CMST& 101 3910 – Spring 2012, Group 5, with the direction and guidance of Ms. Debbie Sonandre, is pleased to provide you with this cultural overview of the Polynesian country of New Zealand. We hope that you will enjoy reading it as much as we enjoyed putting it together for you.
Today’s topics regarding the culture of New Zealand include Geography, with information researched and provided by Ryan Shearon, History & Politics, by Martin Smith, Rituals by Katherine Spencer, Music & Art by Deandrea Walker, and Religion by Kelli Pfau. The goal of our presentation is to enlighten you about facets of life in New Zealand, with special emphasis on how both verbal and non-verbal communication concepts of appearance, diversity and cultural values influence and enrich the lives of New Zealanders. We thank you in advance for your attention and at the end of the presentation, there will be a short Question and Answer session to ensure that we have met the goals of this assignment. Each participant that correctly answers all five questions will receive a two week, all expense paid trip for two to New Zealand! Just kidding – but it got your attention and who knows, after watching this presentation, you may decide that a trip to New Zealand should be in your future. I know I would love to go there. And now I would like to introduce Ryan Patrick Shearon who will provide information on the geographical aspects of New Zealand.
Thank you, Ryan, that was very informative. Now I would like to introduce you to Marty Smith who has researched the history and politics of New Zealand.
Marty, thank you for your insight and review of the history and political structure of New Zealand. Now, I would like to turn the presentation over to Kadie Spencer who has done an excellent job of researching the many varied, symbolic rituals practiced by the tribes of New Zealand for hundreds of centuries and continuing today.
Kadie, thank you for presenting the information about the rituals of New Zealand. Deandrea Walker, will you now share the data you learned about music and art in New Zealand?
Maori performance art combines both verbal and non-verbal communications. The ceremony includes singing, dancing and facial expressions – every action has a meaning.
Māori kōauau players were renowned for the power it gave them over the affections of women (notably illustrated by the story of Tūtānekai, who, by playing his kōauau to cause Hinemoa to swim to him across Lake Rotorua). The pūtōrino is known for its wide range of voices including a male voice (trumpet) and a female voice (flute). The nguru is played in the same way as a kōauau and produces a similar pure flute-like sound. The function of the pukaea is to herald spiritual pathways. The putatara had a variety of roles from signaling to ceremonial and ritual use.
Great job, Deandrea. Now our final presenter, Kelli Pfau will complete your “tour of New Zealand culture” with a discussion of religion.
Group 5 new zealand draft 5 28-12
THE NEW ZEALAND CULTURE Presented by Kelli Pfau, Ryan Shearon,Martin Smith, Katherine Spencer, Deandrea Walker, Linda VanRavenswaay May 29, 2012
PRESENTATION TOPICS NEW ZEALAND Geography (Ryan Shearon) History & Politics (Martin Smith) Rituals (Katherine Spencer) Music & Art (Deandrea Walker) Religion (Kelli Pfau)GOAL OF PRESENTATION: Share information about facets of life in NewZealand by exploring the history of the people and their customs. Discuss firstinhabitants of the island – Maori tribes - with special emphasis on both verbal andnon-verbal communication concepts of appearance, diversity and cultural values. 2
GEOGRAPHY OF NEW ZEALAND Auckland on North Island - largest city in the country Ryan Shearon 3 Group Project #5
NEW ZEALAND: North and South Island Physical Geography LOCATION: South Pacific Ocean, roughly 1,250 mi southeast of Australia New Zealand runs roughly north-south, with mountain ranges down much of its length. SIZE: 268,680 sq. km (about the size of Colorado). POPULATION: 4,367,800 est. (World Book 2012) (about 80% of people live in cities) POPULATION GROWTH RATE: 1.02% CLIMATE: Temperate, with sharp regional contrasts. Different regions can range from tropical to Antarctic. TERRAIN: Predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains. CAPITAL: Wellington LIFE EXPECTENCY: 78.66 years. Male-75.67 years, Female-81.78 years. NATURAL RESOURCES: Natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone.3 ISLANDS: North Island and South Island as well as: Stewart Island, Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec
