Wang and Wang, Opt. Express 21, A1078 (2013) Wang et al., SOLMAT 137, 235-242 (2015) Wang et al., SOLMAT, 174, 445-452 (2018) Alshehri et al., under review (available on Sneak Peek) Ni et al., Solar Energy 191, 623-628 (2019) Summary 0 2 4 6 8 10 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Rr=1 Rr=0.99 Rr=0.98 Rr=0.97 Rr=0.9 Rr=0.5 Rr=0.1 STPV efficiency (%) Hr/Lr Wang et al., IJHMT 98, 788 798 (2016)
  • 25. 25 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group • ASU META (m t ) Group Key Players • Dr. Qing Ni (currently postdoc since 2017, Ph.D. in 2017 at Univ. Sci. Tech. China) • Dr. Hassan Alshehri (currently assistant professor at King Saud Univ., Ph.D. 2018-2014) • Dr. Hao Wang (currently postdoc at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Ph.D. 2016-2012) • Ryan McBurney (FURI undergraduate researcher, B.E. 2019-2015) • Funding Sponsors Acknowledgements
  • 26. 26 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group 2.2 Metafilm Solar Absorber Comparison with Commercial Coatings Disclaimer All da a ere meas red a Wang s lab
  • 27. 27 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group 2.2 Metafilm Solar Absorber Comparison with Commercial Coatings Solar Absorptance Infrared Emittance • Comparable solar absorptance >96% • Significantly reduced infrared emittance by 5% ~ 15% Disclaimer All da a ere meas red a Wang s lab
  • 28. 28 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group 4 m in AM1.5 0.3 m = ( ) q G Cd 4 m ref abs AM1.5 0.3 m = [1 ( )] ( ) q G Cd 20 b emit b envir emit,envir 0.3 emit emit emit-cell ( ) ( ) = 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 E T E T q d F Energy balance equation for absorber-emitter pair: Total solar-to-electricity efficiency: STPV system energy analysis in ref abs,envir emit,cell emit,envir = q q q q q 20 abs,envir abs b abs b envir 0.3 = ( ) ( ) ( ) q E T E T d 20 20 b emit b cell emit,cell emit,cell, 0.3 0. emit cell emit emit-cell cell ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) E T E T q q d d F e sc oc STPV in in P J V FF q q Major assumptions: • Same cross-sectional areas among absorber, emitter, and TPV cell • TPV cell: InGaAsSb (Ebg = 2.5 mm) • Thermal emission from sidewalls is neglected • View factor between emitter and cell is one
  • 29. 29 Nano-Engineered Thermal Radiation Group Theoretical limit with ideal TPV cell • An ideal cell has 100% IQE above the bandgap (i.e., 2.3 m) • The STPV efficiency limit is about 42% for 20x~200x concentration • MM enhanced STPV with ideal cells reaches ~25% comparable to SQ limit • Further enhancement relies on both improvement in absorber/emitter and cell