Types of Assessments Traditional -------- Authentic Selecting a Response ---------------------------- Performing a Task Contrived --------------------------- Real-lifeRecall/Recognition ------------------------------ Construction/Application Teacher-structured -------------------------------Student-structured Indirect Evidence ------------------------- Direct Evidence Authentic also known as: Performance, Alternative, Direct
Real-time or post correction?• What do you do when your assessment isn’t working for you? Change it in the moment or wait for to revise post delivery?• In what ways do you know your assessment is effective? How do you measure this?
Process for developing assessments• Identify standards (which do you use?)• Write clear objectives• Identify target performance (higher order cognitive skills)• Choose performance criteria• Create scoring rubric• Develop instructional activities
Common activities to consider: • Guided-discovery learning • Interactive lecture • Student teaching • Problem solving • Projects • Self/Peer Assessment • Student presentations • Self-study • Reading • Technology • Role playing • Consulting
How do you design instructional activities?• What resources do you use?• Do you always consider the learning outcomes?• What types of learning have you identified when developing activities?• Do you include assessment of the activity? If so, how?
External challenges • Time-intensive to manage, monitor, and coordinate • Challenging to grade in a consistent manner • Susceptible to a more subjective (and potentially biased) approach to grading • Demanding additional instruction, orienting students to unfamiliar tasks such as emulating professional writing or presentations • Difficult to implement in large-enrollment courses
Corrective Feedback• In ESL/SLA research• Initial feedback should focus on effective behaviors demonstrated by the student.• Initial feedback should focus on a mastery criteria known to students.• Corrective feedback should focus on the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of the strategy employed by the student.• Corrective feedback should focus on error patterns, not specific errors.• Corrective feedback should use examples and nonexamples to help illustrate effective behavior.• Corrective feedback should be selective.• Effective feedback includes student elaboration.• Effective feedback focuses on increasing effort to use the strategy.• Effective feedback includes establishing goals for improving specific behaviors on subsequent attempts.• Effective feedback is provided immediately after the practice attempt and just before the next practice attempt.
Corrective feedback (cont’d)• “Although many teachers are reluctant to provide what they perceive to be negative feedback because they are concerned about its impact on self-esteem and motivation, research clearly shows that the absence of explicit feedback can be considerably more detrimental to students in both areas.“(Masterminds, 2001)http://www.calhoun.k12.al.us/makes%20sense/Adobe%20Reader/DO%20NOT%20OPEN%20program%20files/Skill%20instruction/HOW%20to%20teach%20skills/During%20Tactics/SKILL%20Feedback.pdf
Good feedback practice:1. helps clarify what good performance is (goals, criteria, standards);2. facilitates the development of reflection and self-assessment in learning;3. delivers high quality feedback that helps learners self-correct;4. encourage interaction and dialogue around learning (peer and teacher-student);5. encourages positive motivational beliefs and self-esteem;6. provides opportunities to close the gap between current and desiredperformance;7. provides information to teachers that can be used to help shape theirteaching.
Examples of using other disciplines• Free medical terminology course (http://www.dmu.edu/medterms/)• Group feedback/evaluation for group projects (jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/crow/altmangroupprocessrubric.pdf)• Protocols for discussion (http://educon20.wikispaces.com/Protocols+Examples)
Questions for Discussion• How might you use questioning and discussion in your classroom in a way that gives you formative assessment information on all students?• How can you use assignments and tests as effective formative assessment?• How could you design and implement a balanced assessment system that includes pre- and post assessments for learning?