NEW ZEALAND: North and South Island Facts It is not unlikely to experience all 4 seasons in one day in most regions of New Zealand.( new-zealand-nz.net) Christchurch is considered to be the driest area, located in the South Island. Auckland is considered to be the wettest area, located in the North Island. Before the arrival of the Maori (1,000 years ago), 80% of New Zealand was covered with forests. This was home to many, now extinct, animals such as the Moa (first inhabitants; large flightless bird) and the CHRISTCHURCH Haast‟s Eagle. The Kiwi, Kakapo, and the Takahe are considered as endanger and unique to New Zealand. There are no known snakes unique to New Zealand but one spider: The Katipo: venomous, quite rare, and found on costal regions. North and South Islands separated by the Cook Straight. New Zealand‟s unique landscape and variety of landforms is due to its position atop the grinding plates of the pacific Rim AUCKLAND RAINFOREST of Fire. (newzealand.com)
NEW ZEALAND: NORTH ISLAND Consists of nine regions: Auckland, Northland, Gisborne, Bay of Plenty, Waikato, Manawatu-Wanganui, Hawkes Bay, Wellington, and Taranaki. (new-zealand-nz.net) Almost 90% of Maoris live on the North Island. Particularly around Northland, Auckland and Waikato. Relatively sub-tropical climate. receives more than 2,000 hours of sunshine a year. WAIOTAPU THERMAL AREA Temperature hovers at an average of 11º C. Considered the 14th largest island in the world. Population around 3,000,000. With the rest of New Zealanders living on the South Island. Home to New Zealand‟s capital: Wellington. The most culturally diverse city in New Zealand. Home to the longest river: The Waikato (425km long) Home to the largest lake: Lake Taupo Positioned above a geothermal system, causing heat to rise up and manifest in the form of bubbling mud pools, hot springs, and volcanoes. MAORI FAMILY (blog.hostelbookers.com)
NEW ZEALAND: SOUTH ISLAND “Te Wai Paunamu,” meaning “the water of greenstone (Maori new-zealand-nz.net). The South Island has seven regions: Marlborough, Canterbury, Nelson, Otag o, Southland, Tasman, and the West Coast. Considered the Worlds twelfth largest island (151,215 sq. km). Home to New Zealands biggest mountain: Mt. Cook. FRANZ JOSEF GLACIER Two-thirds of the South Island is mountainous (newzealand.com). South Island has 21 ski fields where as the North Island has only 4 (blog.hostelbookers.com). Home to nine of New Zealand‟s fourteen national parks. Home to all 10 of New Zealand‟s highest mountains (including Mt. Cook). Home to New Zealand‟s five largest glaciers. Home to 4 of New Zealand‟s 5 largest lakes PANCAKE ROCKS AT PAPAROA Home to roughly ¼ of New Zealanders. NATIONAL PARK
HISTORY & POLITICS OF NEW ZEALANDMaori people arrived in New Zealand from eastern Polynesia Captain James Cook Martin Smith 8 Group Project #5
HISTORICAL TIMELINE 800 AD - Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand. 1642 – Dutch explorer, Abel Janszoon Tasman, sails into New Zealand waters. Encounter between Māoris and Europeans is violent, leading to bloodshed 1769 - British captain James Cook explores coastline, also in 1773 and 1777 1815 - First British missionaries arrive 1840 - Treaty of Waitangi between British and several Maori tribes pledges protection of Maori land and establishes British law in New Zealand. 1845-72 - The New Zealand Wars, also referred to as the Land Wars. Maori put up resistance to British colonial rule 1893 - New Zealand becomes worlds first country to give women the vote. 1907 - New Zealand becomes dominion within British Empire 1947 - New Zealand gains full independence from Britain 9
POLITICAL HISTORY 1853 - House of Representatives‟ first 37 members are elected 1854 - First Parliament meets in Auckland 1876 - Provinces are abolished, leaving central government as the single legislative authority. Hundreds of local bodies soon came into being. 1893 - Universal suffrage is introduced for women aged over 21 (including Māori). New Zealand becomes the first self-governing country to grant the right to vote to all adult women. 1901 - Commonwealth of Australia is established. New Zealand has declined on several occasions to become a member. 1902 - New Zealand adopts its official national flag. 1953 - New Zealand‟s name changes in official usage to the „Realm of New Zealand‟ 10
NEW ZEALAND RITUALS Anzac Day PoppyPowhiri: Maori Man and Woman Traditional Dress Katherine Spencer 11 Group Project #5
POWHIRI THE MAORI WELCOME Ceremony of welcome involving speeches, dancing, singing Spiritual or religious journey where gods, heaven and earth are acknowledged, ancestors remembered and kinship ties reinforced Commonly seen in everyday New Zealand life Signifies two groups coming together, negotiating the terms of their engagement and finishing with guests joining their hosts as one Can happen anywhere that tangata whenua (hosts) wish to formally greet manuhiri (visitors) Frequently takes place in the workplace to welcome new staff and important guests 12
POWHIRI BASIC ELEMENTSCeremony may vary according to the Occasion and the Tribal Area Basic Pōwhiri includes the following elements: Karanga is a unique form of female oratory in which women bring a range of imagery and cultural expression to the first calls of welcome (and response). Important role of women during the Powhiri reflects the sacredness of their role within Maori culture. Whaikōrero (formal speeches) follows the karanga. Skilled speakers craft the language into a series of verbal images. Protocols for whaikōrero during pōwhiri are determined by the kawa (practices) of the marae or local iwi if the Pōwhiri is not held on a marae. 13 Women performing Karanga
POWHIRI BASIC ELEMENTS (CONT) Waiata (song) is sung after each whaikōrero by the group the orator represents. Common to hear traditional waiata during Pōwhiri. Koha (gift) - generally an envelope of money - is laid on the ground by the last speaker for the manuhiri. Local kuia (female elder) may karanga as an expression of thanks. A male from the tangata whenua will pick up the koha. Hongi (pressing of noses) signifies the joining together of tangata whenua and manuhiri. Tangata whenua invite the manuhiri to come forward to shake hands (hariru) and hongi. Hākari (feast) - a shared meal - usually signifies the end of the Pōwhiri. 14
ANZAC DAY CEREMONY – APRIL 25Military funeral - Filled with Solemnity and Symbolism Uniformed service personnel standing motionless around a memorial, with heads bowed and weapons reversed Bier of wreaths laid by the mourners Chaplain reading the words from the military burial service Firing of three volleys Playing of the Last Post Followed by a prayer, hymn, and benedictionRed Poppy – Symbol of Remembrance People of all ages wear a red poppy as a mark of remembrance for the men and women who died in the course of service for their country Poppies are a vivid reminder of the sacrifice - the blood lost - in war. 15
NEW ZEALAND MUSIC & ART Pūtōrino Wind InstrumentWood Carving Tattoo Art Deandrea Walker 16 Group Project #5
ARTNew Zealand Art includes traditional Maori - developedfrom Polynesian art forms. Recent forms take theirinspiration from Māori, European and other traditions.Maori visual art consists primarily of four forms: Carving - done in three media – wood, bone, and stone Tattooing - permanent body and face marking Weaving - used to create numerous things, including wall panels in meeting houses, as well as clothing and bags (kete) Painting - not an important art form. Used mainly as a minor decoration in meeting housesIntroduction of European paints allowed traditional paintingto flourish - brighter and more distinct colors could beproduced 17 Maori Art
PERFORMANCE ARTKapa haka - term used to describe Maori performance art Incorporates singing, dancing and facial expressions Every action has a meaning, which ties to the wordsSongs (waiata) are sung solo, in unison or at the octave Include lullabies (oriori), love songs (waitata aroha) and laments (waiāta tangi)Traditional to end a speech with a song Smaller, traditional wind instruments used by Māori provided a unique sound The poi (swinging tethered weights through a variety of rhythmical and geometric patterns) provided a rhythmic accompaniment to waiātaEuropean missionary influence led to the harmonization thatcharacterizes modern Māori music today 18 Kapa haka Ceremony
INSTRUMENTS – TAONGA PUOROTraditional musical instruments of the Maori people fulfilled many functionsincluding a call to arms, dawning of the new day, communications with thegods and the planting of crops. Significant in sacred ritual and story-telling role. Koauau - small flute, ductless and notchless – made of wood or bone Putorino - carved from a solid piece of wood, split in half lengthwise, hollowed out like two small waka and lashed together with flax cord or similar substitute for binding Nguru - small vessel flute made of wood, soapstone or bone - shaped like a whales tooth. Pūkaea - traditional Maori trumpet made of wood Pūtātara - traditional Maori conch shell trumpet Pahū Pounamu - made of wood and a jade / greenstone gong Pūrerehua - made of bone, wood or stone - blade-like and swung on a long cord 19
NEW ZEALAND RELIGION New Zealand South Island Church Kelli Pfau 20 Group Project #5
EARLY MAORI RELIGIOUS BELIEFS Maori Tribes held an essentially spiritual view of the universe Practiced a form of paganism Tapu – Supernatural concept of mana (respect/authority) derived from the gods. Supreme god known as Io Two primeval parents, Papa and Rangi - eight divine offspring Haumia - the god of uncultivated food Rongo - the god of peace and agriculture Ruaumoko - the god of earthquakes Tawhirimatea - the god of weather Tane - the father of humans and god of forests Tangaroa - the god of the sea Tu-matauenga - the war god Whiro - the god of darkness and evil 21
MAORI RELIGIOUS BELIEFSReligion Practitioners Senior deities had a Priesthood ( tohunga ahurewa) Responsible for all esoteric rituals Knowledgeable about genealogies and tribal History Believed to control the weatherCeremonies Public rites performed in the open, at the marae Gods offered first fruits of all undertakings Slaves were occasionally sacrificed to propitiate them Incantations ( karakia ) chanted in flawless repetition to influence the godsDeath & Afterlife Dying and dead taken to a shelter on the marae Body laid out on mats to receive mourners - hapu or tribal groups Spirits of the dead made voyage to final abode - a mysterious underworld 22
NEW ZEALAND RELIGION Missionaries introduced Christianity to the Maori - 19th century Christian prayer (karakia) - start and end Māori public assemblies Prayers begin new projects, enterprises and personal journeys New religions in 19th and 20th centuries merged several aspects of Christianity with traditional and non-traditional Māori belief Includes the power of Ratana church Christmas and Easter - major Christian events 50% of Population is Christian Freedom of religion - protected by Treaty of Waitangi - 1840 “God Defend New Zealand” - National Anthem of the country Ratana Chuch
CONCLUSIONCMST& 101 Group 5 would like to thank you for the opportunity to present information on the culture of New Zealand. Topics Covered were: Geography – Ryan Shearon History & Politics - Martin Smith Rituals – Katherine Spencer Art & Music – Deandrea Walker Religion – Kelli Pfau Our stated goal for this presentation was to share information about the cultureand facets of life in New Zealand by exploring the history of the people and their customs. The first inhabitants of the island, Maori Tribes, through theirrituals, art, music, and religion continue to influence the culture of New Zealand today. 24
QUESTIONS How is New Zealand art related to New Zealand culture? Describe events where the national dance of New Zealand is performed. What do you think you would like best about being involved in a real live New Zealand ritual welcoming ceremony called "Powhiri“? Describe the significance of the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi. What are the responsibilities and roles that the priests fulfill in the Maori religion? 25